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Unemployment And Taxes

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Unemployment And Taxes

Unemployment and taxes 4. Unemployment and taxes   Interest Table of Contents Introduction Topics - This chapter discusses: Useful Items - You may want to see: Allocation of InterestOrder of funds spent. Unemployment and taxes Payments from checking accounts. Unemployment and taxes Amounts paid within 30 days. Unemployment and taxes Optional method for determining date of reallocation. Unemployment and taxes Interest on a segregated account. Unemployment and taxes How to report. Unemployment and taxes Interest You Can DeductStatement. Unemployment and taxes Expenses paid to obtain a mortgage. Unemployment and taxes Prepayment penalty. Unemployment and taxes De minimis OID. Unemployment and taxes Constant-yield method. Unemployment and taxes Loan or mortgage ends. Unemployment and taxes Interest You Cannot DeductPenalties. Unemployment and taxes Who is a key person? Exceptions for pre-June 1997 contracts. Unemployment and taxes Interest allocated to unborrowed policy cash value. Unemployment and taxes Capitalization of Interest When To Deduct InterestPrepaid interest. Unemployment and taxes Discounted loan. Unemployment and taxes Refunds of interest. Unemployment and taxes Prepaid interest. Unemployment and taxes Discounted loan. Unemployment and taxes Tax deficiency. Unemployment and taxes Related person. Unemployment and taxes Below-Market LoansLimit on forgone interest for gift loans of $100,000 or less. Unemployment and taxes Introduction This chapter discusses the tax treatment of business interest expense. Unemployment and taxes Business interest expense is an amount charged for the use of money you borrowed for business activities. Unemployment and taxes Topics - This chapter discusses: Allocation of interest Interest you can deduct Interest you cannot deduct Capitalization of interest When to deduct interest Below-market loans Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 537 Installment Sales 550 Investment Income and Expenses 936 Home Mortgage Interest Deduction Form (and Instructions) Sch A (Form 1040) Itemized Deductions Sch E (Form 1040) Supplemental Income and Loss Sch K-1 (Form 1065) Partner's Share of Income, Deductions, Credits, etc. Unemployment and taxes Sch K-1 (Form 1120S) Shareholder's Share of Income, Deductions, Credits, etc. Unemployment and taxes 1098 Mortgage Interest Statement 3115 Application for Change in Accounting Method 4952 Investment Interest Expense Deduction 8582 Passive Activity Loss Limitations See chapter 12 for information about getting publications and forms. Unemployment and taxes Allocation of Interest The rules for deducting interest vary, depending on whether the loan proceeds are used for business, personal, or investment activities. Unemployment and taxes If you use the proceeds of a loan for more than one type of expense, you must allocate the interest based on the use of the loan's proceeds. Unemployment and taxes Allocate your interest expense to the following categories. Unemployment and taxes Nonpassive trade or business activity interest Passive trade or business activity interest Investment interest Portfolio interest Personal interest In general, you allocate interest on a loan the same way you allocate the loan proceeds. Unemployment and taxes You allocate loan proceeds by tracing disbursements to specific uses. Unemployment and taxes The easiest way to trace disbursements to specific uses is to keep the proceeds of a particular loan separate from any other funds. Unemployment and taxes Secured loan. Unemployment and taxes   The allocation of loan proceeds and the related interest is not generally affected by the use of property that secures the loan. Unemployment and taxes Example. Unemployment and taxes You secure a loan with property used in your business. Unemployment and taxes You use the loan proceeds to buy an automobile for personal use. Unemployment and taxes You must allocate interest expense on the loan to personal use (purchase of the automobile) even though the loan is secured by business property. Unemployment and taxes    If the property that secures the loan is your home, you generally do not allocate the loan proceeds or the related interest. Unemployment and taxes The interest is usually deductible as qualified home mortgage interest, regardless of how the loan proceeds are used. Unemployment and taxes For more information, see Publication 936. Unemployment and taxes Allocation period. Unemployment and taxes   The period for which a loan is allocated to a particular use begins on the date the proceeds are used and ends on the earlier of the following dates. Unemployment and taxes The date the loan is repaid. Unemployment and taxes The date the loan is reallocated to another use. Unemployment and taxes Proceeds not disbursed to borrower. Unemployment and taxes   Even if the lender disburses the loan proceeds to a third party, the allocation of the loan is still based on your use of the funds. Unemployment and taxes This applies whether you pay for property, services, or anything else by incurring a loan, or you take property subject to a debt. Unemployment and taxes Proceeds deposited in borrower's account. Unemployment and taxes   Treat loan proceeds deposited in an account as property held for investment. Unemployment and taxes It does not matter whether the account pays interest. Unemployment and taxes Any interest you pay on the loan is investment interest expense. Unemployment and taxes If you withdraw the proceeds of the loan, you must reallocate the loan based on the use of the funds. Unemployment and taxes Example. Unemployment and taxes Celina, a calendar-year taxpayer, borrows $100,000 on January 4 and immediately uses the proceeds to open a checking account. Unemployment and taxes No other amounts are deposited in the account during the year and no part of the loan principal is repaid during the year. Unemployment and taxes On April 2, Celina uses $20,000 from the checking account for a passive activity expenditure. Unemployment and taxes On September 4, Celina uses an additional $40,000 from the account for personal purposes. Unemployment and taxes Under the interest allocation rules, the entire $100,000 loan is treated as property held for investment for the period from January 4 through April 1. Unemployment and taxes From April 2 through September 3, Celina must treat $20,000 of the loan as used in the passive activity and $80,000 of the loan as property held for investment. Unemployment and taxes From September 4 through December 31, she must treat $40,000 of the loan as used for personal purposes, $20,000 as used in the passive activity, and $40,000 as property held for investment. Unemployment and taxes Order of funds spent. Unemployment and taxes   Generally, you treat loan proceeds deposited in an account as used (spent) before either of the following amounts. Unemployment and taxes Any unborrowed amounts held in the same account. Unemployment and taxes Any amounts deposited after these loan proceeds. Unemployment and taxes Example. Unemployment and taxes On January 9, Olena opened a checking account, depositing $500 of the proceeds of Loan A and $1,000 of unborrowed funds. Unemployment and taxes The following table shows the transactions in her account during the tax year. Unemployment and taxes Date Transaction January 9 $500 proceeds of Loan A and $1,000 unborrowed funds deposited January 14 $500 proceeds of Loan B  deposited February 19 $800 used for personal purposes February 27 $700 used for passive activity June 19 $1,000 proceeds of Loan C  deposited November 20 $800 used for an investment December 18 $600 used for personal purposes Olena treats the $800 used for personal purposes as made from the $500 proceeds of Loan A and $300 of the proceeds of Loan B. Unemployment and taxes She treats the $700 used for a passive activity as made from the remaining $200 proceeds of Loan B and $500 of unborrowed funds. Unemployment and taxes She treats the $800 used for an investment as made entirely from the proceeds of Loan C. Unemployment and taxes She treats the $600 used for personal purposes as made from the remaining $200 proceeds of Loan C and $400 of unborrowed funds. Unemployment and taxes For the periods during which loan proceeds are held in the account, Olena treats them as property held for investment. Unemployment and taxes Payments from checking accounts. Unemployment and taxes   Generally, you treat a payment from a checking or similar account as made at the time the check is written if you mail or deliver it to the payee within a reasonable period after you write it. Unemployment and taxes You can treat checks written on the same day as written in any order. Unemployment and taxes Amounts paid within 30 days. Unemployment and taxes   If you receive loan proceeds in cash or if the loan proceeds are deposited in an account, you can treat any payment (up to the amount of the proceeds) made from any account you own, or from cash, as made from those proceeds. Unemployment and taxes This applies to any payment made within 30 days before or after the proceeds are received in cash or deposited in your account. Unemployment and taxes   If the loan proceeds are deposited in an account, you can apply this rule even if the rules stated earlier under Order of funds spent would otherwise require you to treat the proceeds as used for other purposes. Unemployment and taxes If you apply this rule to any payments, disregard those payments (and the proceeds from which they are made) when applying the rules stated under Order of funds spent. Unemployment and taxes   If you received the loan proceeds in cash, you can treat the payment as made on the date you received the cash instead of the date you actually made the payment. Unemployment and taxes Example. Unemployment and taxes Giovanni gets a loan of $1,000 on August 4 and