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Vita tax assistance Publication 3991 - Introductory Material Table of Contents Introduction Introduction All of the changes discussed in this publication resulted from the Job Creation and Worker Assistance Act of 2002. Vita tax assistance This publication highlights tax law changes that took effect retroactively for 2001 and others that take effect in 2002 and later years. Vita tax assistance The chapters are divided into separate sections based on when the changes take effect. Vita tax assistance For example, this publication covers the following topics. Vita tax assistance Tax benefits for the area of New York City damaged in terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Vita tax assistance New deduction available for educator expenses. Vita tax assistance Limit on the use of the non-accrual experience method of accounting. Vita tax assistance Pension changes such as the new tax credit for certain pension plan startup costs, an increased SEP contribution limit, figuring 403(b) catch-up contributions, and a provision for deemed IRAs. Vita tax assistance Extension of the welfare-to-work credit and work opportunity credit. Vita tax assistance New 5-year carryback rule for net operating losses (NOLs). Vita tax assistance See the discussion of each topic for more information. Vita tax assistance Certain changes had a major effect on two of the publications we issued for 2001. Vita tax assistance We published supplements to those two publications and they have been included in this publication as follows. Vita tax assistance Chapter 4 contains the supplement to Publication 463, Travel, Entertainment, Gift, and Car Expenses. Vita tax assistance This discusses the increase in the amount of depreciation deduction for certain automobiles. Vita tax assistance Chapter 5 contains the supplement to Publication 946, How To Depreciate Property. Vita tax assistance This discusses the special depreciation allowance for property acquired after September 10, 2001. Vita tax assistance Adjusting your withholding or estimated tax payments for 2002. Vita tax assistance   If your tax for 2002 will be more or less than your 2001 tax, you may need to adjust your withholding or estimated tax payments accordingly. Vita tax assistance If your tax will decrease, you can get the benefit of lower taxes throughout the year. Vita tax assistance If you will owe more tax, you can avoid a penalty when you file your tax return. Vita tax assistance   See the following table for forms and publications that will help you adjust your withholding or estimated tax payments. Vita tax assistance See chapter 6 for information on ordering forms and publications. Vita tax assistance To adjust your. Vita tax assistance . Vita tax assistance . Vita tax assistance . Vita tax assistance Get Form. Vita tax assistance . Vita tax assistance . Vita tax assistance And Publication. Vita tax assistance . Vita tax assistance . Vita tax assistance Withholding W–4, Employee's Withholding Allowance Certificate 919, How Do I Adjust My Tax Withholding? Estimated tax payments 1040–ES, Estimated Tax for Individuals 505, Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax Photographs of missing children. Vita tax assistance   The Internal Revenue Service is a proud partner with the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. Vita tax assistance Photographs of missing children selected by the Center may appear in this publication on pages that would otherwise be blank. Vita tax assistance You can help bring these children home by looking at the photographs and calling 1–800–THE–LOST (1–800–843–5678) if you recognize a child. Vita tax assistance Comments and suggestions. Vita tax assistance   We welcome your comments about this publication. Vita tax assistance   You can e-mail us while visiting our web site at www. Vita tax assistance irs. Vita tax assistance gov. Vita tax assistance   You can write to us at the following address: Internal Revenue Service Technical Publications Branch W:CAR:MP:FP:P 1111 Constitution Ave. Vita tax assistance NW Washington, DC 20224   We respond to many letters by telephone. Vita tax assistance Therefore, it would be helpful if you would include your daytime phone number, including the area code, in your correspondence. Vita tax assistance Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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Vita tax assistance Publication 587 - Main Content Table of Contents Qualifying for a DeductionExclusive Use Regular Use Trade or Business Use Principal Place of Business Place To Meet Patients, Clients, or Customers Separate Structure Figuring the DeductionUsing Actual Expenses Using the Simplified Method Daycare Facility Standard meal and snack rates. Vita tax assistance Sale or Exchange of Your HomeGain on Sale Depreciation Basis Adjustment Reporting the Sale More Information Business Furniture and EquipmentListed Property Property Bought for Business Use Personal Property Converted to Business Use Recordkeeping Where To DeductSelf-Employed Persons Employees Partners How To Get Tax HelpLow Income Taxpayer Clinics Worksheet To Figure the Deduction for Business Use of Your HomeInstructions for the Worksheet Worksheets To Figure the Deduction for Business Use of Your Home (Simplified Method) Instructions for the Simplified Method Worksheet Instructions for the Daycare Facility Worksheet Instructions for the Area Adjustment Worksheet Qualifying for a Deduction Generally, you cannot deduct items related to your home, such as mortgage interest, real estate taxes, utilities, maintenance, rent, depreciation, or property insurance, as business expenses. Vita tax assistance However, you may be able to deduct expenses related to the business use of part of your home if you meet specific requirements. Vita tax assistance Even then, the deductible amount of these types of expenses may be limited. Vita tax assistance Use this section and Figure A, later, to decide if you can deduct expenses for the business use of your home. Vita tax assistance To qualify to deduct expenses for business use of your home, you must use part of your home: Exclusively and regularly as your principal place of business (defined later), Exclusively and regularly as a place where you meet or deal with patients, clients, or customers in the normal course of your trade or business, In the case of a separate structure which is not attached to your home, in connection with your trade or business, On a regular basis for certain storage use (see Storage of inventory or product samples , later), For rental use (see Publication 527), or As a daycare facility (see Daycare Facility , later). Vita tax assistance Additional tests for employee use. Vita tax assistance   If you are an employee and you use a part of your home for business, you may qualify for a deduction for its business use. Vita tax assistance You must meet the tests discussed earlier plus: Your business use must be for the convenience of your employer, and You must not rent any part of your home to your employer and use the rented portion to perform services as an employee for that employer. Vita tax assistance If the use of the home office is merely appropriate and helpful, you cannot deduct expenses for the business use of your home. Vita tax assistance Exclusive Use To qualify under the exclusive use test, you must use a specific area of your home only for your trade or business. Vita tax assistance The area used for business can be a room or other separately identifiable space. Vita tax assistance The space does not need to be marked off by a permanent partition. Vita tax assistance You do not meet the requirements of the exclusive use test if you use the area in question both for business and for personal purposes. Vita tax assistance Example. Vita tax assistance You are an attorney and use a den in your home to write legal briefs and prepare clients' tax returns. Vita tax assistance Your family also uses the den for recreation. Vita tax assistance The den is not used exclusively in your trade or business, so you cannot claim a deduction for the business use of the den. Vita tax assistance Exceptions to Exclusive Use You do not have to meet the exclusive use test if either of the following applies. Vita tax assistance You use part of your home for the storage of inventory or product samples (discussed next). Vita tax assistance You use part of your home as a daycare facility, discussed later under Daycare Facility . Vita tax assistance Note. Vita tax assistance With the exception of these two uses, any portion of the home used for business purposes must meet the exclusive use test. Vita tax assistance Storage of inventory or product samples. Vita tax assistance    If you use part of your home for storage of inventory or product samples, you can deduct expenses for the business use of your home without meeting the exclusive use test. Vita tax assistance However, you must meet all the following tests. Vita tax assistance You sell products at wholesale or retail as your trade or business. Vita tax assistance You keep the inventory or product samples in your home for use in your trade or business. Vita tax assistance Your home is the only fixed location of your trade or business. Vita tax assistance You use the storage space on a regular basis. Vita tax assistance The space you use is a separately identifiable space suitable for storage. Vita tax assistance Example. Vita tax assistance Your home is the only fixed location of your business of selling mechanics' tools at retail. Vita tax assistance You regularly use half of your basement for storage of inventory and product samples. Vita tax assistance You sometimes use the area for personal purposes. Vita tax assistance The expenses for the storage space are deductible even though you do not use this part of your basement exclusively for business. Vita tax assistance Regular Use To qualify under the regular use test, you must use a specific area of your home for business on a regular basis. Vita tax assistance Incidental or occasional business use is not regular use. Vita tax assistance You must consider all facts and circumstances in determining