receives the proceeds in cash. Unemployment and taxes Giovanni deposits $1,500 in an account on August 18 and on August 28 writes a check on the account for a passive activity expense. Unemployment and taxes Also, Giovanni deposits his paycheck, deposits other loan proceeds, and pays his bills during the same period. Unemployment and taxes Regardless of these other transactions, Giovanni can treat $1,000 of the deposit he made on August 18 as being paid on August 4 from the loan proceeds. Unemployment and taxes In addition, Giovanni can treat the passive activity expense he paid on August 28 as made from the $1,000 loan proceeds treated as deposited in the account. Unemployment and taxes Optional method for determining date of reallocation. Unemployment and taxes   You can use the following method to determine the date loan proceeds are reallocated to another use. Unemployment and taxes You can treat all payments from loan proceeds in the account during any month as taking place on the later of the following dates. Unemployment and taxes The first day of that month. Unemployment and taxes The date the loan proceeds are deposited in the account. Unemployment and taxes However, you can use this optional method only if you treat all payments from the account during the same calendar month in the same way. Unemployment and taxes Interest on a segregated account. Unemployment and taxes   If you have an account that contains only loan proceeds and interest earned on the account, you can treat any payment from that account as being made first from the interest. Unemployment and taxes When the interest earned is used up, any remaining payments are from loan proceeds. Unemployment and taxes Example. Unemployment and taxes You borrowed $20,000 and used the proceeds of this loan to open a new savings account. Unemployment and taxes When the account had earned interest of $867, you withdrew $20,000 for personal purposes. Unemployment and taxes You can treat the withdrawal as coming first from the interest earned on the account, $867, and then from the loan proceeds, $19,133 ($20,000 − $867). Unemployment and taxes All the interest charged on the loan from the time it was deposited in the account until the time of the withdrawal is investment interest expense. Unemployment and taxes The interest charged on the part of the proceeds used for personal purposes ($19,133) from the time you withdrew it until you either repay it or reallocate it to another use is personal interest expense. Unemployment and taxes The interest charged on the loan proceeds you left in the account ($867) continues to be investment interest expense until you either repay it or reallocate it to another use. Unemployment and taxes Loan repayment. Unemployment and taxes   When you repay any part of a loan allocated to more than one use, treat it as being repaid in the following order. Unemployment and taxes Personal use. Unemployment and taxes Investments and passive activities (other than those included in (3)). Unemployment and taxes Passive activities in connection with a rental real estate activity in which you actively participate. Unemployment and taxes Former passive activities. Unemployment and taxes Trade or business use and expenses for certain low-income housing projects. Unemployment and taxes Line of credit (continuous borrowings). Unemployment and taxes   The following rules apply if you have a line of credit or similar arrangement. Unemployment and taxes Treat all borrowed funds on which interest accrues at the same fixed or variable rate as a single loan. Unemployment and taxes Treat borrowed funds or parts of borrowed funds on which interest accrues at different fixed or variable rates as different loans. Unemployment and taxes Treat these loans as repaid in the order shown on the loan agreement. Unemployment and taxes Loan refinancing. Unemployment and taxes   Allocate the replacement loan to the same uses to which the repaid loan was allocated. Unemployment and taxes Make the allocation only to the extent you use the proceeds of the new loan to repay any part of the original loan. Unemployment and taxes Debt-financed distribution. Unemployment and taxes   A debt-financed distribution occurs when a partnership or S corporation borrows funds and allocates those funds to distributions made to partners or shareholders. Unemployment and taxes The manner in which you report the interest expense associated with the distributed debt proceeds depends on your use of those proceeds. Unemployment and taxes How to report. Unemployment and taxes   If the proceeds were used in a nonpassive trade or business activity, report the interest on Schedule E (Form 1040), line 28; enter “interest expense” and the name of the partnership or S corporation in column (a) and the amount in column (h). Unemployment and taxes If the proceeds were used in a passive activity, follow the Instructions for Form 8582, Passive Activity Loss Limitations, to determine the amount of interest expense that can be reported on Schedule E (Form 1040), line 28; enter “interest expense” and the name of the partnership in column (a) and the amount in column (f). Unemployment and taxes If the proceeds were used in an investment activity, enter the interest on Form 4952. Unemployment and taxes If the proceeds are used for personal purposes, the interest is generally not deductible. Unemployment and taxes Interest You Can Deduct You can generally deduct as a business expense all interest you pay or accrue during the tax year on debts related to your trade or business. Unemployment and taxes Interest relates to your trade or business if you use the proceeds of the loan for a trade or business expense. Unemployment and taxes It does not matter what type of property secures the loan. Unemployment and taxes You can deduct interest on a debt only if you meet all the following requirements. Unemployment and taxes You are legally liable for that debt. Unemployment and taxes Both you and the lender intend that the debt be repaid. Unemployment and taxes You and the lender have a true debtor-creditor relationship. Unemployment and taxes Partial liability. Unemployment and taxes   If you are liable for part of a business debt, you can deduct only your share of the total interest paid or accrued. Unemployment and taxes Example. Unemployment and taxes You and your brother borrow money. Unemployment and taxes You are liable for 50% of the note. Unemployment and taxes You use your half of the loan in your business, and you make one-half of the loan payments. Unemployment and taxes You can deduct your half of the total interest payments as a business deduction. Unemployment and taxes Mortgage. Unemployment and taxes   Generally, mortgage interest paid or accrued on real estate you own legally or equitably is deductible. Unemployment and taxes However, rather than deducting the interest currently, you may have to add it to the cost basis of the property as explained later under Capitalization of Interest. Unemployment and taxes Statement. Unemployment and taxes   If you paid $600 or more of mortgage interest (including certain points) during the year on any one mortgage, you generally will receive a Form 1098 or a similar statement. Unemployment and taxes You will receive the statement if you pay interest to a person (including a financial institution or a cooperative housing corporation) in the course of that person's trade or business. Unemployment and taxes A governmental unit is a person for purposes of furnishing the statement. Unemployment and taxes   If you receive a refund of interest you overpaid in an earlier year, this amount will be reported in box 3 of Form 1098. Unemployment and taxes You cannot deduct this amount. Unemployment and taxes For information on how to report this refund, see Refunds of interest, later in this chapter. Unemployment and taxes Expenses paid to obtain a mortgage. Unemployment and taxes   Certain expenses you pay to obtain a mortgage cannot be deducted as interest. Unemployment and taxes These expenses, which include mortgage commissions, abstract fees, and recording fees, are capital expenses. Unemployment and taxes If the property mortgaged is business or income-producing property, you can amortize the costs over the life of the mortgage. Unemployment and taxes Prepayment penalty. Unemployment and taxes   If you pay off your mortgage early and pay the lender a penalty for doing this, you can deduct the penalty as interest. Unemployment and taxes Interest on employment tax deficiency. Unemployment and taxes   Interest charged on employment taxes assessed on your business is deductible. Unemployment and taxes Original issue discount (OID). Unemployment and taxes   OID is a form of interest. Unemployment and taxes A loan (mortgage or other debt) generally has OID when its proceeds are less than its principal amount. Unemployment and taxes The OID is the difference between the stated redemption price at maturity and the issue price of the loan. Unemployment and taxes   A loan's stated redemption price at maturity is the sum of all amounts (principal and interest) payable on it other than qualified stated interest. Unemployment and taxes Qualified stated interest is stated interest that is unconditionally payable in cash or property (other than another loan of the issuer) at least annually over the term of the loan at a single fixed rate. Unemployment and taxes You generally deduct OID over the term of the loan. Unemployment and taxes Figure the amount to deduct each year using the constant-yield method, unless the OID on the loan is de minimis. Unemployment and taxes De minimis OID. Unemployment and taxes   The OID is de minimis if it is less than one-fourth of 1% (. Unemployment and taxes 0025) of the stated redemption price of the loan at maturity multiplied by the number of full years from the date of original issue to maturity (the term of the loan). Unemployment and taxes   If the OID is de minimis, you can choose one