whether your use is on a regular basis. Vita tax assistance Trade or Business Use To qualify under the trade-or-business-use test, you must use part of your home in connection with a trade or business. Vita tax assistance If you use your home for a profit-seeking activity that is not a trade or business, you cannot take a deduction for its business use. Vita tax assistance Example. Vita tax assistance You use part of your home exclusively and regularly to read financial periodicals and reports, clip bond coupons, and carry out similar activities related to your own investments. Vita tax assistance You do not make investments as a broker or dealer. Vita tax assistance So, your activities are not part of a trade or business and you cannot take a deduction for the business use of your home. Vita tax assistance Principal Place of Business You can have more than one business location, including your home, for a single trade or business. Vita tax assistance To qualify to deduct the expenses for the business use of your home under the principal place of business test, your home must be your principal place of business for that trade or business. Vita tax assistance To determine whether your home is your principal place of business, you must consider: The relative importance of the activities performed at each place where you conduct business, and The amount of time spent at each place where you conduct business. Vita tax assistance Your home office will qualify as your principal place of business if you meet the following requirements. Vita tax assistance You use it exclusively and regularly for administrative or management activities of your trade or business. Vita tax assistance You have no other fixed location where you conduct substantial administrative or management activities of your trade or business. Vita tax assistance If, after considering your business locations, your home cannot be identified as your principal place of business, you cannot deduct home office expenses. Vita tax assistance However, see the later discussions under Place To Meet Patients, Clients, or Customers and Separate Structure for other ways to qualify to deduct home office expenses. Vita tax assistance Administrative or management activities. Vita tax assistance   There are many activities that are administrative or managerial in nature. Vita tax assistance The following are a few examples. Vita tax assistance Billing customers, clients, or patients. Vita tax assistance Keeping books and records. Vita tax assistance Ordering supplies. Vita tax assistance Setting up appointments. Vita tax assistance Forwarding orders or writing reports. Vita tax assistance Administrative or management activities performed at other locations. Vita tax assistance   The following activities performed by you or others will not disqualify your home office from being your principal place of business. Vita tax assistance You have others conduct your administrative or management activities at locations other than your home. Vita tax assistance (For example, another company does your billing from its place of business. Vita tax assistance ) You conduct administrative or management activities at places that are not fixed locations of your business, such as in a car or a hotel room. Vita tax assistance You occasionally conduct minimal administrative or management activities at a fixed location outside your home. Vita tax assistance You conduct substantial nonadministrative or nonmanagement business activities at a fixed location outside your home. Vita tax assistance (For example, you meet with or provide services to customers, clients, or patients at a fixed location of the business outside your home. Vita tax assistance ) You have suitable space to conduct administrative or management activities outside your home, but choose to use your home office for those activities instead. Vita tax assistance Please click here for the text description of the image. Vita tax assistance Can you deduct business use of the home expenses? Example 1. Vita tax assistance John is a self-employed plumber. Vita tax assistance Most of John's time is spent at customers' homes and offices installing and repairing plumbing. Vita tax assistance He has a small office in his home that he uses exclusively and regularly for the administrative or management activities of his business, such as phoning customers, ordering supplies, and keeping his books. Vita tax assistance John writes up estimates and records of work completed at his customers' premises. Vita tax assistance He does not conduct any substantial administrative or management activities at any fixed location other than his home office. Vita tax assistance John does not do his own billing. Vita tax assistance He uses a local bookkeeping service to bill his customers. Vita tax assistance John's home office qualifies as his principal place of business for deducting expenses for its use. Vita tax assistance He uses the home office for the administrative or managerial activities of his plumbing business and he has no other fixed location where he conducts these administrative or managerial activities. Vita tax assistance His choice to have his billing done by another company does not disqualify his home office from being his principal place of business. Vita tax assistance He meets all the qualifications, including principal place of business, so he can deduct expenses (subject to certain limitations, explained later) for the business use of his home. Vita tax assistance Example 2. Vita tax assistance Pamela is a self-employed sales representative for several different product lines. Vita tax assistance She has an office in her home that she uses exclusively and regularly to set up appointments and write up orders and other reports for the companies whose products she sells. Vita tax assistance She occasionally writes up orders and sets up appointments from her hotel room when she is away on business overnight. Vita tax assistance Pamela's business is selling products to customers at various locations throughout her territory. Vita tax assistance To make these sales, she regularly visits customers to explain the available products and take orders. Vita tax assistance Pamela's home office qualifies as her principal place of business for deducting expenses for its use. Vita tax assistance She conducts administrative or management activities there and she has no other fixed location where she conducts substantial administrative or management activities. Vita tax assistance The fact that she conducts some administrative or management activities in her hotel room (not a fixed location) does not disqualify her home office from being her principal place of business. Vita tax assistance She meets all the qualifications, including principal place of business, so she can deduct expenses (subject to certain limitations, explained later) for the business use of her home. Vita tax assistance Example 3. Vita tax assistance Paul is a self-employed anesthesiologist. Vita tax assistance He spends the majority of his time administering anesthesia and postoperative care in three local hospitals. Vita tax assistance One of the hospitals provides him with a small shared office where he could conduct administrative or management activities. Vita tax assistance Paul very rarely uses the office the hospital provides. Vita tax assistance He uses a room in his home that he has converted to an office. Vita tax assistance He uses this room exclusively and regularly to conduct all the following activities. Vita tax assistance Contacting patients, surgeons, and hospitals regarding scheduling. Vita tax assistance Preparing for treatments and presentations. Vita tax assistance Maintaining billing records and patient logs. Vita tax assistance Satisfying continuing medical education requirements. Vita tax assistance Reading medical journals and books. Vita tax assistance Paul's home office qualifies as his principal place of business for deducting expenses for its use. Vita tax assistance He conducts administrative or management activities for his business as an anesthesiologist there and he has no other fixed location where he conducts substantial administrative or management activities for this business. Vita tax assistance His choice to use his home office instead of the one provided by the hospital does not disqualify his home office from being his principal place of business. Vita tax assistance His performance of substantial nonadministrative or nonmanagement activities at fixed locations outside his home also does not disqualify his home office from being his principal place of business. Vita tax assistance He meets all the qualifications, including principal place of business, so he can deduct expenses (subject to certain limitations, explained later) for the business use of his home. Vita tax assistance Example 4. Vita tax assistance Kathleen is employed as a teacher. Vita tax assistance She is required to teach and meet with students at the school and to grade papers and tests. Vita tax assistance The school provides her with a small office where she can work on her lesson plans, grade papers and tests, and meet with parents and students. Vita tax assistance The school does not require her to work at home. Vita tax assistance Kathleen prefers to use the office she has set up in her home and does not use the one provided by the school. Vita tax assistance She uses this home office exclusively and regularly for the administrative duties of her teaching job. Vita tax assistance Kathleen must meet the convenience-of-the-employer test, even if her home qualifies as her principal place of business for deducting expenses for its use. Vita tax assistance Her employer provides her with an office and does not require her to work at home, so she does not meet the convenience-of-the-employer test and cannot claim a deduction for the business use of her home. Vita tax assistance More Than One Trade or Business The same home office can be the principal place of business for two or more separate business activities. Vita tax assistance Whether your home office is the principal place of business for more than one business activity must be determined separately for each of your trade or business activities. Vita tax assistance You must use the home office exclusively and regularly for one or more of the following purposes. Vita tax assistance As the principal place of business for one or more of your trades or businesses. Vita tax assistance As a place to meet or deal with patients, clients, or customers in the normal course of one or more of your trades or businesses. Vita tax assistance If your home office is a separate structure, in connection with one or more of your trades or businesses. Vita tax assistance You can use your home office for more than one business activity, but you cannot use it for any nonbusiness (i. Vita tax assistance e. Vita tax assistance , personal) activities. Vita tax assistance If you are an employee, any use of the home office in connection with your employment must be for the convenience of your employer. Vita tax assistance See Rental to employer , later, if you rent part of your home to your employer. Vita tax assistance Example. Vita tax assistance Tracy White is employed as a teacher. Vita tax assistance Her principal place of work is the school, which provides her office space to do her school work. Vita tax assistance She also has a mail order jewelry business. Vita tax assistance All her work in the jewelry business is done in her home office and the office is used exclusively for that business. Vita tax assistance If she meets all the other tests, she can deduct expenses for the business use of her home for the jewelry business. Vita tax assistance If Tracy also uses the office for work related to her teaching, she must meet the exclusive use test for both businesses to qualify for the deduction. Vita tax assistance As an employee, Tracy must also meet the convenience-of-the-employer test to qualify for the deduction. Vita tax assistance She does not meet this test for her work as a teacher, so she cannot claim a deduction for the business use of her home for either activity. Vita tax assistance Place To Meet Patients, Clients, or Customers If you meet or deal with patients, clients, or customers in your home in the normal course of your business, even though you also carry on business at another location, you can deduct your expenses for the part of your home used exclusively and regularly for business if you meet both the following tests. Vita tax assistance You physically meet with patients, clients, or customers on your premises. Vita tax assistance Their use of your home is substantial and integral to the conduct of your business. Vita tax assistance Doctors, dentists, attorneys, and other professionals who maintain offices in their homes generally will meet this requirement. Vita tax assistance Using your home for occasional meetings and telephone calls will not qualify you to deduct expenses for the business use of your home. Vita tax assistance The part of your home you use exclusively and regularly to meet patients, clients, or customers does not have to be your principal place of business. Vita tax assistance Example. Vita tax assistance June Quill, a self-employed attorney, works 3 days a week in her city office. Vita tax assistance She works 2 days a week in her home office used only for business. Vita tax assistance She regularly meets clients there. Vita tax assistance Her home office qualifies for a business deduction because she meets clients there in the normal course of her business. Vita tax assistance Separate Structure You can deduct expenses for a separate free-standing structure, such as a studio, workshop, garage, or barn, if you use it exclusively and regularly for your business. Vita tax assistance The structure does not have to be your principal place of business or a place where you meet patients, clients, or customers. Vita tax assistance Example. Vita tax assistance John Berry operates a floral shop in town. Vita tax assistance He grows the plants for his shop in a greenhouse behind his home. Vita tax assistance He uses the greenhouse exclusively and regularly in his business, so he can deduct the expenses for its use, subject to certain limitations, explained later. Vita tax assistance Figuring the Deduction After you determine that you meet the tests under Qualifying for a Deduction , you can begin to figure how much you can deduct. Vita tax assistance When figuring the amount you can deduct for the business use of your home, you will use either your actual expenses or a simplified method. Vita tax assistance Electing to use the simplified method. Vita tax assistance   The simplified method is an alternative to the calculation, allocation, and substantiation of actual expenses. Vita tax assistance You choose whether or not to figure your deduction using the simplified method each taxable year. Vita tax assistance See Using the Simplified Method , later. Vita tax assistance Rental to employer. Vita tax assistance   If you rent part of your home to your employer and you use the rented part in performing services for your employer as an employee, your deduction for the business use of your home is limited. Vita tax assistance You can deduct mortgage interest, qualified mortgage insurance premiums, real estate taxes, and personal casualty losses for the rented part, subject to any limitations. Vita tax assistance However, you cannot deduct otherwise allowable trade or business expenses, business casualty losses, or depreciation related to the use of your home (or use the simplified method as an alternative to deducting these actual expenses) in performing services for your employer. Vita tax assistance Using Actual Expenses If you do not or cannot elect to use the simplified method for a home, you will figure your deduction for that home using your actual expenses. Vita tax assistance You will also need to figure the percentage of your home used for business and the limit on the deduction. Vita tax assistance If you are an employee or a partner, or you use your home in your farming business and you file Schedule F (Form 1040), you can use the Worksheet To Figure the Deduction for Business Use of Your Home, near the end of this publication, to help you figure your deduction. Vita tax assistance If you use your home in a trade or business and you file Schedule C (Form 1040), you will use Form 8829 to figure your deduction. Vita tax assistance Part-year use. Vita tax assistance   You cannot deduct expenses for the business use of your home incurred during any part of the year you did not use your home for business purposes. Vita tax assistance For example, if you begin using part of your home for business on July 1, and you meet all the tests from that date until the end of the year, consider only your expenses for the last half of the year in figuring your allowable deduction. Vita tax assistance Expenses related to tax-exempt income. Vita tax assistance   Generally, you cannot deduct expenses that are related to tax-exempt allowances. Vita tax assistance However, if you receive a tax-exempt parsonage allowance or a tax-exempt military allowance, your expenses for mortgage interest and real estate taxes are deductible under the normal rules. Vita tax assistance No deduction is allowed for other expenses related to the tax-exempt allowance. Vita tax assistance   If your housing is provided free of charge and the value of the housing is tax exempt, you cannot deduct the rental value of any portion of the housing. Vita tax assistance Actual Expenses You must divide the expenses of operating your home between personal and business use. Vita tax assistance The part of a home operating expense you can use to figure your deduction depends on both of the following. Vita tax assistance Whether the expense is direct, indirect, or unrelated. Vita tax assistance The percentage of your home used for business. Vita tax assistance Table 1, next, describes the types of expenses you may have and the extent to which they are deductible. Vita tax assistance Table 1. Vita tax assistance Types of Expenses  Expense  Description  Deductibility Direct Expenses only for  the business part  of your home. Vita tax assistance Deductible in full. Vita tax assistance *   Examples:  Painting or repairs  only in the area  used for business. Vita tax assistance Exception: May be only partially  deductible in a daycare facility. Vita tax assistance See Daycare Facility , later. Vita tax assistance Indirect Expenses for  keeping up and running your  entire home. Vita tax assistance Deductible based on the percentage of your home used for business. Vita tax assistance *   Examples:  Insurance, utilities, and  general repairs. Vita tax assistance   Unrelated Expenses only for  the parts of your  home not used  for business. Vita tax assistance Not deductible. Vita tax assistance   Examples:  Lawn care or painting  a room not used  for business. Vita tax assistance   *Subject to the deduction limit, discussed later. Vita tax assistance Form 8829 and the Worksheet To Figure the Deduction for Business Use of Your Home have separate columns for direct and indirect expenses. Vita tax assistance Certain expenses are deductible whether or not you use your home for business. Vita tax assistance If you qualify to deduct business use of the home expenses, use the business percentage of these expenses to figure your total business use of the home deduction. Vita tax assistance These expenses include the following. Vita tax assistance Real estate taxes. Vita tax assistance Qualified mortgage insurance premiums. Vita tax assistance Deductible mortgage interest. Vita tax assistance Casualty losses. Vita tax assistance Other expenses are deductible only if you use your home for business. Vita tax assistance You can use the business percentage of these expenses to figure your total business use of the home deduction. Vita tax assistance These expenses generally include (but are not limited to) the following. Vita tax assistance Depreciation (covered under Depreciating Your Home , later). Vita tax assistance Insurance. Vita tax assistance Rent paid for the use of property you do not own but use in your trade or business. Vita tax assistance Repairs. Vita tax assistance Security system. Vita tax assistance Utilities and services. Vita