of the following ways to figure the amount you can deduct each year. Unemployment and taxes On a constant-yield basis over the term of the loan. Unemployment and taxes On a straight-line basis over the term of the loan. Unemployment and taxes In proportion to stated interest payments. Unemployment and taxes In its entirety at maturity of the loan. Unemployment and taxes You make this choice by deducting the OID in a manner consistent with the method chosen on your timely filed tax return for the tax year in which the loan is issued. Unemployment and taxes Example. Unemployment and taxes On January 1, 2013, you took out a $100,000 discounted loan and received $98,500 in proceeds. Unemployment and taxes The loan will mature on January 1, 2023 (a 10-year term), and the $100,000 principal is payable on that date. Unemployment and taxes Interest of $10,000 is payable on January 1 of each year, beginning January 1, 2014. Unemployment and taxes The $1,500 OID on the loan is de minimis because it is less than $2,500 ($100,000 × . Unemployment and taxes 0025 × 10). Unemployment and taxes You choose to deduct the OID on a straight-line basis over the term of the loan. Unemployment and taxes Beginning in 2013, you can deduct $150 each year for 10 years. Unemployment and taxes Constant-yield method. Unemployment and taxes   If the OID is not de minimis, you must use the constant-yield method to figure how much you can deduct each year. Unemployment and taxes You figure your deduction for the first year using the following steps. Unemployment and taxes Determine the issue price of the loan. Unemployment and taxes Generally, this equals the proceeds of the loan. Unemployment and taxes If you paid points on the loan (as discussed later), the issue price generally is the difference between the proceeds and the points. Unemployment and taxes Multiply the result in (1) by the yield to maturity. Unemployment and taxes Subtract any qualified stated interest payments from the result in (2). Unemployment and taxes This is the OID you can deduct in the first year. Unemployment and taxes   To figure your deduction in any subsequent year, follow the above steps, except determine the adjusted issue price in step (1). Unemployment and taxes To get the adjusted issue price, add to the issue price any OID previously deducted. Unemployment and taxes Then follow steps (2) and (3) above. Unemployment and taxes   The yield to maturity is generally shown in the literature you receive from your lender. Unemployment and taxes If you do not have this information, consult your lender or tax advisor. Unemployment and taxes In general, the yield to maturity is the discount rate that, when used in computing the present value of all principal and interest payments, produces an amount equal to the principal amount of the loan. Unemployment and taxes Example. Unemployment and taxes The facts are the same as in the previous example, except that you deduct the OID on a constant yield basis over the term of the loan. Unemployment and taxes The yield to maturity on your loan is 10. Unemployment and taxes 2467%, compounded annually. Unemployment and taxes For 2013, you can deduct $93 [($98,500 × . Unemployment and taxes 102467) − $10,000]. Unemployment and taxes For 2014, you can deduct $103 [($98,593 × . Unemployment and taxes 102467) − $10,000]. Unemployment and taxes Loan or mortgage ends. Unemployment and taxes   If your loan or mortgage ends, you may be able to deduct any remaining OID in the tax year in which the loan or mortgage ends. Unemployment and taxes A loan or mortgage may end due to a refinancing, prepayment, foreclosure, or similar event. Unemployment and taxes If you refinance with the original lender, you generally cannot deduct the remaining OID in the year in which the refinancing occurs, but you may be able to deduct it over the term of the new mortgage or loan. Unemployment and taxes See Interest paid with funds borrowed from original lender under Interest You Cannot Deduct, later. Unemployment and taxes Points. Unemployment and taxes   The term “points” is used to describe certain charges paid, or treated as paid, by a borrower to obtain a loan or a mortgage. Unemployment and taxes These charges are also called loan origination fees, maximum loan charges, discount points, or premium charges. Unemployment and taxes If any of these charges (points) are solely for the use of money, they are interest. Unemployment and taxes   Because points are prepaid interest, you generally cannot deduct the full amount in the year paid. Unemployment and taxes However, you can choose to fully deduct points in the year paid if you meet certain tests. Unemployment and taxes For exceptions to the general rule, see Publication 936. Unemployment and taxes The points reduce the issue price of the loan and result in original issue discount (OID), deductible as explained in the preceding discussion. Unemployment and taxes Partial payments on a nontax debt. Unemployment and taxes   If you make partial payments on a debt (other than a debt owed the IRS), the payments are applied, in general, first to interest and any remainder to principal. Unemployment and taxes You can deduct only the interest. Unemployment and taxes This rule does not apply when it can be inferred that the borrower and lender understood that a different allocation of the payments would be made. Unemployment and taxes Installment purchase. Unemployment and taxes   If you make an installment purchase of business property, the contract between you and the seller generally provides for the payment of interest. Unemployment and taxes If no interest or a low rate of interest is charged under the contract, a portion of the stated principal amount payable under the contract may be recharacterized as interest (unstated interest). Unemployment and taxes The amount recharacterized as interest reduces your basis in the property and increases your interest expense. Unemployment and taxes For more information on installment sales and unstated interest, see Publication 537. Unemployment and taxes Interest You Cannot Deduct Certain interest payments cannot be deducted. Unemployment and taxes In addition, certain other expenses that may seem to be interest but are not, cannot be deducted as interest. Unemployment and taxes You cannot currently deduct interest that must be capitalized, and you generally cannot deduct personal interest. Unemployment and taxes Interest paid with funds borrowed from original lender. Unemployment and taxes   If you use the cash method of accounting, you cannot deduct interest you pay with funds borrowed from the original lender through a second loan, an advance, or any other arrangement similar to a loan. Unemployment and taxes You can deduct the interest expense once you start making payments on the new loan. Unemployment and taxes   When you make a payment on the new loan, you first apply the payment to interest and then to the principal. Unemployment and taxes All amounts you apply to the interest on the first loan are deductible, along with any interest you pay on the second loan, subject to any limits that apply. Unemployment and taxes Capitalized interest. Unemployment and taxes   You cannot currently deduct interest you are required to capitalize under the uniform capitalization rules. Unemployment and taxes See Capitalization of Interest, later. Unemployment and taxes In addition, if you buy property and pay interest owed by the seller (for example, by assuming the debt and any interest accrued on the property), you cannot deduct the interest. Unemployment and taxes Add this interest to the basis of the property. Unemployment and taxes Commitment fees or standby charges. Unemployment and taxes   Fees you incur to have business funds available on a standby basis, but not for the actual use of the funds, are not deductible as interest payments. Unemployment and taxes You may be able to deduct them as business expenses. Unemployment and taxes   If the funds are for inventory or certain property used in your business, the fees are indirect costs and you generally must capitalize them under the uniform capitalization rules. Unemployment and taxes See Capitalization of Interest, later. Unemployment and taxes Interest on income tax. Unemployment and taxes   Interest charged on income tax assessed on your individual income tax return is not a business deduction even though the tax due is related to income from your trade or business. Unemployment and taxes Treat this interest as a business deduction only in figuring a net operating loss deduction. Unemployment and taxes Penalties. Unemployment and taxes   Penalties on underpaid deficiencies and underpaid estimated tax are not interest. Unemployment and taxes You cannot deduct them. Unemployment and taxes Generally, you cannot deduct any fines or penalties. Unemployment and taxes Interest on loans with respect to life insurance policies. Unemployment and taxes   You generally cannot deduct interest on a debt incurred with respect to any life insurance, annuity, or endowment contract that covers any individual unless that individual is a key person. Unemployment and taxes   If the policy or contract covers a key person, you can deduct the interest on up to $50,000 of debt for that person. Unemployment and taxes However, the deduction for any month cannot be more than the interest figured using Moody's Composite Yield on Seasoned Corporate Bonds (formerly known as Moody's Corporate Bond Yield Average-Monthly Average Corporates) (Moody's rate) for that month. Unemployment and taxes Who is a key person?   A key person is an officer or 20% owner. Unemployment and taxes However, the number of individuals you can treat as key persons is limited to the greater of the following. Unemployment and taxes Five individuals. Unemployment and taxes The lesser of 5% of the total officers and employees of the company or 20 individuals. Unemployment and taxes Exceptions for pre-June 1997 contracts. Unemployment and taxes   You can generally deduct the interest if the contract was issued before June 9, 1997, and the covered individual is someone other than an employee, officer, or someone financially interested in your business. Unemployment and taxes If the contract was purchased before June 21, 1986, you can generally deduct the interest no matter who is covered by the contract. Unemployment and taxes Interest allocated to unborrowed policy cash value. Unemployment and taxes   Corporations and partnerships generally cannot deduct any interest expense allocable to unborrowed cash values of life insurance, annuity, or endowment contracts. Unemployment and taxes This rule applies to contracts issued after June 8, 1997, that cover someone other than an officer, director, employee, or 20% owner. Unemployment and taxes For more information, see section 264(f) of the Internal Revenue Code. Unemployment and taxes Capitalization of Interest Under the uniform capitalization rules, you generally must capitalize interest on debt equal to your expenditures to produce real property or certain tangible personal property. Unemployment and taxes The property must be produced by you for use in your trade or business or for sale to customers. Unemployment and taxes You cannot capitalize interest related to property that you acquire in any other manner. Unemployment and taxes Interest you paid or incurred during the production period must be capitalized if the property produced is designated property. Unemployment and taxes Designated property is any of the following. Unemployment and taxes Real property. Unemployment and taxes Tangible personal property with a class life of 20 years or more. Unemployment and taxes Tangible personal property with an estimated production period of more than 2 years. Unemployment and taxes Tangible personal property with an estimated production period of more than 1 year if the estimated cost of production is more than $1 million. Unemployment and taxes Property you produce. Unemployment and taxes   You produce property if you construct, build, install, manufacture, develop, improve, create, raise, or grow it. Unemployment and taxes Treat property produced for you under a contract as produced by you up to the amount you pay or incur for the property. Unemployment and taxes Carrying charges. Unemployment and taxes   Carrying charges include taxes you pay to carry or develop real estate or to carry, transport, or install personal property. Unemployment and taxes You can choose to capitalize carrying charges not subject to the uniform capitalization rules if they are otherwise deductible. Unemployment and taxes For more information, see chapter 7. Unemployment and taxes Capitalized interest. Unemployment and taxes   Treat capitalized interest as a cost of the property produced. Unemployment and taxes You recover your interest when you sell or use the property. Unemployment and taxes If the property is inventory, recover capitalized interest through cost of goods sold. Unemployment and taxes If the property is used in your trade or business, recover capitalized interest through an adjustment to basis, depreciation, amortization, or other method. Unemployment and taxes Partnerships and S corporations. Unemployment and taxes   The interest capitalization rules are applied first at the partnership or S corporation level. Unemployment and taxes The rules are then applied at the partners' or shareholders' level to the extent the partnership or S corporation has insufficient debt to support the production or construction costs. Unemployment and taxes   If you are a partner or a shareholder, you may have to capitalize interest you incur during the tax year for the production costs of the partnership or S corporation. Unemployment and taxes You may also have to capitalize interest incurred by the partnership or S corporation for your own production costs. Unemployment and taxes To properly capitalize interest under these rules, you must be given the required information in an attachment to the Schedule K-1 you receive from the partnership or S corporation. Unemployment and taxes Additional information. Unemployment and taxes   The procedures for applying the uniform capitalization rules are beyond the scope of this publication. Unemployment and taxes For more information, see sections 1. Unemployment and taxes 263A-8 through 1. Unemployment and taxes 263A-15 of the regulations and Notice 88-99. Unemployment and taxes Notice 88-99 is in Cumulative Bulletin 1988-2. Unemployment and taxes When To Deduct Interest If the uniform capitalization rules, discussed under Capitalization of Interest, earlier, do not apply to you, deduct interest as follows. Unemployment and taxes Cash method. Unemployment and taxes   Under the cash method, you can generally deduct only the interest you actually paid during the tax year. Unemployment and taxes You cannot deduct a promissory note you gave as payment because it is a promise to pay and not an actual payment. Unemployment and taxes Prepaid interest. Unemployment and taxes   You generally cannot deduct any interest paid before the year it is due. Unemployment and taxes Interest paid in advance can be deducted only in the tax year in which it is due. Unemployment and taxes Discounted loan. Unemployment and taxes   If interest or a discount is subtracted from your loan proceeds, it is not a payment of interest and you cannot deduct it when you get the loan. Unemployment and taxes For more information, see Original issue discount (OID) under Interest You Can Deduct, earlier. Unemployment and taxes Refunds of interest. Unemployment and taxes   If you pay interest and then receive a refund in the same tax year of any part of the interest, reduce your interest deduction by the refund. Unemployment and taxes If you receive the refund in a later tax year, include the refund in your income to the extent the deduction for the interest reduced your tax. Unemployment and taxes Accrual method. Unemployment and taxes   Under an accrual method, you can deduct only interest that has accrued during the tax year. Unemployment and taxes Prepaid interest. Unemployment and taxes   See Prepaid interest, earlier. Unemployment and taxes Discounted loan. Unemployment and taxes   See Discounted loan, earlier. Unemployment and taxes Tax deficiency. Unemployment and taxes   If you contest a federal income tax deficiency, interest does not accrue until the tax year the final determination of liability is made. Unemployment and taxes If you do not contest the deficiency, then the interest accrues in the year the tax was asserted and agreed to by you. Unemployment and taxes   However, if you contest but pay the proposed tax deficiency and interest, and you do not designate the payment as a cash bond, then the interest is deductible in the year paid. Unemployment and taxes Related person. Unemployment and taxes   If you use an accrual method, you cannot deduct interest owed to a related person who uses the cash method until payment is made and the interest is includible in the gross income of that person. Unemployment and taxes The relationship is determined as of the end of the tax year for which the interest would otherwise be deductible. Unemployment and taxes See section 267 of the Internal Revenue Code for more information. Unemployment and taxes Below-Market Loans If you receive a below-market gift or demand loan and use the proceeds in your trade or business, you may be able to deduct the forgone interest. Unemployment and taxes See Treatment of gift and demand loans, later, in this discussion. Unemployment and taxes A below-market loan is a loan on which no interest is charged or on which interest is charged at a rate below the applicable federal rate. Unemployment and taxes A gift or demand loan that is a below-market loan generally is considered an arm's-length transaction in which you, the borrower, are considered as having received both the following. Unemployment and taxes A loan in exchange for a note that requires the payment of interest at the applicable federal rate. Unemployment and taxes An additional payment in an amount equal to the forgone interest. Unemployment and taxes The additional payment is treated as a gift, dividend, contribution to capital, payment of compensation, or other payment, depending on the substance of the transaction. Unemployment and taxes Forgone interest. Unemployment and taxes   For any period, forgone interest is The interest that would be payable for that period if interest accrued on the loan at the applicable federal rate and was payable annually on December 31, minus Any interest actually payable on the loan for the period. Unemployment and taxes Applicable federal rates are published by the IRS each month in the Internal Revenue Bulletin. Unemployment and taxes Internal Revenue Bulletins are available on the IRS web site at www. Unemployment and taxes irs. Unemployment and taxes gov/irb. Unemployment and taxes You can also contact an IRS office to get these rates. Unemployment and taxes Loans subject to the rules. Unemployment and taxes   The rules for below-market loans apply to the following. Unemployment and taxes Gift loans (below-market loans where the forgone interest is in the nature of a gift). Unemployment and taxes Compensation-related loans (below-market loans between an employer and an employee or between an independent contractor and a person for whom the contractor provides services). Unemployment and taxes Corporation-shareholder loans. Unemployment and taxes Tax avoidance loans (below-market loans where the avoidance of federal tax is one of the main purposes of the interest arrangement). Unemployment and taxes Loans to qualified continuing care facilities under a continuing care contract (made after October 11, 1985). Unemployment and taxes   Except as noted in (5) above, these rules apply to demand loans (loans payable in full at any time upon the lender's demand) outstanding after June 6, 1984, and