tax assistance Real estate taxes. Vita tax assistance   To figure the business part of your real estate taxes, multiply the real estate taxes paid by the percentage of your home used for business. Vita tax assistance   For more information on the deduction for real estate taxes, see Publication 530, Tax Information for Homeowners. Vita tax assistance Deductible mortgage interest. Vita tax assistance   To figure the business part of your deductible mortgage interest, multiply this interest by the percentage of your home used for business. Vita tax assistance You can include interest on a second mortgage in this computation. Vita tax assistance If your total mortgage debt is more than $1,000,000 or your home equity debt is more than $100,000, your deduction may be limited. Vita tax assistance For more information on what interest is deductible, see Publication 936, Home Mortgage Interest Deduction. Vita tax assistance Qualified mortgage insurance premiums. Vita tax assistance   To figure the business part of your qualified mortgage insurance premiums, multiply the premiums by the percentage of your home used for business. Vita tax assistance You can include premiums for insurance on a second mortgage in this computation. Vita tax assistance If your adjusted gross income is more than $100,000 ($50,000 if your filing status is married filing separately), your deduction may be limited. Vita tax assistance For more information, see Publication 936, and Line 13 in the Instructions for Schedule A (Form 1040). Vita tax assistance Casualty losses. Vita tax assistance    If you have a casualty loss on your home that you use for business, treat the casualty loss as a direct expense, an indirect expense, or an unrelated expense, depending on the property affected. Vita tax assistance A direct expense is the loss on the portion of the property you use only in your business. Vita tax assistance Use the entire loss to figure the business use of the home deduction. Vita tax assistance An indirect expense is the loss on property you use for both business and personal purposes. Vita tax assistance Use only the business portion to figure the deduction. Vita tax assistance An unrelated expense is the loss on property you do not use in your business. Vita tax assistance Do not use any of the loss to figure the deduction. Vita tax assistance Example. Vita tax assistance You meet the rules to take a deduction for an office in your home that is 10% of the total area of your house. Vita tax assistance A storm damages your roof. Vita tax assistance This is an indirect expense as the roof is part of the whole house and is considered to be used both for business and personal purposes. Vita tax assistance You would complete Form 4684, Casualties and Thefts, to report your loss. Vita tax assistance You complete both section A (Personal Use Property) and section B (Business and Income-Producing Property) as your home is used both for business and personal purposes. Vita tax assistance Since you use 90% of your home for personal purposes, use 90% of the cost or adjusted basis of your home, insurance or other reimbursement, and fair market value, both before and after the storm, to figure the amounts to enter on lines 2, 3, 5, and 6 of Form 4684. Vita tax assistance Since you use 10% of your home for business purposes, use 10% of the cost or adjusted basis of your home, insurance or other reimbursement, and fair market value, both before and after the storm, to figure the amounts to enter on lines 20, 21, 23, and 24 of Form 4684. Vita tax assistance Forms and worksheets to use. Vita tax assistance   If you are filing Schedule C (Form 1040), get Form 8829 and follow the instructions for casualty losses. Vita tax assistance If you are an employee or a partner, or you file Schedule F (Form 1040), use the Worksheet To Figure the Deduction for Business Use of Your Home, near the end of this publication. Vita tax assistance You will also need to get Form 4684. Vita tax assistance More information. Vita tax assistance   For more information on casualty losses, see Publication 547, Casualties, Disasters, and Thefts. Vita tax assistance Insurance. Vita tax assistance   You can deduct the cost of insurance that covers the business part of your home. Vita tax assistance However, if your insurance premium gives you coverage for a period that extends past the end of your tax year, you can deduct only the business percentage of the part of the premium that gives you coverage for your tax year. Vita tax assistance You can deduct the business percentage of the part that applies to the following year in that year. Vita tax assistance Rent. Vita tax assistance   If you rent the home you occupy and meet the requirements for business use of the home, you can deduct part of the rent you pay. Vita tax assistance To figure your deduction, multiply your rent payments by the percentage of your home used for business. Vita tax assistance   If you own your home, you cannot deduct the fair rental value of your home. Vita tax assistance However, see Depreciating Your Home , later. Vita tax assistance Repairs. Vita tax assistance   The cost of repairs that relate to your business, including labor (other than your own labor), is a deductible expense. Vita tax assistance For example, a furnace repair benefits the entire home. Vita tax assistance If you use 10% of your home for business, you can deduct 10% of the cost of the furnace repair. Vita tax assistance   Repairs keep your home in good working order over its useful life. Vita tax assistance Examples of common repairs are patching walls and floors, painting, wallpapering, repairing roofs and gutters, and mending leaks. Vita tax assistance However, repairs are sometimes treated as a permanent improvement and are not deductible. Vita tax assistance See Permanent improvements , later, under Depreciating Your Home. Vita tax assistance Security system. Vita tax assistance   If you install a security system that protects all the doors and windows in your home, you can deduct the business part of the expenses you incur to maintain and monitor the system. Vita tax assistance You also can take a depreciation deduction for the part of the cost of the security system relating to the business use of your home. Vita tax assistance Utilities and services. Vita tax assistance   Expenses for utilities and services, such as electricity, gas, trash removal, and cleaning services, are primarily personal expenses. Vita tax assistance However, if you use part of your home for business, you can deduct the business part of these expenses. Vita tax assistance Generally, the business percentage for utilities is the same as the percentage of your home used for business. Vita tax assistance Telephone. Vita tax assistance   The basic local telephone service charge, including taxes, for the first telephone line into your home (i. Vita tax assistance e. Vita tax assistance , landline) is a nondeductible personal expense. Vita tax assistance However, charges for business long-distance phone calls on that line, as well as the cost of a second line into your home used exclusively for business, are deductible business expenses. Vita tax assistance Do not include these expenses as a cost of using your home for business. Vita tax assistance Deduct these charges separately on the appropriate form or schedule. Vita tax assistance For example, if you file Schedule C (Form 1040), deduct these expenses on line 25, Utilities (instead of line 30, Expenses for business use of your home). Vita tax assistance Depreciating Your Home If you own your home and qualify to deduct expenses for its business use, you can claim a deduction for depreciation. Vita tax assistance Depreciation is an allowance for the wear and tear on the part of your home used for business. Vita tax assistance You cannot depreciate the cost or value of the land. Vita tax assistance You recover its cost when you sell or otherwise dispose of the property. Vita tax assistance Before you figure your depreciation deduction, you need to know the following information. Vita tax assistance The month and year you started using your home for business. Vita tax assistance The adjusted basis and fair market value of your home (excluding land) at the time you began using it for business. Vita tax assistance The cost of any improvements before and after you began using the property for business. Vita tax assistance The percentage of your home used for business. Vita tax assistance See Business Percentage , later. Vita tax assistance Adjusted basis defined. Vita tax assistance   The adjusted basis of your home is generally its cost, plus the cost of any permanent improvements you made to it, minus any casualty losses or depreciation deducted in earlier tax years. Vita tax assistance For a discussion of adjusted basis, see Publication 551. Vita tax assistance Permanent improvements. Vita tax assistance   A permanent improvement increases the value of property, adds to its life, or gives it a new or different use. Vita tax assistance Examples of improvements are replacing electric wiring or plumbing, adding a new roof or addition, paneling, or remodeling. Vita tax assistance    You must carefully distinguish between repairs and improvements. Vita tax assistance See Repairs , earlier, under Actual Expenses. Vita tax assistance You also must keep accurate records of these expenses. Vita tax assistance These records will help you decide whether an expense is a deductible or a capital (added to the basis) expense. Vita tax assistance However, if you make repairs as part of an extensive remodeling or restoration of your home, the entire job is an improvement. Vita tax assistance Example. Vita tax assistance You buy an older home and fix up two rooms as a beauty salon. Vita tax assistance You patch the plaster on the ceilings and walls, paint, repair the floor, install an outside door, and install new wiring, plumbing, and other equipment. Vita tax assistance Normally, the patching, painting, and floor work are repairs and the other expenses are permanent improvements. Vita tax assistance However, because the work gives your property a new use, the entire remodeling job is a permanent improvement and its cost is added to the basis of the property. Vita tax assistance You cannot deduct any portion of it as a repair expense. Vita tax assistance Adjusting for depreciation deducted in earlier years. Vita tax assistance   Decrease the basis of your property by the depreciation you deducted, or could have deducted, on your tax returns under the method of depreciation you properly selected. Vita tax assistance If you deducted less depreciation than you could have under the method you selected, decrease the basis by the amount you could have deducted under that method. Vita tax assistance If you did not deduct any depreciation, decrease the basis by the amount you could have deducted. Vita tax assistance   If you deducted more depreciation than you should have, decrease your basis by the amount you should have deducted, plus the part of the excess depreciation you deducted that actually decreased your tax liability for any year. Vita tax assistance   If you deducted the incorrect amount of depreciation, see Publication 946. Vita tax assistance Fair market value defined. Vita tax assistance   The fair market value of your home is the price at which the property would change hands between a buyer and a seller, neither having to buy or sell, and both having reasonable knowledge of all necessary facts. Vita tax assistance Sales of similar property, on or about the date you begin using your home for business, may be helpful in determining the property's fair market value. Vita tax assistance Figuring the depreciation deduction for the current year. Vita tax assistance   If you began using your home for business before 2013, continue to use the same depreciation method you used in past tax years. Vita tax assistance   If you began using your home for business for the first time in 2013, depreciate the business part as nonresidential real property under the modified accelerated cost recovery system (MACRS). Vita tax assistance Under MACRS, nonresidential real property is depreciated using the straight line method over 39 years. Vita tax assistance For more information on MACRS and other methods of depreciation, see Publication 946. Vita tax assistance   To figure the depreciation deduction, you must first figure the part of the cost of your home that can be depreciated (depreciable basis). Vita tax assistance The depreciable basis is figured by multiplying the percentage of your home used for business by the smaller of the following. Vita tax assistance The adjusted basis of your home (excluding land) on the date you began using your home for business. Vita tax assistance The fair market value of your home (excluding land) on the date you began using your home for business. Vita tax assistance Depreciation table. Vita tax assistance   If 2013 was the first year you used your home for business, you can figure your 2013 depreciation for the business part of your home by using the appropriate percentage from the following table. Vita tax assistance Table 2. Vita tax assistance MACRS Percentage Table for 39-Year Nonresidential Real Property Month First Used for Business Percentage To Use 1 2. Vita tax assistance 461% 2 2. Vita tax assistance 247% 3 2. Vita tax assistance 033% 4 1. Vita tax assistance 819% 5 1. Vita tax assistance 605% 6 1. Vita tax assistance 391% 7 1. Vita tax assistance 177% 8 0. Vita tax assistance 963% 9 0. Vita tax assistance 749% 10 0. Vita tax assistance 535% 11 0. Vita tax assistance 321% 12 0. Vita tax assistance 107%   Multiply the depreciable basis of the business part of your home by the percentage from the table for the first month you use your home for business. Vita tax assistance See Publication 946 for the percentages for the remaining tax years of the recovery period. Vita tax assistance Example. Vita tax assistance In May, George Miller began to use one room in his home exclusively and regularly to meet clients. Vita tax assistance This room is 8% of the square footage of his home. Vita tax assistance He bought the home in 2003 for $125,000. Vita tax assistance He determined from his property tax records that his adjusted basis in the house (exclusive of land) is $115,000. Vita tax assistance In May, the house had a fair market value of $165,000. Vita tax assistance He multiplies his adjusted basis of $115,000 (which is less than the fair market value) by 8%. Vita tax assistance The result is $9,200, his depreciable basis for the business part of the house. Vita tax assistance George files his return based on the calendar year. Vita tax assistance May is the 5th month of his tax year. Vita tax assistance He multiplies his depreciable basis of $9,200 by 1. Vita tax assistance 605% (. Vita tax assistance 01605), the percentage from the table for the 5th month. Vita tax assistance His depreciation deduction is $147. Vita tax assistance 66. Vita tax assistance Depreciating permanent improvements. Vita tax assistance   Add the costs of permanent improvements made before you began using your home for business to the basis of your property. Vita tax assistance Depreciate these costs as part of the cost of your home as explained earlier. Vita tax assistance The costs of improvements made after you begin using your home for business (that affect the business part of your home, such as a new roof) are depreciated separately. Vita tax assistance Multiply the cost of the improvement by the business-use percentage and depreciate the result over the recovery period that would apply to your home if you began using it for business at the same time as the improvement. Vita tax assistance For improvements made this year, the recovery period is 39 years. Vita tax assistance For the percentage to use for the first year, see Table 2, earlier. Vita tax assistance For more information on recovery periods, see Publication 946. Vita tax assistance Business Percentage To find the business percentage, compare the size of the part of your home that you use for business to your whole house. Vita tax assistance Use the resulting percentage to figure the business part of the expenses for operating your entire home. Vita tax assistance You can use any reasonable method to determine the business percentage. Vita tax assistance The following are two commonly used methods for figuring the percentage. Vita tax assistance Divide the area (length multiplied by the width) used for business by the total area of your home. Vita tax assistance If the rooms in your home are all about the same size, you can divide the number of rooms used for business by the total number of rooms in your home. Vita tax assistance Example 1. Vita tax assistance Your office is 240 square feet (12 feet × 20 feet). Vita tax assistance Your home is 1,200 square feet. Vita tax assistance Your office is 20% (240 ÷ 1,200) of the total area of your home. Vita tax assistance Your business percentage is 20%. Vita tax assistance Example 2. Vita tax assistance You use one room in your home for business. Vita tax assistance Your home has 10 rooms, all about equal size. Vita tax assistance Your office is 10% (1 ÷ 10) of the total area of your home. Vita tax assistance Your business percentage is 10%. Vita tax assistance Use lines 1-7 of Form 8829, or lines 1-3 on the Worksheet To Figure the Deduction for Business Use of Your Home (near the end of this publication) to figure your business percentage. Vita tax assistance Deduction Limit If your gross income from the business use of your home equals or exceeds your total business expenses (including depreciation), you can deduct all your business expenses related to the use of your home. Vita tax assistance If your gross income from the business use of your home is less than your total business expenses, your deduction for certain expenses for the business use of your home is limited. Vita tax assistance Your deduction of otherwise nondeductible expenses, such as insurance, utilities, and depreciation of your home (with depreciation of your home taken last), that are allocable to the business, is limited to the gross income from the business use of your home minus the sum of the following. Vita tax assistance The business part of expenses you could deduct even if you did not use your home for business (such as mortgage interest, real estate taxes, and casualty and theft losses that are allowable as itemized deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040)). Vita tax assistance These expenses are discussed in detail under Actual Expenses , earlier. Vita tax assistance The business expenses that relate to the business activity in the home (for example, business phone, supplies, and depreciation on equipment), but not to the use of the home itself. Vita tax assistance If you are self-employed, do not include in (2) above your deduction for one-half of your self-employment tax. Vita tax assistance Carryover of unallowed expenses. Vita tax assistance   If your deductions are greater than the current year's limit, you can carry over the excess to the next year in which you use actual expenses. Vita tax assistance They are subject to the deduction limit for that year, whether or not you live in the same home during that year. Vita tax assistance Figuring the deduction limit and carryover. Vita tax assistance   If you are an employee or a partner, or you file Schedule F (Form 1040), use the Worksheet To Figure the Deduction for Business Use of Your Home, near the end of this publication. Vita tax assistance If you file Schedule C (Form 1040), figure your deduction limit and carryover on Form 8829. Vita tax assistance Example. Vita tax assistance You meet the requirements for deducting expenses for the business use of your home. Vita tax assistance You use 20% of your home for business. Vita tax assistance In 2013, your business expenses and the expenses for the business use of your home are deducted from your gross income in the following order. Vita tax assistance    Gross income from business $6,000 Minus:   Deductible mortgage interest and real estate taxes (20%) 3,000 Business expenses not related to the use of your home (100%) (business phone, supplies, and depreciation on equipment) 2,000 Deduction limit $1,000 Minus other expenses allocable to business use of home:   Maintenance, insurance, and utilities (20%) 800 Depreciation allowed (20% = $1,600 allowable, but subject to balance of deduction limit) 200 Other expenses up to the deduction limit $1,000 Depreciation carryover to 2014 ($1,600 − $200) (subject to deduction limit in 2014) $1,400   You can deduct all of the business part of your deductible mortgage interest and real estate taxes ($3,000). Vita tax assistance You also can deduct all of your business expenses not related to the use of your home ($2,000). Vita tax assistance Additionally, you can deduct all of the business part of your expenses for maintenance, insurance, and utilities, because the total ($800) is less than the $1,000 deduction limit. Vita tax assistance Your deduction for depreciation for the business use of your home is limited to $200 ($1,000 minus $800) because of the deduction limit. Vita tax assistance You can carry over the $1,400 balance and add it to your depreciation for 2014, subject to your deduction limit in 2014. Vita tax assistance More than one place of business. Vita tax assistance   If part of the gross income from your trade or business is from the business use of part of your home and part is from a place other than your home, you must determine the part of your gross income from the business use of your home before you figure the deduction limit. Vita tax assistance In making this determination, consider the time you spend at each location, the business investment in each location, and any other relevant facts and circumstances. Vita tax assistance If your home office qualifies as your principal place of business, you can deduct your daily transportation costs between your home and another work location in the same trade or business. Vita tax assistance For more information on transportation costs, see Publication 463, Travel, Entertainment, Gift, and Car Expenses. Vita tax assistance Using the Simplified Method The simplified method is an alternative to the calculation, allocation, and substantiation of actual expenses. Vita tax assistance In most cases, you will figure your deduction by multiplying $5, the prescribed rate, by the area of your home used for a qualified business use. Vita tax assistance The area you use to figure your deduction is limited to 300 square feet. Vita tax assistance See Simplified Amount , later, for information about figuring the amount of the deduction. Vita tax assistance For more information about the simplified method, see Revenue Procedure 2013-13, 2013-06 I. Vita tax assistance R. Vita tax assistance B. Vita tax assistance 478, available at www. Vita tax assistance irs. Vita tax assistance gov/irb/2013-06_IRB/ar09. Vita tax assistance html. Vita tax assistance Actual expenses and depreciation of your home. Vita tax assistance   If you elect to use the simplified method, you cannot deduct any actual expenses for the business except for business expenses that are not related to the use of the home. Vita tax assistance You also cannot deduct any depreciation (including any additional first-year depreciation) or section 179 expense for the portion of the home that is used for a qualified business use. Vita tax assistance The depreciation deduction allowable for that portion of the home is deemed to be zero for a year you use the simplified method. Vita tax assistance If you figure your deduction for business use of the home using actual expenses in a subsequent year, you will have to use the appropriate optional depreciation table for MACRS to figure your depreciation. Vita tax assistance More information. Vita tax assistance   For more information about claiming depreciation in a subsequent year, see Revenue Procedure 2013-13, 2013-06 I. Vita tax assistance R. Vita tax assistance B. Vita tax assistance 478, available at www. Vita tax assistance irs. Vita tax assistance gov/irb/2013-06_IRB/ar09. Vita tax assistance html. Vita tax assistance See Publication 946 for the optional depreciation tables Although you cannot deduct any depreciation or section 179 expense for the portion of your home used for a qualified business use, you may still claim depreciation or the section 179 expense deduction on other assets used in the business (for example, furniture and equipment). Vita tax assistance Expenses deductible without regard to business use. Vita tax assistance   When using the simplified method, treat as personal expenses those business expenses related to the use of the home that are deductible without regard to whether there is a qualified business use of the home. Vita tax assistance These expenses include mortgage interest, real estate taxes, and casualty losses, subject to any limitations. Vita tax assistance See Where To Deduct , later. Vita tax assistance If you also rent part of your home, you must still allocate these expenses between rental use and personal use (for this purpose, personal use includes business use reported using the simplified method). Vita tax assistance No deduction of carryover of actual expenses. Vita tax assistance   If you used actual expenses to figure your deduction for business use of the home in a prior year and your deduction was limited, you cannot deduct the disallowed amount carried over from the prior year during a year you figure your deduction using the simplified method. Vita tax assistance Instead, you will continue to carry over the disallowed amount to the next year that you use actual expenses to figure your deduction. Vita tax assistance Electing the Simplified Method You choose whether or not to figure your deduction using the simplified method each taxable year. Vita tax assistance Make the election for a home by using the simplified method to figure the deduction for the qualified business use of that home on a timely filed, original federal income tax return. Vita tax assistance An election for a taxable year, once made, is irrevocable. Vita tax assistance A change from using the simplified method in one year to actual expenses in a succeeding taxable year, or vice-versa, is not a change in method of accounting and does not require the consent of the Commissioner. Vita tax assistance Shared use. Vita tax assistance   If you share your home with someone else who also uses the home in a business that qualifies for this deduction, each of you make your own election. Vita tax assistance More than one qualified business use. Vita tax assistance   If you conduct more than one business that qualifies for this deduction in your home, your election to use the simplified method applies to all your qualified business uses of that home. Vita tax assistance More than one home. Vita tax assistance   If you used more than one home during the year (for example, you moved during the year), you can elect to use the simplified method for only one of the homes. Vita tax assistance You must figure the deduction for any other home using actual expenses. Vita tax assistance Simplified Amount Your deduction for the qualified business use of a home is the sum of each amount you figure for a separate qualified business use of your home. Vita tax assistance To figure your deduction for the business use of a home using the simplified method, you will need to know the following information for each qualified business use of the home. Vita tax assistance The allowable area of your home used in conducting the business. Vita tax assistance If you did not conduct the business for the entire year in the home or the area changed during the year, you will need to know the allowable area you used and the number of days you conducted the business for each month. Vita tax assistance The gross income from the business use of your home. Vita tax assistance The amount of the business expenses that are not related to the use of your home. Vita tax assistance If the qualified business use is for a daycare facility that uses space in your home on a regular (but not exclusive) basis, you will also need to know the percentage of time that part of your home is used for daycare. Vita tax assistance To figure the amount you can deduct for qualified business use of your home using the simplified method, follow these 3 steps. Vita tax assistance Multiply the allowable area by $5 (or less than $5 if the qualified business use is for a daycare that uses space in your home on a regular, but not exclusive, basis). Vita tax assistance See Allowable area and Space used regularly for daycare , later. Vita tax assistance Subtract the expenses from the business that are not related to the use of the home from the gross income related to the business use of the home. Vita tax assistance If these expenses are greater than the gross income from the business use of the home, then you cannot take a deduction for this business use of the home. Vita tax assistance See Gross income limitation , later. Vita tax assistance Take the smaller of the amounts from (1) and (2). Vita tax assistance This is the amount you can deduct for this qualified business use of your home using the simplified method. Vita tax assistance If you are an employee or a partner, or you use your home in your farming business and file Schedule F (Form 1040), you can use the Simplified Method Worksheet, near the end of this publication, to help you figure your deduction. Vita tax assistance If you use your home in a trade or business and you file Schedule C (Form 1040), you will use the Simplified Method Worksheet in your Instructions for Schedule C to figure your deduction. Vita tax assistance Allowable area. Vita tax assistance   In most cases, the allowable area is the smaller of the actual area (in square feet) of your home used in conducting the business and 300 square feet. Vita tax assistance Your allowable area may be smaller if you conducted the business as a qualified joint venture with your spouse, the area used by the business was shared with another qualified business use, you used the home for the business for only part of the year, or the area used by the business changed during the year. Vita tax assistance You can use the Area Adjustment Worksheet (for simplified method), near the end of this publication, to help you figure your allowable area for a qualified business use. Vita tax assistance Area used by a qualified joint venture. Vita tax assistance   If the qualified business use of the home is also a qualified joint venture, you and your spouse will figure the deduction for the business use separately. Vita tax assistance Split the actual area used in conducting business between you and your spouse in the same manner you split your other tax attributes. Vita tax assistance Then, each spouse will figure the allowable area separately. Vita tax assistance For more information about qualified joint ventures, see Qualified Joint Venture in the Instructions for Schedule C. Vita tax assistance Shared use. Vita tax assistance   If you share your home with someone else who uses the home to conduct business that also qualifies for this deduction, you may not include the same square feet to figure your deduction as the other person. Vita tax assistance You must allocate the shared space between you and the other person in a reasonable manner. Vita tax assistance Example. Vita tax assistance Kristin and Lindsey are roommates. Vita tax assistance Kristin uses 300 square feet of their home for a qualified business use. Vita tax assistance Lindsey uses 200 square feet of their home for a separate qualified business use. Vita tax assistance The qualified business uses share 100 square feet. Vita tax assistance In addition to the portion that they do not share, Kristin and Lindsey can both claim 50 of the 100 square feet or divide the 100 square feet between them in any reasonable manner. Vita tax assistance If divided evenly, Kristin could claim 250 square feet using the simplified method and Lindsey could claim 150 square feet. Vita tax assistance More than one qualified business use. Vita tax assistance   If you conduct more than one business qualifying for the deduction, you are limited to a maximum of 300 square feet for all of the businesses. Vita tax assistance Allocate the actual square footage used (up to the maximum of 300 square feet) among your qualified business uses in a reasonable manner. Vita tax assistance However, do not allocate more square feet to a qualified business use than you actually use for that business. Vita tax assistance Rental use. Vita tax assistance   The simplified method does not apply to rental use. Vita tax assistance A rental use that qualifies for the deduction must be figured using actual expenses. Vita tax assistance If the rental use and a qualified business use share the same area, you will have to allocate the actual area used between the two uses. Vita tax assistance You cannot use the same area to figure a deduction for the qualified business use as you are using to figure the deduction for the rental use. Vita tax assistance Part-year use or area changes. Vita tax assistance   If your qualified business use was for a portion of the taxable year (for example, a seasonal business or a business that begins during the taxable year) or you changed the square footage of your qualified business use, your deduction is limited to the average monthly allowable square footage. Vita tax assistance You calculate the average monthly allowable square footage by adding the amount of allowable square feet you used in each month and dividing the sum by 12. Vita tax assistance When determining the average monthly allowable square footage, you cannot take more than 300 square feet into account for any one month. Vita tax assistance Additionally, if your qualified business use was less than 15 days in a month, you must use -0- for that month. Vita tax assistance Example 1. Vita tax assistance Andy files his federal income tax return on a calendar year basis. Vita tax assistance On July 20, he began using 420 square feet of his home for a qualified business use. Vita tax assistance He continued to use the 420 square feet until the end of the year. Vita tax assistance His average monthly allowable square footage is 125 square feet, which is figured using 300 square feet for each month August through December divided by the number of months in the taxable year ((0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 300 + 300 + 300 + 300 + 300)/12). Vita tax assistance Example 2. Vita tax assistance Amy files her federal income tax return on a calendar year basis. Vita tax assistance On April 20, she began using 100 square feet of her home for a qualified business use. Vita tax assistance On August 5, she expanded the area of her qualified use to 330 square feet. Vita tax assistance Amy continued to use the 330 square feet until the end of the year. Vita tax assistance Her average monthly allowable square footage is 150 square feet, which is figured using 100 square feet for May through July and 300 square feet for August through December divided by the number of months in the taxable year ((0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 100 + 100 +100 + 300 + 300 + 300 + 300 + 300)/12). Vita tax assistance Gross income limitation. Vita tax assistance   Your deduction for business use of the home is limited to an amount equal to the gross income derived from the qualified business use of the home reduced by the business deductions that are unrelated to the use of your home. Vita tax assistance If the business deductions that are unrelated to the use of your home are greater than the gross income derived from the qualified business use of your home, then you cannot take a deduction for this qualified business use of your home. Vita tax assistance Business expenses not related to use of the home. Vita tax assistance   These expenses relate to the business activity in the home, but not to the use of the home itself. Vita tax assistance You can still deduct business expenses that are unrelated to the use of the home. Vita tax assistance See Where To Deduct , later. Vita tax assistance Examples of business expenses that are unrelated to the use of the home are advertising, wages, supplies, dues, and depreciation for equipment. Vita tax assistance Space used regularly for daycare. Vita tax assistance   If you do not use the area of your home exclusively for daycare, you must reduce the prescribed rate (maximum $5 per square foot) before figuring your deduction. Vita tax assistance The reduced rate will equal the prescribed rate times a fraction. Vita tax assistance The numerator of the fraction is the number of hours that the space was used during the year for daycare and the denominator is the total number of hours during the year that the space was available for all uses. Vita tax assistance You can use the Daycare Facility Worksheet (for simplified method), near the end of this publication, to help you figure the reduced rate. Vita tax assistance    If you used at least 300 square feet for daycare regularly and exclusively during the year, then you do not need to reduce the prescribed rate or complete the Daycare Facility Worksheet. Vita tax assistance Daycare Facility If you use space in your home on a regular basis for providing daycare, you may be able to claim a deduction for that part of your home even if you use the same space for nonbusiness purposes. Vita tax assistance To qualify for this exception to the exclusive use rule, you must meet both of the following requirements. Vita tax assistance You must be in the trade or business of providing daycare for children, persons age 65 or older, or persons who are physically or mentally unable to care for themselves. Vita tax assistance You must have applied for, been granted, or be exempt from having, a license, certification, registration, or approval as a daycare center or as a family or group daycare home under state law. Vita tax assistance You do not meet this requirement if your application was rejected or your license or other authorization was revoked. Vita tax assistance Figuring the deduction. Vita tax assistance   If you elect to use the simplified method for your home, figure your deduction as described earlier in Using the Simplified Method under Figuring the Deduction. Vita tax assistance    If you are figuring your deduction using actual expenses and you regularly use part of your home for daycare, figure what part is used for daycare, as explained in Business Percentage , earlier, under Figuring the Deduction. Vita tax assistance If you also use that part exclusively for daycare, deduct all the allocable expenses, subject to the deduction limit, as explained earlier. Vita tax assistance   If the use of part of your home as a daycare facility is regular, but not exclusive, you must figure the percentage of time that part of your home is used for daycare. Vita tax assistance A room that is available for use throughout each business day and that you regularly use in your business is considered to be used for daycare throughout each business day. Vita tax assistance You do not have to keep records to show the specific hours the area was used for business. Vita tax assistance You can use the area occasionally for personal reasons. Vita tax assistance However, a room you use only occasionally for business does not qualify for the deduction. Vita tax assistance To find the percentage of time you actually use your home for business, compare the total time used for business to the total time that part of your home can be used for all purposes. Vita tax assistance You can compare the hours of business use in a week with the number of hours in a week (168). Vita tax assistance Or you can compare the hours of business use for the year with the number of hours in the year (8,760 in 2013). Vita tax assistance If you started or stopped using your home for daycare in 2013, you must prorate the number of hours based on the number of days the home was available for daycare. Vita tax assistance Example 1. Vita tax assistance Mary Lake used her basement to operate a daycare business for children. Vita tax assistance She figures the business percentage of the basement as follows. Vita tax assistance Square footage of the basement Square footage of her home = 1,600 3,200 = 50%           She used the basement for daycare an average of 12 hours a day, 5 days a week, for 50 weeks a year. Vita tax assistance During the other 12 hours a day, the family could use the basement. Vita tax assistance She figures the percentage of time the basement was used for daycare as follows. Vita tax assistance Number of hours used for daycare (12 x 5 x 50) Total number of hours in the year (24 x 365) = 3,000 8,760 = 34. Vita tax assistance 25%           Mary can deduct 34. Vita tax assistance 25% of any direct expenses for the basement. Vita tax assistance However, because her indirect expenses are for the entire house, she can deduct only 17. Vita tax assistance 13% of the indirect expenses. Vita tax assistance She figures the percentage for her indirect expenses as follows. Vita tax assistance Business percentage of the basement 50% Multiplied by: Percentage of time used for daycare × 34. Vita tax assistance 25% Percentage for indirect expenses 17. Vita tax assistance 13% Mary completes Form 8829, Part I, figuring the percentage of her home used for business, including the percentage of time the basement was used. Vita tax assistance In Part II, Mary figures her deductible expenses. Vita tax assistance She uses the following information to complete Part II. Vita tax assistance Gross income from her daycare business $50,000 Expenses not related to the business use of the home $25,000 Tentative profit $25,000 Rent $8,400 Utilities $850 Painting the basement $500 Mary enters her tentative profit, $25,000, on line 8. Vita tax assistance (This figure is the same as the amount on line 29 of her Schedule C (Form 1040). Vita tax assistance ) The expenses she paid for rent and utilities relate to her entire home. Vita tax assistance Therefore, she enters the amount paid for rent on line 18, column (b), and the amount paid for utilities on line 20, column (b). Vita tax assistance She shows the total of these expenses on line 22, column (b). Vita tax assistance For line 23, she multiplies the amount on line 22, column (b) by the percentage on line 7 and enters the result, $1,585. Vita tax assistance Mary paid $500 to have the basement painted. Vita tax assistance The painting is a direct expense. Vita tax assistance However, because she did not use the basement exclusively for daycare, she must multiply $500 by the percentage of time the basement was used for daycare (34. Vita tax assistance 25% – line 6). Vita tax assistance She enters $171 (34. Vita tax assistance 25% × $500) on line 19, column (a). Vita tax assistance She adds line 22, column (a), and line 23 and enters $1,756 ($171 + $1,585) on line 25. Vita tax assistance This is less than her deduction limit (line 15), so she can deduct the entire amount. Vita tax assistance She follows the instructions to complete the rest of Part II and enters $1,756 on lines 33 and 35. Vita tax assistance She then carries the $1,756 to line 30 of her Schedule C (Form 1040). Vita tax assistance Example 2. Vita tax assistance Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that Mary also has another room that was available each business day for children to take naps in. Vita tax assistance Although she did not keep a record of the number of hours the room was actually used for naps, it was used for part of each business day. Vita tax assistance Since the room was available for business use during regular operating hours each business day and was used regularly in the business, it is considered used for daycare throughout each business day. Vita tax assistance The basement and room are 60% of the total area of her home. Vita tax assistance In figuring her expenses, 34. Vita tax assistance 25% of any direct expenses for the basement and room are deductible. Vita tax assistance In addition, 20. Vita tax assistance 55% (34. Vita tax assistance 25% × 60%) of her indirect expenses are deductible. Vita tax assistance Example 3. Vita tax assistance Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that Mary stopped using her home for a daycare facility on June 24, 2013. Vita tax assistance She used the basement for daycare an average of 12 hours a day, 5 days a week, but for only 25 weeks of the year. Vita tax assistance During the other 12 hours a day, the family could still use the basement. Vita tax assistance She figures the percentage of time the basement was used for business as follows. Vita tax assistance Number of hours used for daycare (12 x 5 x 25) Total number of hours during period used (24 x 175) = 1,500 4,200 = 35. Vita tax assistance 71%           Mary can deduct 35. Vita tax assistance 71% of any direct expenses for the basement. Vita tax assistance However, because her indirect expenses are for the entire house, she can deduct only 17. Vita tax assistance 86% of the indirect expenses. Vita tax assistance She figures the percentage for her indirect expenses as follows. Vita tax assistance Business percentage of the basement 50% Multiplied by: Percentage of time used for daycare × 35. Vita tax assistance 71% Percentage for indirect expenses 17. Vita tax assistance 86% Meals. Vita tax assistance   If you provide food for your daycare recipients, do not include the expense as a cost of using your home for business. Vita tax assistance Claim it as a separate deduction on your Schedule C (Form 1040). Vita tax assistance You can never deduct the cost of food consumed by you or your family. Vita tax assistance You can deduct as a business expense 100% of the actual cost of food consumed by your daycare recipients (see Standard meal and snack rates , later, for an optional method for eligible children) and generally only 50% of the cost of food consumed by your employees. Vita tax assistance However, you can deduct 100% of the cost of food consumed by your employees if its value can be excluded from their wages as a de minimis fringe benefit. Vita tax assistance For more information on meals that meet these requirements, see Meals in chapter 2 of Publication 15-B, Employer's Tax Guide to Fringe Benefits. Vita tax assistance   If you deduct the actual cost of food for your daycare business, keep a separate record (with receipts) of your family's food costs. Vita tax assistance   Reimbursements you receive from a sponsor under the Child and Adult Care Food Program of the Department of Agriculture are taxable only to the extent they exceed your expenses for food for eligible children. Vita tax assistance If your reimbursements are more than your expenses for food, show the difference as income in Part I of Schedule C (Form 1040). Vita tax assistance If your food expenses are greater than the reimbursements, show the difference as an expense in Part V of Schedule C (Form 1040). Vita tax assistance Do not include payments or expenses for your own children if they are eligible for the program. Vita tax assistance Follow this procedure even if you receive a Form 1099-MISC, Miscellaneous Income, reporting a payment from the sponsor. Vita tax assistance Standard meal and snack rates. Vita tax assistance   If you qualify as a family daycare provider, you can use the standard meal and snack rates, instead of actual costs, to compute the deductible cost of meals and snacks provided to eligible children. Vita tax assistance For these purposes: A family daycare provider is a person engaged in the business of providing family daycare. Vita tax assistance Family daycare is childcare provided to eligible children in the home of the family daycare provider. Vita tax assistance The care must be non-medical, not involve a transfer of legal custody, and generally last less than 24 hours each day. Vita tax assistance Eligible children are minor children receiving family daycare in the home of the family daycare provider. Vita tax assistance Eligible children do not include children who are full-time or part-time residents in the home where the childcare is provided or children whose parents or guardians are residents of the same home. Vita tax assistance Eligible children do not include children who receive daycare services for personal reasons of the provider. Vita tax assistance For example, if a provider provides daycare services for a relative as a favor to that relative, that child is not an eligible child. Vita tax assistance   You can compute the deductible cost of each meal and snack you actually purchased and served to an eligible child during the time period you provided family daycare using the standard meal and snack rates shown in Table 3, later. Vita tax assistance You can use the standard meal and snack rates for a maximum of one breakfast, one lunch, one dinner, and three snacks per eligible child per day. Vita tax assistance If you receive reimbursement for a particular meal or snack, you can deduct only the portion of the applicable standard meal or snack rate that is more than the amount of the reimbursement. Vita tax assistance   You can use either the standard meal and snack rates or actual costs to calculate the deductible cost of food provided to eligible children in the family daycare for any particular tax year. Vita tax assistance If you choose to use the standard meal and snack rates for a particular tax year, you must use the rates for all your deductible food costs for eligible children during that tax year. Vita tax assistance However, if you use the standard meal and snack rates in any tax year, you can use actual costs to compute the deductible cost of food in any other tax year. Vita tax assistance   If you use the standard meal and snack rates, you must maintain records to substantiate the computation of the total amount deducted for the cost of food provided to eligible children. Vita tax assistance The records kept should include the name of each child, dates and hours of attendance in the daycare, and the type and quantity of meals and snacks served. Vita tax assistance This information can be recorded in a log similar to the one shown in Exhibit A, near the end of this publication. Vita tax assistance   The standard meal and snack rates include beverages, but do not include non-food supplies used for food preparation, service, or storage, such as containers, paper products, or utensils. Vita tax assistance These expenses can be claimed as a separate deduction on your Schedule C (Form 1040). Vita tax assistance     Table 3. Vita tax assistance Standard Meal and Snack Rates1 Location of Family Daycare Provider Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack States other than Alaska an