to term loans (loans that are not demand loans) made after that date. Unemployment and taxes Treatment of gift and demand loans. Unemployment and taxes   If you receive a below-market gift loan or demand loan, you are treated as receiving an additional payment (as a gift, dividend, etc. Unemployment and taxes ) equal to the forgone interest on the loan. Unemployment and taxes You are then treated as transferring this amount back to the lender as interest. Unemployment and taxes These transfers are considered to occur annually, generally on December 31. Unemployment and taxes If you use the loan proceeds in your trade or business, you can deduct the forgone interest each year as a business interest expense. Unemployment and taxes The lender must report it as interest income. Unemployment and taxes Limit on forgone interest for gift loans of $100,000 or less. Unemployment and taxes   For gift loans between individuals, forgone interest treated as transferred back to the lender is limited to the borrower's net investment income for the year. Unemployment and taxes This limit applies if the outstanding loans between the lender and borrower total $100,000 or less. Unemployment and taxes If the borrower's net investment income is $1,000 or less, it is treated as zero. Unemployment and taxes This limit does not apply to a loan if the avoidance of any federal tax is one of the main purposes of the interest arrangement. Unemployment and taxes Treatment of term loans. Unemployment and taxes   If you receive a below-market term loan other than a gift or demand loan, you are treated as receiving an additional cash payment (as a dividend, etc. Unemployment and taxes ) on the date the loan is made. Unemployment and taxes This payment is equal to the loan amount minus the present value, at the applicable federal rate, of all payments due under the loan. Unemployment and taxes The same amount is treated as original issue discount on the loan. Unemployment and taxes See Original issue discount (OID) under Interest You Can Deduct, earlier. Unemployment and taxes Exceptions for loans of $10,000 or less. Unemployment and taxes   The rules for below-market loans do not apply to any day on which the total outstanding loans between the borrower and lender is $10,000 or less. Unemployment and taxes This exception applies only to the following. Unemployment and taxes Gift loans between individuals if the loan is not directly used to buy or carry income-producing assets. Unemployment and taxes Compensation-related loans or corporation-shareholder loans if the avoidance of any federal tax is not a principal purpose of the interest arrangement. Unemployment and taxes This exception does not apply to a term loan described in (2) above that was previously subject to the below-market loan rules. Unemployment and taxes Those rules will continue to apply even if the outstanding balance is reduced to $10,000 or less. Unemployment and taxes Exceptions for loans without significant tax effect. Unemployment and taxes   The following loans are specifically exempted from the rules for below-market loans because their interest arrangements do not have a significant effect on the federal tax liability of the borrower or the lender. Unemployment and taxes Loans made available by lenders to the general public on the same terms and conditions that are consistent with the lender's customary business practices. Unemployment and taxes Loans subsidized by a federal, state, or municipal government that are made available under a program of general application to the public. Unemployment and taxes Certain employee-relocation loans. Unemployment and taxes Certain loans to or from a foreign person, unless the interest income would be effectively connected with the conduct of a U. Unemployment and taxes S. Unemployment and taxes trade or business and not exempt from U. Unemployment and taxes S. Unemployment and taxes tax under an income tax treaty. Unemployment and taxes Any other loan if the taxpayer can show that the interest arrangement has no significant effect on the federal tax liability of the lender or the borrower. Unemployment and taxes Whether an interest arrangement has a significant effect on the federal tax liability of the lender or the borrower will be determined by all the facts and circumstances. Unemployment and taxes Consider all the following factors. Unemployment and taxes Whether items of income and deduction generated by the loan offset each other. Unemployment and taxes The amount of the items. Unemployment and taxes The cost of complying with the below-market loan provisions if they were to apply. Unemployment and taxes Any reasons, other than taxes, for structuring the transaction as a below-market loan. Unemployment and taxes Exception for loans to qualified continuing care facilities. Unemployment and taxes   The below-market interest rules do not apply to a loan owed by a qualified continuing care facility under a continuing care contract if the lender or lender's spouse is age 62 or older by the end of the calendar year. Unemployment and taxes A qualified continuing care facility is one or more facilities (excluding nursing homes) meeting the requirements listed below. Unemployment and taxes Designed to provide services under continuing care contracts (defined below). Unemployment and taxes Includes an independent living unit, and either an assisted living or nursing facility, or both. Unemployment and taxes Substantially all of the independent living unit residents are covered by continuing care contracts. Unemployment and taxes A continuing care contract is a written contract between an individual and a qualified continuing care facility that includes all of the following conditions. Unemployment and taxes The individual or individual's spouse must be entitled to use the facility for the rest of their life or lives. Unemployment and taxes The individual or individual's spouse will be provided with housing, as appropriate for the health of the individual or individual's spouse in an: independent living unit (which has additional available facilities outside the unit for the provision of meals and other personal care), and assisted living or nursing facility available in the continuing care facility. Unemployment and taxes The individual or individual's spouse will be provided with assisted living or nursing care available in the continuing care facility, as required for the health of the individual or the individual's spouse. Unemployment and taxes For more information, see section 7872(h) of the Internal Revenue Code. Unemployment and taxes Sale or exchange of property. Unemployment and taxes   Different rules generally apply to a loan connected with the sale or exchange of property. Unemployment and taxes If the loan does not provide adequate stated interest, part of the principal payment may be considered interest. Unemployment and taxes However, there are exceptions that may require you to apply the below-market interest rate rules to these loans. Unemployment and taxes See Unstated Interest and Original Issue Discount (OID) in Publication 537. Unemployment and taxes More information. Unemployment and taxes   For more information on below-market loans, see section 7872 of the Internal Revenue Code and section 1. Unemployment and taxes 7872-5 of the regulations. Unemployment and taxes Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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The Unemployment And Taxes

Unemployment and taxes 18. Unemployment and taxes   Pensión para el Cónyuge Divorciado Table of Contents IntroductionCónyuge o ex cónyuge. Unemployment and taxes Documento (instrumento) de divorcio o separación judicial. Unemployment and taxes Useful Items - You may want to see: Reglas GeneralesPagos hipotecarios. Unemployment and taxes Impuestos y seguro. Unemployment and taxes Otros pagos a terceros. Unemployment and taxes Documentos Firmados Después de 1984Pagos a terceros. Unemployment and taxes Excepción. Unemployment and taxes Pagos sustitutivos. Unemployment and taxes Específicamente designado como pensión para hijos menores. Unemployment and taxes Contingencia relacionada con su hijo. Unemployment and taxes Pago claramente asociado con una contingencia. Unemployment and taxes Cómo Deducir la Pensión para el Cónyuge Divorciado que Pagó Cómo Declarar la Pensión para el Cónyuge Divorciado Recibida Regla de Recuperación Introduction Este capítulo trata de las reglas correspondientes si paga o recibe pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Abarca los siguientes temas: Qué pagos se consideran pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Qué pagos no se consideran pensión para el cónyuge divorciado, como la pensión para la manutención de hijos. Unemployment and taxes Cómo deducir la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado que pagó. Unemployment and taxes Cómo declarar la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado que recibió por concepto de ingresos. Unemployment and taxes Si debe o no recuperar los beneficios tributarios de la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes “Recuperar” significa volver a añadir a sus ingresos toda, o parte de, una deducción que haya tomado en un año anterior. Unemployment and taxes La “pensión para el cónyuge divorciado” es un pago hecho a, o para, un cónyuge o ex cónyuge conforme a un documento (instrumento) de divorcio o separación judicial. Unemployment and taxes No incluye pagos voluntarios que no sean hechos conforme a un documento de divorcio o separación. Unemployment and taxes La pensión para el cónyuge divorciado es deducible por el pagador y tiene que ser incluida en los ingresos del cónyuge o ex cónyuge. Unemployment and taxes Aunque en general este capítulo está dirigido al pagador de la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado, el cónyuge beneficiario puede usar la información para determinar si una cantidad recibida se considera pago de pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Para considerarse pensión para el cónyuge divorciado, un pago tiene que cumplir ciertos requisitos. Unemployment and taxes Requisitos distintos generalmente corresponden a pagos hechos conforme a documentos firmados después de 1984 y a pagos hechos conforme a documentos firmados antes de 1985. Unemployment and taxes Este capítulo trata de las reglas relativas a pagos hechos conforme a documentos firmados después de 1984. Unemployment and taxes Si usted necesita consultar las reglas para pagos hechos conforme a documentos firmados antes de 1985, obtenga y guarde una copia de la versión del año 2004 de la Publicación 504, Divorced or Separated Individuals (Personas divorciadas o separadas), en inglés. Unemployment and taxes Ése fue el último año en que la información sobre documentos firmados antes de 1985 se incluyó en la Publicación 504. Unemployment and taxes Use la Tabla 18-1 de este capítulo como guía para determinar si ciertos pagos se consideran pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Definiciones. Unemployment and taxes   Las siguientes son definiciones aplicables a lo largo de este capítulo. Unemployment and taxes Cónyuge o ex cónyuge. Unemployment and taxes   Salvo que se indique lo contrario, el término “cónyuge” incluye a un ex cónyuge. Unemployment and taxes Documento (instrumento) de divorcio o separación judicial. Unemployment and taxes   El término “documento de divorcio o separación judicial” significa: Un decreto u orden de divorcio o de manutención por separación judicial o un documento (instrumento) por escrito relacionado con ese decreto u orden; Un acuerdo de separación por escrito o Un decreto o cualquier tipo de orden judicial, que le exige a un cónyuge que haga pagos para la manutención del otro cónyuge. Unemployment and taxes Esto abarca un decreto temporal, un decreto interlocutorio (no final) y un decreto de pensión para el cónyuge divorciado pendente lite (en espera de que se tomen acciones con respecto al decreto o acuerdo final). Unemployment and taxes Useful Items - You may want to see: Publicación 504 Divorced or Separated Individuals (Personas divorciadas o separadas), en inglés. Unemployment and taxes Reglas Generales Las siguientes reglas corresponden a la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado independientemente de cuándo se firmó el documento de divorcio o separación judicial. Unemployment and taxes Pagos que no son pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes   No todos los pagos hechos conforme a un documento de divorcio o separación judicial son pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes La pensión para el cónyuge divorciado no abarca: Pensión para hijos menores; Acuerdos de división (distribución) de bienes que no sean en efectivo; Pagos que le corresponden a su cónyuge como parte de los ingresos de la comunidad de bienes conyugales, según se explica bajo Community Property (Bienes gananciales), en la Publicación 504, en inglés; Pagos hechos para el mantenimiento de los bienes del pagador o Uso de los bienes del pagador. Unemployment and taxes Pagos a terceros. Unemployment and taxes   Los pagos en efectivo, cheques o giros hechos a un tercero en nombre de su cónyuge según las condiciones del documento de divorcio o separación judicial pueden ser pagos de pensión para el cónyuge divorciado, si por lo demás reúnen los requisitos. Unemployment and taxes Estos abarcan pagos hechos para cubrir los gastos médicos de su cónyuge, costos de vivienda (alquiler, servicios públicos, etc. Unemployment and taxes ), impuestos, matrícula escolar, etcétera. Unemployment and taxes A estos pagos se les trata como si hubiesen sido recibidos por su cónyuge y luego pagados al tercero. Unemployment and taxes Primas de un seguro de vida. Unemployment and taxes   La pensión para el cónyuge divorciado incluye las primas que tiene que pagar conforme a su documento de divorcio o separación judicial por su seguro de vida hasta la medida o el punto en que su cónyuge sea el dueño de la póliza. Unemployment and taxes Pagos por una vivienda comprada conjuntamente. Unemployment and taxes   Si su documento de divorcio o separación judicial estipula que tiene que pagar los gastos de una vivienda que es propiedad de usted y su cónyuge, algunos de sus pagos pueden ser considerados pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Pagos hipotecarios. Unemployment and taxes   Si tiene que pagar todos los pagos hipotecarios (capital e intereses) sobre una vivienda de propiedad conjunta y por lo demás estos pagos reúnen los requisitos para considerarse pensión para el cónyuge divorciado, puede deducir la mitad del total de los pagos como pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Si detalla sus deducciones y la vivienda reúne los requisitos, puede declarar la mitad de los intereses al calcular sus intereses deducibles. Unemployment and taxes Su cónyuge tiene que declarar la mitad de los pagos como pensión para el cónyuge divorciado recibida. Unemployment and taxes Si su cónyuge detalla sus deducciones y la vivienda reúne los requisitos, él o ella puede declarar la mitad de los intereses sobre la hipoteca al calcular sus intereses deducibles. Unemployment and taxes Impuestos y seguro. Unemployment and taxes   Si tiene que pagar todos los impuestos sobre bienes raíces o seguro de una vivienda que es tenencia común (tenancy in common), puede deducir la mitad de dichos pagos como pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Su cónyuge tiene que declarar la mitad de estos pagos como pensión para el cónyuge divorciado recibida. Unemployment and taxes Si usted y su cónyuge detallan sus deducciones, cada uno puede reclamar la mitad de los impuestos sobre bienes raíces y ninguna parte del seguro de la vivienda. Unemployment and taxes    Si es dueño de una vivienda de tenencia en su totalidad (tenancy by the entirety) o tenencia conjunta (joint tenancy), ninguno de sus pagos de impuestos o pagos de seguro se considera pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Sin embargo, si detalla sus deducciones, puede reclamar todos los impuestos sobre bienes raíces y ninguna parte del seguro de vivienda. Unemployment and taxes Otros pagos a terceros. Unemployment and taxes   Si hizo otros pagos a terceros, vea la Publicación 504, en inglés, para ver si alguna parte de los pagos reúne los requisitos como pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Documentos Firmados Después de 1984 Las reglas siguientes de la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado corresponden a pagos hechos conforme a un documento de divorcio o separación judicial firmado después de 1984. Unemployment and taxes Excepción para documentos firmados antes de 1985. Unemployment and taxes   Existen dos situaciones en las que las reglas para documentos firmados después de 1984 corresponden a documentos firmados antes de 1985: Un documento de divorcio o separación judicial firmado antes de 1985 y modificado después de 1984 para especificar que las reglas para documentos firmados después de 1984 se aplicarán. Unemployment and taxes Un documento temporal de divorcio o separación judicial firmado antes de 1985 e incorporado dentro de, o adoptado por, un decreto final firmado después de 1984 que: Cambie la cantidad o el período del pago o Añada o suprima cualquier contingencia o condición. Unemployment and taxes   Para las reglas de los pagos de la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado hechos conforme a documentos anteriores a 1985 que no cumplan estas excepciones, consulte la versión de la Publicación 504 publicada en 2004, en inglés, en www. Unemployment and taxes irs. Unemployment and taxes gov/pub504. Unemployment and taxes Ejemplo 1. Unemployment and taxes En noviembre de 1984, usted y su ex cónyuge firmaron un acuerdo de separación judicial. Unemployment and taxes En febrero de 1985, el acuerdo de separación judicial por escrito fue sustituido por un documento de divorcio. Unemployment and taxes El documento de divorcio no cambió las condiciones relativas a la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado que le paga a su ex cónyuge. Unemployment and taxes El documento de divorcio se trata como si hubiese sido firmado antes de 1985. Unemployment and taxes Los pagos de pensión para el cónyuge divorciado hechos conforme a este documento no están sujetos a las reglas de pagos hechos conforme a documentos firmados después de 1984. Unemployment and taxes Ejemplo 2. Unemployment and taxes Suponga que los hechos son iguales a los del Ejemplo 1, salvo que el documento de divorcio cambió la cantidad de la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes En este ejemplo, el documento de divorcio no se trata como si hubiese sido firmado antes de 1985. Unemployment and taxes Los pagos de pensión para el cónyuge divorciado están sujetos a las reglas de pagos hechos conforme a documentos firmados después de 1984. Unemployment and taxes Requisitos de la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes   Un pago realizado a, o para, un cónyuge conforme a un documento de divorcio o separación se considera pensión para el cónyuge divorciado si los cónyuges no presentan una declaración conjunta juntos y si todos los siguientes requisitos se cumplen: El pago es en efectivo. Unemployment and taxes El documento no indica que el pago no es pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Cónyuges que han sido separados legalmente conforme a un decreto de divorcio o un decreto de manutención por separación judicial no se consideran miembros de la misma vivienda. Unemployment and taxes No hay obligación de hacer pago alguno (en efectivo o en bienes) después de la muerte del cónyuge beneficiario. Unemployment and taxes El pago no se considera pensión para hijos menores. Unemployment and taxes Cada uno de estos requisitos se trata a continuación. Unemployment and taxes Requisito de pagos en efectivo. Unemployment and taxes   Sólo los pagos en efectivo, incluidos cheques y giros, se consideran pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Los siguientes ejemplos no se consideran pensión para el cónyuge divorciado: Transferencias de servicios o bienes (incluyendo una escritura de deuda de un tercero o un contrato de anualidad). Unemployment and taxes La firma de una escritura de deuda por parte del pagador. Unemployment and taxes Uso de los bienes del pagador. Unemployment and taxes Pagos a terceros. Unemployment and taxes   Los pagos en efectivo a terceros conforme a las condiciones de su documento de divorcio o separación judicial pueden considerarse pagos en efectivo hechos a su cónyuge. Unemployment and taxes Vea Pagos a terceros bajo Reglas Generales, anteriormente. Unemployment and taxes   Además, los pagos en efectivo a terceros por medio de una solicitud escrita de parte de su cónyuge pudieran ser considerados pensión para el cónyuge divorciado si se cumplen los requisitos siguientes: Los pagos se hacen en lugar de pagos de la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado hechos directamente a su cónyuge. Unemployment and taxes La solicitud por escrito declara que ambos cónyuges quieren que los pagos se consideren pagos de pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Usted recibe la solicitud por escrito de su cónyuge antes de presentar su declaración para el año en que hizo los pagos. Unemployment and taxes Pagos no designados como pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes   Usted y su cónyuge pueden designar que los pagos que de otra manera se considerarían pensión para el cónyuge divorciado, en este caso, no se consideren como tal. Unemployment and taxes Esto se hace incluyendo una disposición en su documento de divorcio o separación judicial que declare que sus pagos de pensión para el cónyuge divorciado no son deducibles y pueden ser excluidos de los ingresos de su cónyuge. Unemployment and taxes Con este fin, todo instrumento (documento por escrito) firmado tanto por usted como por su cónyuge que haga esta designación y que se refiera a un acuerdo de separación judicial por escrito anterior se considera acuerdo de separación por escrito (y por lo tanto, un documento de divorcio o separación judicial). Unemployment and taxes Si está sujeto a una orden temporal de manutención, la designación debe ser hecha en la orden original o en una orden temporal de manutención posterior. Unemployment and taxes   Su cónyuge puede excluir los pagos de los ingresos sólo si él o ella adjunta a la declaración de impuestos una copia del documento que los designa pagos que no son pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes La copia debe ser adjuntada cada año en el que la designación corresponda. Unemployment and taxes Los cónyuges no pueden vivir en la misma vivienda. Unemployment and taxes    Los pagos a su cónyuge mientras ustedes vivan en la misma vivienda no son pensión para el cónyuge divorciado si están legalmente separados conforme a un documento de divorcio o de manutención por separación judicial. Unemployment and taxes Una residencia que ambos compartieran antiguamente se considera una vivienda, aun si ustedes se separan físicamente en la residencia. Unemployment and taxes   No se consideran miembros de la misma vivienda si uno de ustedes se va a ir de la vivienda y se va a más tardar un mes después de la fecha del pago. Unemployment and taxes Excepción. Unemployment and taxes   Si no está legalmente separado conforme a un documento de divorcio o de manutención por separación judicial, un pago hecho conforme a un acuerdo de separación por escrito, documento de manutención u otra orden judicial puede considerarse pensión para el cónyuge divorciado aun si ustedes son miembros de la misma vivienda cuando se hace el pago. Unemployment and taxes Tabla 18-1. Unemployment and taxes Requisitos de la Pensión para el Cónyuge Divorciado (Documentos Firmados Después de 1984) Los pagos SON pensión para el cónyuge divorciado si todas las condiciones siguientes le corresponden: Los pagos NO son pensión para el cónyuge divorciado si cualquiera de las condiciones siguientes le corresponden: Los pagos son requeridos por un documento de divorcio o de separación judicial. Unemployment and taxes Los pagos no son requeridos por un documento de divorcio o de separación judicial. Unemployment and taxes El cónyuge que paga y el cónyuge beneficiario del pago no presentan una declaración conjunta juntos. Unemployment and taxes El cónyuge que paga y el cónyuge beneficiario del pago presentan una declaración conjunta juntos. Unemployment and taxes Los pagos son en efectivo (incluyendo cheques o giros). Unemployment and taxes El pago: No es en efectivo, Es un acuerdo de división (distribución) de bienes que no son en efectivo, Le corresponde a su cónyuge como su parte de los ingresos de la comunidad de bienes conyugales o Es para el mantenimiento de los bienes del cónyuge que paga. Unemployment and taxes El documento no indica que el pago no es pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes El documento indica que el pago no es pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Los cónyuges que están legalmente separados conforme a un decreto de divorcio o de manutención por separación judicial no son miembros de la misma vivienda. Unemployment and taxes Los cónyuges que están legalmente separados conforme a un decreto de divorcio o de manutención por separación judicial viven en la misma vivienda. Unemployment and taxes Los pagos no son requeridos después de la muerte del cónyuge beneficiario. Unemployment and taxes Los pagos son requeridos después de la muerte del cónyuge beneficiario. Unemployment and taxes El pago no se considera pensión para hijos menores. Unemployment and taxes El pago se considera pensión para hijos menores. Unemployment and taxes Estos pagos pueden ser deducidos por el cónyuge que paga y deben ser incluidos en los ingresos del cónyuge beneficiario. Unemployment and taxes Estos pagos no pueden ser deducidos por el cónyuge que paga ni pueden ser incluidos en los ingresos del cónyuge beneficiario. Unemployment and taxes Obligación de pagos después de la muerte del cónyuge beneficiario. Unemployment and taxes   Si tiene que continuar haciendo pagos por algún período después de la muerte de su cónyuge, la parte del pago que continuaría no se considera pensión para el cónyuge divorciado, independientemente de si se haya hecho antes o después de la muerte. Unemployment and taxes Si la totalidad del pago continúa, ninguno de los pagos hechos antes o después de la muerte se considera pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes   En el documento de divorcio o de separación judicial no tiene que constar expresamente que los pagos cesan al morir su cónyuge si, por ejemplo, la obligación de continuar con los pagos terminara conforme a la ley estatal. Unemployment and taxes Ejemplo. Unemployment and taxes Usted tiene que pagar a su ex cónyuge $10,000 en efectivo anualmente por 10 años. Unemployment and taxes En su decreto de divorcio consta que los pagos cesarán al morir su ex cónyuge. Unemployment and taxes También tiene que pagarle $20,000 en efectivo a su ex cónyuge, o al caudal hereditario (patrimonio) de su ex cónyuge, anualmente por 10 años. Unemployment and taxes La muerte de su cónyuge no causaría el cese de estos pagos conforme a la ley estatal. Unemployment and taxes Los pagos anuales de $10,000 podrían considerarse pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Los pagos anuales de $20,000 que no cesan al morir su ex cónyuge no son pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Pagos sustitutivos. Unemployment and taxes   Si tiene que hacer algún pago en efectivo o en bienes después de la muerte de su cónyuge para sustituir los pagos continuos que de otra manera corresponderían antes de la muerte, los pagos que de otra manera corresponderían no son considerados pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Hasta el punto en que sus pagos comiencen, se aceleren o aumenten debido a la muerte de su cónyuge, los pagos que de otra manera corresponderían que usted hizo podrían considerarse pagos que no son pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Si los pagos son o no considerados pensión para el cónyuge divorciado depende de todos los hechos y circunstancias. Unemployment and taxes Ejemplo 1. Unemployment and taxes Conforme a su decreto de divorcio, tiene que pagarle a su ex cónyuge $30,000 anualmente. Unemployment and taxes Los pagos cesarán al final de 6 años o al morir su cónyuge, lo que suceda antes. Unemployment and taxes Su ex cónyuge tiene la custodia de sus hijos menores de edad. Unemployment and taxes El decreto estipula que si algún hijo aún es menor de edad al morir su cónyuge, tiene que pagar $10,000 anualmente a un fideicomiso hasta que su hijo más joven alcance la mayoría de edad. Unemployment and taxes Los ingresos de fideicomiso y los bienes entregados en fideicomiso (capital) sólo pueden ser usados para el beneficio de sus hijos. Unemployment and taxes Estos hechos indican que los pagos que han de hacerse después de la muerte de su ex cónyuge sustituyen $10,000 de los pagos anuales de $30,000. Unemployment and taxes De cada uno de los pagos anuales de $30,000, $10,000 no se consideran pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Ejemplo 2. Unemployment and taxes Conforme a su decreto de divorcio, usted tiene que pagarle a su ex cónyuge $30,000 anualmente. Unemployment and taxes Los pagos cesarán al final de 15 años o al morir su ex cónyuge, lo que suceda antes. Unemployment and taxes El decreto estipula que si su ex cónyuge fallece antes del final del período de 15 años, usted le tiene que pagar a su caudal hereditario (patrimonio) la diferencia entre $450,000 ($30,000 x 15) y el total de la cantidad pagada hasta ese momento. Unemployment and taxes Por ejemplo, si su cónyuge fallece al final del décimo año, tiene que pagarle al caudal hereditario (patrimonio) $150,000 ($450,000 − $300,000). Unemployment and taxes Estos hechos indican que el pago de suma global que ha de hacerse después de la muerte de su ex cónyuge sustituye la cantidad completa de los pagos anuales de $30,000. Unemployment and taxes Ninguno de los pagos anuales se considera pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes El resultado sería el mismo si el pago que se requiere cuando ocurre la muerte se descontara por un factor de intereses correspondientes para justificar el pago por adelantado. Unemployment and taxes Pensión para hijos menores. Unemployment and taxes   Un pago específicamente designado como pensión para hijos menores o tratado específicamente como pensión para hijos menores conforme a su documento de divorcio o separación judicial no se considera pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes La cantidad o parte designada podría variar con el tiempo. Unemployment and taxes Los pagos de la pensión para hijos menores no son deducibles por parte del pagador ni están sujetos a impuestos por parte del beneficiario. Unemployment and taxes Específicamente designado como pensión para hijos menores. Unemployment and taxes   Un pago se considera específicamente designado como pensión para hijos menores hasta el punto en que el pago sea reducido por una de las siguientes situaciones: En el caso de una contingencia relacionada con su hijo o En un momento que pueda ser claramente asociado con la contingencia. Unemployment and taxes Un pago puede considerarse específicamente designado pensión para hijos menores aun si otros pagos por separado son específicamente designados como pensión para hijos menores. Unemployment and taxes Contingencia relacionada con su hijo. Unemployment and taxes   Una contingencia está relacionada con su hijo si depende de algún suceso relacionado con ese hijo. Unemployment and taxes No importa si es seguro o probable que el suceso vaya a ocurrir. Unemployment and taxes Los sucesos relacionados con su hijo incluyen que éste: Obtenga un empleo, Muera, Deje la unidad familiar, Deje la escuela, Se case o Alcance una edad o un nivel de ingresos específico. Unemployment and taxes Pago claramente asociado con una contingencia. Unemployment and taxes   Se considera que los pagos se reducirán en un momento que esté claramente asociado con el suceso de una contingencia relacionada con su hijo sólo en las siguientes situaciones: Los pagos han de ser reducidos dentro de un período de no más de 6 meses antes o después de la fecha en que su hijo alcance los 18 o 21 años de edad o la mayoría de edad en su localidad. Unemployment and taxes Los pagos han de ser reducidos en dos o más ocasiones que ocurran a más tardar un año antes o después de que otro hijo suyo alcance cierta edad entre los 18 y 24 años. Unemployment and taxes Esta edad tiene que ser la misma para cada hijo pero no tiene que ser en años completos. Unemployment and taxes En todas las demás situaciones, las reducciones en pagos no se consideran claramente asociadas con el suceso de una contingencia relacionada con su hijo. Unemployment and taxes   Usted o el IRS puede evitar la presunción hecha en las dos situaciones anteriores. Unemployment and taxes Esto se hace mostrando que el momento en el que los pagos han de ser reducidos fue determinado independientemente de toda contingencia relacionada con sus hijos. Unemployment and taxes Por ejemplo, si puede mostrar que el período de pagos de la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado es el que se acostumbra en su jurisdicción local, tal como un período equivalente a la mitad de los años que duró el matrimonio, puede evitar la presunción y tal vez pueda tratar la cantidad que pagó como pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Cómo Deducir la Pensión para el Cónyuge Divorciado que Pagó Puede deducir la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado que pagó, independientemente de si detalla sus deducciones en su declaración o no. Unemployment and taxes Tiene que presentar el Formulario 1040. Unemployment and taxes No puede usar el Formulario 1040A ni el Formulario 1040EZ. Unemployment and taxes Anote la cantidad de la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado que pagó en la línea 31a del Formulario 1040. Unemployment and taxes En el espacio provisto en la línea 31b, anote el número de Seguro Social (SSN, por sus siglas en inglés o su número de identificación de contribuyente individual para extranjeros (ITIN, por sus siglas en inglés)) de su cónyuge. Unemployment and taxes Si le pagó pensión para el cónyuge divorciado a más de una persona, anote el número de Seguro Social o número de identificación de contribuyente individual para extranjeros de uno de los beneficiarios de pago. Unemployment and taxes Muestre el número de Seguro Social o número de identificación de contribuyente individual para extranjeros y la cantidad pagada a cada otro beneficiario de pago en una hoja adjunta. Unemployment and taxes Anote el total de sus pagos en la línea 31a. Unemployment and taxes Tiene que proveer el SSN o ITIN de su cónyuge. Unemployment and taxes Si no lo hace, quizás podría que pagar una multa de $50 y su deducción podría ser denegada. Unemployment and taxes Para más información sobre los SSN o ITIN, consulte Número de Seguro Social , en el capítulo 1. Unemployment and taxes Cómo Declarar la Pensión para el Cónyuge Divorciado Recibida Declare la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado que usted recibió en la línea 11 del Formulario 1040. Unemployment and taxes No puede usar el Formulario 1040A ni el Formulario 1040EZ. Unemployment and taxes Tiene que darle su número de Seguro Social o número de identificación de contribuyente individual para extranjeros a la persona que pagó la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado. Unemployment and taxes Si no lo hace, podría tener que pagar una multa de $50. Unemployment and taxes Regla de Recuperación Si sus pagos de la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado disminuyen o cesan durante los primeros 3 años naturales, podría estar sujeto a la regla de recuperación. Unemployment and taxes Si está sujeto a esta regla, tiene que incluir en sus ingresos del tercer año parte de los pagos de la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado que había deducido anteriormente. Unemployment and taxes Su cónyuge puede deducir en el tercer año parte de los pagos de la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado que él o ella anteriormente había incluido en los ingresos. Unemployment and taxes El período de los 3 años comienza con el primer año natural en el cual usted haga un pago que se considere pensión para el cónyuge divorciado conforme a un documento de divorcio o de separación judicial o conforme a un acuerdo de separación por escrito. Unemployment and taxes No incluya ningún período en que los pagos se hayan hecho conforme a una orden de manutención temporal. Unemployment and taxes El segundo y tercer año son los 2 años naturales siguientes, independientemente de si se hacen o no pagos durante esos años. Unemployment and taxes Las causas de una reducción o cese de pagos de la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado que puedan requerir una recuperación incluyen: Un cambio en su documento de divorcio o separación, No hacer pagos oportunamente, Reducción en su capacidad de proveer manutención o Reducción en las necesidades de su cónyuge. Unemployment and taxes Cuándo aplicar la regla de recuperación. Unemployment and taxes   Usted está sujeto a la regla de recuperación el tercer año si la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado que paga el tercer año disminuye por más de $15,000 en comparación con la cantidad que pagó en el segundo año o la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado que paga en el segundo y tercer año disminuye considerablemente de la cantidad de la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado que pagó en el primer año. Unemployment and taxes   Cuando calcule una disminución en la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado, no incluya las cantidades de los pagos siguientes: Pagos hechos conforme a una orden de manutención temporal. Unemployment and taxes Pagos requeridos durante un período de por lo menos 3 años naturales que varían porque son una parte fija de sus ingresos provenientes de un negocio o bienes, o de la remuneración de empleo o empleo por cuenta propia. Unemployment and taxes Pagos que disminuyen debido a la muerte de cualquiera de los cónyuges o porque el cónyuge beneficiario de pago se vuelve a casar antes de finalizar el tercer año. Unemployment and taxes Cómo calcular la recuperación. Unemployment and taxes   Use la Worksheet 1 (Hoja de Trabajo 1) de la Publicación 504, en inglés, para calcular la pensión para el cónyuge divorciado recuperada. Unemployment and taxes Cómo incluir la recuperación en los ingresos. Unemployment and taxes   Si tiene que incluir una cantidad recuperada en sus ingresos, anótela en la línea 11 (Formulario 1040), “Alimony received” (Pensión para el cónyuge divorciado recibida). Unemployment and taxes Tache la palabra “received” (recibida) y anote, en inglés, la palabra “recapture” (recuperación). Unemployment and taxes En la línea de puntos junto a la cantidad, escriba el apellido y número de Seguro Social o número de identificación de contribuyente individual para extranjeros de su cónyuge. Unemployment and taxes Cómo deducir la recuperación. Unemployment and taxes   Si puede deducir una cantidad recuperada, anótela en la línea 31a (Formulario 1040), “Alimony paid” (Pensión para el cónyuge divorciado pagada). Unemployment and taxes Tache la palabra “paid” (pagada) y anote, en inglés, la palabra “recapture” (recuperación). Unemployment and taxes En el espacio provisto, anote el número de Seguro Social o número de identificación de contribuyente individual para extranjeros de su cónyuge. Unemployment and taxes Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications