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Irs Gov Free File

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Irs Gov Free File

Irs gov free file Index A Absence, temporary, Temporary absence from work. Irs gov free file , Temporary absence from work. Irs gov free file Accountable plans, Accountable Plans Address, change of, Reminders Adequate accounting, Adequate accounting. Irs gov free file Armed Forces, Retirees, survivors, and Armed Forces members. Irs gov free file , Members of the Armed Forces Distance test, special rule, Armed Forces. Irs gov free file Form 3903, how to complete, How to complete Form 3903 for members of the Armed Forces. Irs gov free file Services or reimbursements provided by government, Services or reimbursements provided by government. Irs gov free file Spouse and dependents, Spouse and dependents. Irs gov free file Assistance (see Tax help) C Change of address, Reminders Closely related in place, Closely related in place. Irs gov free file Closely related in time, Closely related in time. Irs gov free file D Deductible moving expenses, Deductible Moving Expenses, Moving expenses allocable to excluded foreign income. Irs gov free file Household goods, Household goods and personal effects. Irs gov free file Moving to and from storage, Moving goods and effects to and from storage. Irs gov free file Member of your household, Member of your household. Irs gov free file Moves in U. Irs gov free file S. Irs gov free file , Moves to Locations in the United States Moves outside U. Irs gov free file S. Irs gov free file , Moves to Locations Outside the United States Moving expenses allocable to excluded foreign income, Moving expenses allocable to excluded foreign income. Irs gov free file Personal effects, Household goods and personal effects. Irs gov free file Moving to and from storage, Moving goods and effects to and from storage. Irs gov free file Reasonable expenses, Reasonable expenses. Irs gov free file Storage expenses, Storage expenses. Irs gov free file , Storage expenses. Irs gov free file Travel by car, Travel by car. Irs gov free file Travel expenses, Travel expenses. Irs gov free file Distance test, Distance Test Armed Forces, special rule, Armed Forces. Irs gov free file First job, First job or return to full-time work. Irs gov free file Illustration of (Figure A), Main job location, Main job location. Irs gov free file Return to full-time work, First job or return to full-time work. Irs gov free file Worksheet 1, Distance Test E Employees Time test for, Time Test for Employees Estimated tax, Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax, Estimated tax. Irs gov free file Excess reimbursements, Excess reimbursement. Irs gov free file Excluded foreign income Moving expenses allocable to, Moving expenses allocable to excluded foreign income. Irs gov free file F Figures (see Tables and figures) First job, First job or return to full-time work. Irs gov free file Form 1040 Moving expense deduction, Where to deduct. Irs gov free file Form 3903 Armed Forces members, how to complete, How to complete Form 3903 for members of the Armed Forces. Irs gov free file Completing form, Completing Form 3903. Irs gov free file Moving expense deduction calculation, Form 3903 Form W-2 Reimbursements, You meet accountable plan rules. Irs gov free file , Expenses deducted in earlier year. Irs gov free file Government provided for Armed Forces members, Services or reimbursements provided by government. Irs gov free file Form W-4 Withholding allowance, Amount of income tax withheld. Irs gov free file Free tax services, Free help with your tax return. Irs gov free file Full-time work, defined, Full-time work. Irs gov free file H Help (see Tax help) Home, defined, Home defined. Irs gov free file Household goods, Household goods and personal effects. Irs gov free file Moving to and from storage, Moving goods and effects to and from storage. Irs gov free file I Important reminders, Reminders J Joint returns, Joint Return M Main job location Defined, Main job location. Irs gov free file More than one job, More than one job. Irs gov free file Union members, Union members. Irs gov free file Member of household, Member of your household. Irs gov free file Members of Armed Forces (see Armed Forces) Mileage rate, What's New Missing children, photographs of, Reminders Moves In U. Irs gov free file S. Irs gov free file , Moves to Locations in the United States Outside U. Irs gov free file S. Irs gov free file , Moves to Locations Outside the United States To and from storage, Moving goods and effects to and from storage. Irs gov free file Moving expenses, Who Can Deduct Moving Expenses, Deductible Moving Expenses (see also Deductible moving expenses) (see also Who can deduct) N Nonaccountable plans, Nonaccountable Plans Nondeductible expenses, Nondeductible Expenses Reimbursements of, Reimbursement of nondeductible expenses. Irs gov free file , Reimbursement for deductible and nondeductible expenses. Irs gov free file P Permanently retired, defined, Retirees who were working abroad. Irs gov free file Personal effects, Household goods and personal effects. Irs gov free file Moving to and from storage, Moving goods and effects to and from storage. Irs gov free file Publications (see Tax help) R Reasonable expenses, Reasonable expenses. Irs gov free file Reasonable period of time, Reasonable period of time. Irs gov free file Reimbursements, Reimbursements, Estimated tax. Irs gov free file Accountable plans, Accountable Plans Adequate accounting, Adequate accounting. Irs gov free file Armed Forces members, Services or reimbursements provided by government. Irs gov free file Estimated tax, Estimated tax. Irs gov free file Excess, Excess reimbursement. Irs gov free file Excluded from income, Reimbursements excluded from income. Irs gov free file Included in income, Reimbursements included in income. Irs gov free file Nonaccountable plans, Nonaccountable Plans Nondeductible expenses, Reimbursement of nondeductible expenses. Irs gov free file , Reimbursement for deductible and nondeductible expenses. Irs gov free file Reasonable period of time, Reasonable period of time. Irs gov free file Reporting moving expenses and reimbursements (Table 2), How and When To Report Types of plans, Types of Reimbursement Plans Reporting expenses, How and When To Report Expenses equal to or less than reimbursement, Expenses equal to or less than reimbursement. Irs gov free file Expenses greater than reimbursement, Expenses greater than reimbursement. Irs gov free file Form 3903, deduction calculation, Form 3903 Moving expenses and reimbursements (Table 2), How and When To Report Retirees who move to U. Irs gov free file S. Irs gov free file , Retirees, survivors, and Armed Forces members. Irs gov free file , Retirees or survivors. Irs gov free file Permanently retired, defined, Retirees who were working abroad. Irs gov free file Return to full-time work, First job or return to full-time work. Irs gov free file S Seasonal trade or business, Seasonal trade or business. Irs gov free file Seasonal work, Seasonal work. Irs gov free file Self-employed persons Time test, Time Test for Self-Employed Persons, Self-employment. Irs gov free file Table 1, Time Test for Employees Spouse of Armed Forces member, Spouse and dependents. Irs gov free file Standard mileage rate, What's New Storage expenses, Storage expenses. Irs gov free file , Storage expenses. Irs gov free file Survivors who move to U. Irs gov free file S. Irs gov free file , Retirees, survivors, and Armed Forces members. Irs gov free file , Retirees or survivors. Irs gov free file , Retirees or Survivors Who Move to the United States, Survivors of decedents who were working abroad. Irs gov free file When move begins, When a move begins. Irs gov free file T Tables and figures Distance test, Distance Test Nonmilitary move within U. Irs gov free file S. Irs gov free file , can you deduct expenses (Figure B), Seasonal work. Irs gov free file Reporting moving expenses and reimbursements (Table 2), How and When To Report Time test, satisfying for employees and self-employed persons (Table 1), Time Test for Employees Tax help, How To Get Tax Help Temporary absence, Temporary absence from work. Irs gov free file , Temporary absence from work. Irs gov free file Time test, Time Test Employees, Time Test for Employees Exceptions to, Exceptions to the Time Test Full-time work, Full-time work. Irs gov free file Joint return, Joint Return Not yet met, Time Test Not Yet Met Satisfying for employees and self-employed persons (Table 1), Time Test for Employees Seasonal trade or business, Seasonal trade or business. Irs gov free file Seasonal work, Seasonal work. Irs gov free file Self-employed persons, Time Test for Self-Employed Persons, Self-employment. Irs gov free file Temporary absence from work, Temporary absence from work. Irs gov free file , Temporary absence from work. Irs gov free file Travel by car, Travel by car. Irs gov free file Travel expenses, Travel expenses. Irs gov free file TTY/TDD information, How To Get Tax Help U Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970, Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 Unions Main job location of member, Union members. Irs gov free file W When to deduct expenses, When To Deduct Expenses, Illustrated Example Choosing when to deduct, Choosing when to deduct. Irs gov free file Expenses not reimbursed, Expenses not reimbursed. Irs gov free file Expenses reimbursed, Expenses reimbursed. Irs gov free file How to make choice, How to make the choice. Irs gov free file Who can deduct, Who Can Deduct Moving Expenses, When a move begins. Irs gov free file Armed Forces, members of, Retirees, survivors, and Armed Forces members. Irs gov free file Distance test, Distance Test Nonmilitary move within U. Irs gov free file S. Irs gov free file (Figure B), Seasonal work. Irs gov free file Related to start of work, Move Related to Start of Work Retirees who move to U. Irs gov free file S. Irs gov free file , Retirees, survivors, and Armed Forces members. Irs gov free file , Retirees or survivors. Irs gov free file , Retirees or Survivors Who Move to the United States Survivors who move to U. Irs gov free file S. Irs gov free file , Retirees, survivors, and Armed Forces members. Irs gov free file , Retirees or survivors. Irs gov free file , Retirees or Survivors Who Move to the United States, Survivors of decedents who were working abroad. Irs gov free file Time test, Time Test Withholding, Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax Worksheet Distance test (Worksheet 1), Distance Test Prev  Up     Home   More Online Publications
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The Irs Gov Free File

Irs gov free file Publication 561 - Main Contents Table of Contents What Is Fair Market Value (FMV)?Factors. Irs gov free file Stock. Irs gov free file Options. Irs gov free file Determining Fair Market Value Problems in Determining Fair Market Value Valuation of Various Kinds of PropertyHousehold Goods Used Clothing Jewelry and Gems Paintings, Antiques, and Other Objects of Art Collections Cars, Boats, and Aircraft Inventory Patents Stocks and Bonds Real Estate Interest in a Business Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, Remainders, and Reversions Certain Life Insurance and Annuity Contracts Partial Interest in Property Not in Trust AppraisalsDeductions of More Than $5,000 Deductions of More Than $500,000 Qualified Appraisal Form 8283 Internal Revenue Service Review of Appraisals Penalty How To Get Tax HelpLow income tax clinics (LITCs). Irs gov free file What Is Fair Market Value (FMV)? To figure how much you may deduct for property that you contribute, you must first determine its fair market value on the date of the contribution. Irs gov free file Fair market value. Irs gov free file   Fair market value (FMV) is the price that property would sell for on the open market. Irs gov free file It is the price that would be agreed on between a willing buyer and a willing seller, with neither being required to act, and both having reasonable knowledge of the relevant facts. Irs gov free file If you put a restriction on the use of property you donate, the FMV must reflect that restriction. Irs gov free file Example 1. Irs gov free file If you give used clothing to the Salvation Army, the FMV would be the price that typical buyers actually pay for clothing of this age, condition, style, and use. Irs gov free file Usually, such items are worth far less than what you paid for them. Irs gov free file Example 2. Irs gov free file If you donate land and restrict its use to agricultural purposes, you must value the land at its value for agricultural purposes, even though it would have a higher FMV if it were not restricted. Irs gov free file Factors. Irs gov free file   In making and supporting the valuation of property, all factors affecting value are relevant and must be considered. Irs gov free file These include: The cost or selling price of the item, Sales of comparable properties, Replacement cost, and Opinions of experts. Irs gov free file   These factors are discussed later. Irs gov free file Also, see Table 1 for a summary of questions to ask as you consider each factor. Irs gov free file Date of contribution. Irs gov free file   Ordinarily, the date of a contribution is the date that the transfer of the property takes place. Irs gov free file Stock. Irs gov free file   If you deliver, without any conditions, a properly endorsed stock certificate to a qualified organization or to an agent of the organization, the date of the contribution is the date of delivery. Irs gov free file If the certificate is mailed and received through the regular mail, it is the date of mailing. Irs gov free file If you deliver the certificate to a bank or broker acting as your agent or to the issuing corporation or its agent, for transfer into the name of the organization, the date of the contribution is the date the stock is transferred on the books of the corporation. Irs gov free file Options. Irs gov free file   If you grant an option to a qualified organization to buy real property, you have not made a charitable contribution until the organization exercises the option. Irs gov free file The amount of the contribution is the FMV of the property on the date the option is exercised minus the exercise price. Irs gov free file Example. Irs gov free file You grant an option to a local university, which is a qualified organization, to buy real property. Irs gov free file Under the option, the university could buy the property at any time during a 2-year period for $40,000. Irs gov free file The FMV of the property on the date the option is granted is $50,000. Irs gov free file In the following tax year, the university exercises the option. Irs gov free file The FMV of the property on the date the option is exercised is $55,000. Irs gov free file Therefore, you have made a charitable contribution of $15,000 ($55,000, the FMV, minus $40,000, the exercise price) in the tax year the option is exercised. Irs gov free file Determining Fair Market Value Determining the value of donated property would be a simple matter if you could rely only on fixed formulas, rules, or methods. Irs gov free file Usually it is not that simple. Irs gov free file Using such formulas, etc. Irs gov free file , seldom results in an acceptable determination of FMV. Irs gov free file There is no single formula that always applies when determining the value of property. Irs gov free file This is not to say that a valuation is only guesswork. Irs gov free file You must consider all the facts and circumstances connected with the property, such as its desirability, use, and scarcity. Irs gov free file For example, donated furniture should not be evaluated at some fixed rate such as 15% of the cost of new replacement furniture. Irs gov free file When the furniture is contributed, it may be out of style or in poor condition, therefore having little or no market value. Irs gov free file On the other hand, it may be an antique, the value of which could not be determined by using any formula. Irs gov free file Cost or Selling Price of the Donated Property The cost of the property to you or the actual selling price received by the qualified organization may be the best indication of its FMV. Irs gov free file However, because conditions in the market change, the cost or selling price of property may have less weight if the property was not bought or sold reasonably close to the date of contribution. Irs gov free file The cost or selling price is a good indication of the property's value if: The purchase or sale took place close to the valuation date in an open market, The purchase or sale was at “arm's-length,” The buyer and seller knew all relevant facts, The buyer and seller did not have to act, and The market did not change between the date of purchase or sale and the valuation date. Irs gov free file Example. Irs gov free file Tom Morgan, who is not a dealer in gems, bought an assortment of gems for $5,000 from a promoter. Irs gov free file The promoter claimed that the price was “wholesale” even though he and other dealers made similar sales at similar prices to other persons who were not dealers. Irs gov free file The promoter said that if Tom kept the gems for more than 1 year and then gave them to charity, Tom could claim a charitable deduction of $15,000, which, according to the promoter, would be the value of the gems at the time of contribution. Irs gov free file Tom gave the gems to a qualified charity 13 months after buying them. Irs gov free file The selling price for these gems had not changed from the date of purchase to the date he donated them to charity. Irs gov free file The best evidence of FMV depends on actual transactions and not on some artificial estimate. Irs gov free file The $5,000 charged Tom and others is, therefore, the best evidence of the maximum FMV of the gems. Irs gov free file Terms of the purchase or sale. Irs gov free file   The terms of the purchase or sale should be considered in determining FMV if they influenced the price. Irs gov free file These terms include any restrictions, understandings, or covenants limiting the use or disposition of the property. Irs gov free file Rate of increase or decrease in value. Irs gov free file   Unless you can show that there were unusual circumstances, it is assumed that the increase or decrease in the value of your donated property from your cost has been at a reasonable rate. Irs gov free file For time adjustments, an appraiser may consider published price indexes for information on general price trends, building costs, commodity costs, securities, and works of art sold at auction in arm's-length sales. Irs gov free file Example. Irs gov free file Bill Brown bought a painting for $10,000. Irs gov free file Thirteen months later he gave it to an art museum, claiming a charitable deduction of $15,000 on his tax return. Irs gov free file The appraisal of the painting should include information showing that there were unusual circumstances that justify a 50% increase in value for the 13 months Bill held the property. Irs gov free file Arm's-length offer. Irs gov free file   An arm's-length offer to buy the property close to the valuation date may help to prove its value if the person making the offer was willing and able to complete the transaction. Irs gov free file To rely on an offer, you should be able to show proof of the offer and the specific amount to be paid. Irs gov free file Offers to buy property other than the donated item will help to determine value if the other property is reasonably similar to the donated property. Irs gov free file Sales of Comparable Properties The sales prices of properties similar to the donated property are often important in determining the FMV. Irs gov free file The weight to be given to each sale depends on the following. Irs gov free file The degree of similarity between the property sold and the donated property. Irs gov free file The time of the sale—whether it was close to the valuation date. Irs gov free file The circumstances of the sale—whether it was at arm's-length with a knowledgeable buyer and seller, with neither having to act. Irs gov free file The conditions of the market in which the sale was made—whether unusually inflated or deflated. Irs gov free file The comparable sales method of valuing real estate is explained later under Valuation of Various Kinds of Property. Irs gov free file Example 1. Irs gov free file Mary Black, who is not a book dealer, paid a promoter $10,000 for 500 copies of a single edition of a modern translation of the Bible. Irs gov free file The promoter had claimed that the price was considerably less than the “retail” price, and gave her a statement that the books had a total retail value of $30,000. Irs gov free file The promoter advised her that if she kept the Bibles for more than 1 year and then gave them to a qualified organization, she could claim a charitable deduction for the “retail” price of $30,000. Irs gov free file Thirteen months later she gave all the Bibles to a church that she selected from a list provided by the promoter. Irs gov free file At the time of her donation, wholesale dealers were selling similar quantities of Bibles to the general public for $10,000. Irs gov free file The FMV of the Bibles is $10,000, the price at which similar quantities of Bibles were being sold to others at the time of the contribution. Irs gov free file Example 2. Irs gov free file The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that the promoter gave Mary Black a second option. Irs gov free file The promoter said that if Mary wanted a charitable deduction within 1 year of the purchase, she could buy the 500 Bibles at the “retail” price of $30,000, paying only $10,000 in cash and giving a promissory note for the remaining $20,000. Irs gov free file The principal and interest on the note would not be due for 12 years. Irs gov free file According to the promoter, Mary could then, within 1 year of the purchase, give the Bibles to a qualified organization and claim the full $30,000 retail price as a charitable contribution. Irs gov free file She purchased the Bibles under the second option and, 3 months later, gave them to a church, which will use the books for church purposes. Irs gov free file At the time of the gift, the promoter was selling similar lots of Bibles for either $10,000 or $30,000. Irs gov free file The difference between the two prices was solely at the discretion of the buyer. Irs gov free file The promoter was a willing seller for $10,000. Irs gov free file Therefore, the value of Mary's contribution of the Bibles is $10,000, the amount at which similar lots of Bibles could be purchased from the promoter by members of the general public. Irs gov free file Replacement Cost The cost of buying, building, or manufacturing property similar to the donated item should be considered in determining FMV. Irs gov free file However, there must be a reasonable relationship between the replacement cost and the FMV. Irs gov free file The replacement cost is the amount it would cost to replace the donated item on the valuation date. Irs gov free file Often there is no relationship between the replacement cost and the FMV. Irs gov free file If the supply of the donated property is more or less than the demand for it, the replacement cost becomes less important. Irs gov free file To determine the replacement cost of the donated property, find the “estimated replacement cost new. Irs gov free file ” Then subtract from this figure an amount for depreciation due to the physical condition and obsolescence of the donated property. Irs gov free file You should be able to show the relationship between the depreciated replacement cost and the FMV, as well as how you arrived at the “estimated replacement cost new. Irs gov free file ” Opinions of Experts Generally, the weight given to an expert's opinion on matters such as the authenticity of a coin or a work of art, or the most profitable and best use of a piece of real estate, depends on the knowledge and competence of the expert and the thoroughness with which the opinion is supported by experience and facts. Irs gov free file For an expert's opinion to deserve much weight, the facts must support the opinion. Irs gov free file For additional information, see Appraisals, later. Irs gov free file Table 1. Irs gov free file Factors That Affect FMV IF the factor you are considering is. Irs gov free file . Irs gov free file . Irs gov free file THEN you should ask these questions. Irs gov free file . Irs gov free file . Irs gov free file     cost or selling price Was the purchase or sale of the property reasonably close to the date of contribution? Was any increase or decrease in value, as compared to your cost, at a reasonable rate? Do the terms of purchase or sale limit what can be done with the property? Was there an arm's-length offer to buy the property close to the valuation date?     sales of comparable properties How similar is the property sold to the property donated? How close is the date of sale to the valuation date? Was the sale at arm's-length? What was the condition of the market at the time of sale?     replacement cost What would it cost to replace the donated property? Is there a reasonable relationship between replacement cost and FMV? Is the supply of the donated property more or less than the demand for it?     opinions of experts Is the expert knowledgeable and competent? Is the opinion thorough and supported by facts and experience? Problems in Determining Fair Market Value There are a number of problems in determining the FMV of donated property. Irs gov free file Unusual Market Conditions The sale price of the property itself in an arm's-length transaction in an open market is often the best evidence of its value. Irs gov free file When you rely on sales of comparable property, the sales must have been made in an open market. Irs gov free file If those sales were made in a market that was artificially supported or stimulated so as not to be truly representative, the prices at which the sales were made will not indicate the FMV. Irs gov free file For example, liquidation sale prices usually do not indicate the FMV. Irs gov free file Also, sales of stock under unusual circumstances, such as sales of small lots, forced sales, and sales in a restricted market, may not represent the FMV. Irs gov free file Selection of Comparable Sales Using sales of comparable property is an important method for determining the FMV of donated property. Irs gov free file However, the amount of weight given to a sale depends on the degree of similarity between the comparable and the donated properties. Irs gov free file The degree of similarity must be close enough so that this selling price would have been given consideration by reasonably well-informed buyers or sellers of the property. Irs gov free file Example. Irs gov free file You give a rare, old book to your former college. Irs gov free file The book is a third edition and is in poor condition because of a missing back cover. Irs gov free file You discover that there was a sale for $300, near the valuation date, of a first edition of the book that was in good condition. Irs gov free file Although the contents are the same, the books are not at all similar because of the different editions and their physical condition. Irs gov free file Little consideration would be given to the selling price of the $300 property by knowledgeable buyers or sellers. Irs gov free file Future Events You may not consider unexpected events happening after your donation of property in making the valuation. Irs gov free file You may consider only the facts known at the time of the gift, and those that could be reasonably expected at the time of the gift. Irs gov free file Example. Irs gov free file You give farmland to a qualified charity. Irs gov free file The transfer provides that your mother will have the right to all income and full use of the property for her life. Irs gov free file Even though your mother dies 1 week after the transfer, the value of the property on the date it is given is its present value, subject to the life interest as estimated from actuarial tables. Irs gov free file You may not take a higher deduction because the charity received full use and possession of the land only 1 week after the transfer. Irs gov free file Using Past Events to Predict the Future A common error is to rely too much on past events that do not fairly reflect the probable future earnings and FMV. Irs gov free file Example. Irs gov free file You give all your rights in a successful patent to your favorite charity. Irs gov free file Your records show that before the valuation date there were three stages in the patent's history of earnings. Irs gov free file First, there was rapid growth in earnings when the invention was introduced. Irs gov free file Then, there was a period of high earnings when the invention was being exploited. Irs gov free file Finally, there was a decline in earnings when competing inventions were introduced. Irs gov free file The entire history of earnings may be relevant in estimating the future earnings. Irs gov free file However, the appraiser must not rely too much on the stage of rapid growth in earnings, or of high earnings. Irs gov free file The market conditions at those times do not represent the condition of the market at the valuation date. Irs gov free file What is most significant is the trend of decline in earnings up to the valuation date. Irs gov free file For more information about donations of patents, see Patents, later. Irs gov free file Valuation of Various Kinds of Property This section contains information on determining the FMV of ordinary kinds of donated property. Irs gov free file For information on appraisals, see Appraisals, later. Irs gov free file Household Goods The FMV of used household goods, such as furniture, appliances, and linens, is usually much lower than the price paid when new. Irs gov free file Such used property may have little or no market value because of its worn condition. Irs gov free file It may be out of style or no longer useful. Irs gov free file You cannot take a deduction for household goods donated after August 17, 2006, unless they are in good used condition or better. Irs gov free file A household good that is not in good used condition or better for which you take a deduction of more than $500 requires a qualified appraisal. Irs gov free file See Deduction over $500 for certain clothing or household items, later. Irs gov free file If the property is valuable because it is old or unique, see the discussion under Paintings, Antiques, and Other Objects of Art. Irs gov free file Used Clothing Used clothing and other personal items are usually worth far less than the price you paid for them. Irs gov free file Valuation of items of clothing does not lend itself to fixed formulas or methods. Irs gov free file The price that buyers of used items actually pay in used clothing stores, such as consignment or thrift shops, is an indication of the value. Irs gov free file You cannot take a deduction for clothing donated after August 17, 2006, unless it is in good used condition or better. Irs gov free file An item of clothing that is not in good used condition or better for which you take a deduction of more than $500 requires a qualified appraisal. Irs gov free file See Deduction over $500 for certain clothing or household items, later. Irs gov free file For valuable furs or very expensive gowns, a Form 8283 may have to be sent with your tax return. Irs gov free file Jewelry and Gems Jewelry and gems are of such a specialized nature that it is almost always necessary to get an appraisal by a specialized jewelry appraiser. Irs gov free file The appraisal should describe, among other things, the style of the jewelry, the cut and setting of the gem, and whether it is now in fashion. Irs gov free file If not in fashion, the possibility of having the property redesigned, recut, or reset should be reported in the appraisal. Irs gov free file The stone's coloring, weight, cut, brilliance, and flaws should be reported and analyzed. Irs gov free file Sentimental personal value has no effect on FMV. Irs gov free file But if the jewelry was owned by a famous person, its value might increase. Irs gov free file Paintings, Antiques, and Other Objects of Art Your deduction for contributions of paintings, antiques, and other objects of art, should be supported by a written appraisal from a qualified and reputable source, unless the deduction is $5,000 or less. Irs gov free file Examples of information that should be included in appraisals of art objects—paintings in particular—are found later under Qualified Appraisal. Irs gov free file Art valued at $20,000 or more. Irs gov free file   If you claim a deduction of $20,000 or more for donations of art, you must attach a complete copy of the signed appraisal to your return. Irs gov free file For individual objects valued at $20,000 or more, a photograph of a size and quality fully showing the object, preferably an 8 x 10 inch color photograph or a color transparency no smaller than 4 x 5 inches, must be provided upon request. Irs gov free file Art valued at $50,000 or more. Irs gov free file   If you donate an item of art that has been appraised at $50,000 or more, you can request a Statement of Value for that item from the IRS. Irs gov free file You must request the statement before filing the tax return that reports the donation. Irs gov free file Your request must include the following. Irs gov free file A copy of a qualified appraisal of the item. Irs gov free file See Qualified Appraisal, later. Irs gov free file A $2,500 check or money order payable to the Internal Revenue Service for the user fee that applies to your request regarding one, two, or three items of art. Irs gov free file Add $250 for each item in excess of three. Irs gov free file A completed Form 8283, Section B. Irs gov free file The location of the IRS territory that has examination responsibility for your return. Irs gov free file If your request lacks essential information, you will be notified and given 30 days to provide the missing information. Irs gov free file   Send your request to: Internal Revenue Service Attention: Art Appraisal (C:AP:ART) P. Irs gov free file O. Irs gov free file Box 27720 McPherson Station Washington, DC 20038 Refunds. Irs gov free file   You can withdraw your request for a Statement of Value at any time before it is issued. Irs gov free file However, the IRS will not refund the user fee if you do. Irs gov free file   If the IRS declines to issue a Statement of Value in the interest of efficient tax administration, the IRS will refund the user fee. Irs gov free file Authenticity. Irs gov free file   The authenticity of the donated art must be determined by the appraiser. Irs gov free file Physical condition. Irs gov free file   Important items in the valuation of antiques and art are physical condition and extent of restoration. Irs gov free file These have a significant effect on the value and must be fully reported in an appraisal. Irs gov free file An antique in damaged condition, or lacking the “original brasses,” may be worth much less than a similar piece in excellent condition. Irs gov free file Art appraisers. Irs gov free file   More weight will usually be given to an appraisal prepared by an individual specializing in the kind and price range of the art being appraised. Irs gov free file Certain art dealers or appraisers specialize, for example, in old masters, modern art, bronze sculpture, etc. Irs gov free file Their opinions on the authenticity and desirability of such art would usually be given more weight than the opinions of more generalized art dealers or appraisers. Irs gov free file They can report more recent comparable sales to support their opinion. Irs gov free file   To identify and locate experts on unique, specialized items or collections, you may wish to use the current Official Museum Directory of the American Association of Museums. Irs gov free file It lists museums both by state and by category. Irs gov free file   To help you locate a qualified appraiser for your donation, you may wish to ask an art historian at a nearby college or the director or curator of a local museum. Irs gov free file The Yellow Pages often list specialized art and antique dealers, auctioneers, and art appraisers. Irs gov free file You may be able to find a qualified appraiser on the Internet. Irs gov free file You may also contact associations of dealers for guidance. Irs gov free file Collections Since many kinds of hobby collections may be the subject of a charitable donation, it is not possible to discuss all of the possible collectibles in this publication. Irs gov free file Most common are rare books, autographs, sports memorabilia, dolls, manuscripts, stamps, coins, guns, phonograph records, and natural history items. Irs gov free file Many of the elements of valuation that apply to paintings and other objects of art, discussed earlier, also apply to miscellaneous collections. Irs gov free file Reference material. Irs gov free file   Publications available to help you determine the value of many kinds of collections include catalogs, dealers' price lists, and specialized hobby periodicals. Irs gov free file When using one of these price guides, you must use the current edition at the date of contribution. Irs gov free file However, these sources are not always reliable indicators of FMV and should be supported by other evidence. Irs gov free file   For example, a dealer may sell an item for much less than is shown on a price list, particularly after the item has remained unsold for a long time. Irs gov free file The price an item sold for in an auction may have been the result of a rigged sale or a mere bidding duel. Irs gov free file The appraiser must analyze the reference material, and recognize and make adjustments for misleading entries. Irs gov free file If you are donating a valuable collection, you should get an appraisal. Irs gov free file If your donation appears to be of little value, you may be able to make a satisfactory valuation using reference materials available at a state, city, college, or museum library. Irs gov free file Stamp collections. Irs gov free file   Most libraries have catalogs or other books that report the publisher's estimate of values. Irs gov free file Generally, two price levels are shown for each stamp: the price postmarked and the price not postmarked. Irs gov free file Stamp dealers generally know the value of their merchandise and are able to prepare satisfactory appraisals of valuable collections. Irs gov free file Coin collections. Irs gov free file   Many catalogs and other reference materials show the writer's or publisher's opinion of the value of coins on or near the date of the publication. Irs gov free file Like many other collectors' items, the value of a coin depends on the demand for it, its age, and its rarity. Irs gov free file Another important factor is the coin's condition. Irs gov free file For example, there is a great difference in the value of a coin that is in mint condition and a similar coin that is only in good condition. Irs gov free file   Catalogs usually establish a category for coins, based on their physical condition—mint or uncirculated, extremely fine, very fine, fine, very good, good, fair, or poor—with a different valuation for each category. Irs gov free file Books. Irs gov free file   The value of books is usually determined by selecting comparable sales and adjusting the prices according to the differences between the comparable sales and the item being evaluated. Irs gov free file This is difficult to do and, except for a collection of little value, should be done by a specialized appraiser. Irs gov free file Within the general category of literary property, there are dealers who specialize in certain areas, such as Americana, foreign imports, Bibles, and scientific books. Irs gov free file Modest value of collection. Irs gov free file   If the collection you are donating is of modest value, not requiring a written appraisal, the following information may help you in determining the FMV. Irs gov free file   A book that is very old, or very rare, is not necessarily valuable. Irs gov free file There are many books that are very old or rare, but that have little or no market value. Irs gov free file Condition of book. Irs gov free file   The condition of a book may have a great influence on its value. Irs gov free file Collectors are interested in items that are in fine, or at least good, condition. Irs gov free file When a book has a missing page, a loose binding, tears, stains, or is otherwise in poor condition, its value is greatly lowered. Irs gov free file Other factors. Irs gov free file   Some other factors in the valuation of a book are the kind of binding (leather, cloth, paper), page edges, and illustrations (drawings and photographs). Irs gov free file Collectors usually want first editions of books. Irs gov free file However, because of changes or additions, other editions are sometimes worth as much as, or more than, the first edition. Irs gov free file Manuscripts, autographs, diaries, and similar items. Irs gov free file   When these items are handwritten, or at least signed by famous people, they are often in demand and are valuable. Irs gov free file The writings of unknowns also may be of value if they are of unusual historical or literary importance. Irs gov free file Determining the value of such material is difficult. Irs gov free file For example, there may be a great difference in value between two diaries that were kept by a famous person—one kept during childhood and the other during a later period in his or her life. Irs gov free file The appraiser determines a value in these cases by applying knowledge and judgment to such factors as comparable sales and conditions. Irs gov free file Signatures. Irs gov free file   Signatures, or sets of signatures, that were cut from letters or other papers usually have little or no value. Irs gov free file But complete sets of the signatures of U. Irs gov free file S. Irs gov free file presidents are in demand. Irs gov free file Cars, Boats, and Aircraft If you donate a car, a boat, or an aircraft to a charitable organization, its FMV must be determined. Irs gov free file Certain commercial firms and trade organizations publish monthly or seasonal guides for different regions of the country, containing complete dealer sale prices or dealer average prices for recent model years. Irs gov free file Prices are reported for each make, model, and year. Irs gov free file These guides also provide estimates for adjusting for unusual equipment, unusual mileage, and physical condition. Irs gov free file The prices are not “official,” and these publications are not considered an appraisal of any specific donated property. Irs gov free file But they do provide clues for making an appraisal and suggest relative prices for comparison with current sales and offerings in your area. Irs gov free file These publications are sometimes available from public libraries or at a bank, credit union, or finance company. Irs gov free file You can also find pricing information about used cars on the Internet. Irs gov free file An acceptable measure of the FMV of a donated car, boat, or airplane is an amount not in excess of the price listed in a used vehicle pricing guide for a private party sale, not the dealer retail value, of a similar vehicle. Irs gov free file However, the FMV may be less than that amount if the vehicle has engine trouble, body damage, high mileage, or any type of excessive wear. Irs gov free file The FMV of a donated vehicle is the same as the price listed in a used vehicle pricing guide for a private party sale only if the guide lists a sales price for a vehicle that is the same make, model, and year, sold in the same area, in the same condition, with the same or similar options or accessories, and with the same or similar warranties as the donated vehicle. Irs gov free file Example. Irs gov free file You donate a used car in poor condition to a local high school for use by students studying car repair. Irs gov free file A used car guide shows the dealer retail value for this type of car in poor condition is $1,600. Irs gov free file However, the guide shows the price for a private party sale of the car is only $750. Irs gov free file The FMV of the car is considered to be no more than $750. Irs gov free file Boats. Irs gov free file   Except for inexpensive small boats, the valuation of boats should be based on an appraisal by a marine surveyor because the physical condition is so critical to the value. Irs gov free file More information. Irs gov free file   Your deduction for a donated car, boat, or airplane generally is limited to the gross proceeds from its sale by the qualified organization. Irs gov free file This rule applies if the claimed value of the donated vehicle is more than $500. Irs gov free file In certain cases, you can deduct the vehicle's FMV. Irs gov free file For details, see Publication 526. Irs gov free file Inventory If you donate any inventory item to a charitable organization, the amount of your deductible contribution generally is the FMV of the item, minus any gain you would have realized if you had sold the item at its FMV on the date of the gift. Irs gov free file For more information, see Publication 526. Irs gov free file Patents To determine the FMV of a patent, you must take into account, among other factors: Whether the patented technology has been made obsolete by other technology; Any restrictions on the donee's use of, or ability to transfer, the patented technology; and The length of time remaining before the patent expires. Irs gov free file However, your deduction for a donation of a patent or other intellectual property is its FMV, minus any gain you would have realized if you had sold the property at its FMV on the date of the gift. Irs gov free file Generally, this means your deduction is the lesser of the property's FMV or its basis. Irs gov free file For details, see Publication 526. Irs gov free file Stocks and Bonds The value of stocks and bonds is the FMV of a share or bond on the valuation date. Irs gov free file See Date of contribution, earlier, under What Is Fair Market Value (FMV). Irs gov free file Selling prices on valuation date. Irs gov free file   If there is an active market for the contributed stocks or bonds on a stock exchange, in an over-the-counter market, or elsewhere, the FMV of each share or bond is the average price between the highest and lowest quoted selling prices on the valuation date. Irs gov free file For example, if the highest selling price for a share was $11, and the lowest $9, the average price is $10. Irs gov free file You get the average price by adding $11 and $9 and dividing the sum by 2. Irs gov free file No sales on valuation date. Irs gov free file   If there were no sales on the valuation date, but there were sales within a reasonable period before and after the valuation date, you determine FMV by taking the average price between the highest and lowest sales prices on the nearest date before and on the nearest date after the valuation date. Irs gov free file Then you weight these averages in inverse order by the respective number of trading days between the selling dates and the valuation date. Irs gov free file Example. Irs gov free file   On the day you gave stock to a qualified organization, there were no sales of the stock. Irs gov free file Sales of the stock nearest the valuation date took place two trading days before the valuation date at an average selling price of $10 and three trading days after the valuation date at an average selling price of $15. Irs gov free file The FMV on the valuation date was $12, figured as follows: [(3 x $10) + (2 x $15)] ÷ 5 = $12 Listings on more than one stock exchange. Irs gov free file   Stocks or bonds listed on more than one stock exchange are valued based on the prices of the exchange on which they are principally dealt. Irs gov free file This applies if these prices are published in a generally available listing or publication of general circulation. Irs gov free file If this is not applicable, and the stocks or bonds are reported on a composite listing of combined exchanges in a publication of general circulation, use the composite list. Irs gov free file See also Unavailable prices or closely held corporation, later. Irs gov free file Bid and asked prices on valuation date. Irs gov free file   If there were no sales within a reasonable period before and after the valuation date, the FMV is the average price between the bona fide bid and asked prices on the valuation date. Irs gov free file Example. Irs gov free file Although there were no sales of Blue Corporation stock on the valuation date, bona fide bid and asked prices were available on that date of $14 and $16, respectively. Irs gov free file The FMV is $15, the average price between the bid and asked prices. Irs gov free file No prices on valuation date. Irs gov free file   If there were no prices available on the valuation date, you determine FMV by taking the average prices between the bona fide bid and asked prices on the closest trading date before and after the valuation date. Irs gov free file Both dates must be within a reasonable period. Irs gov free file Then you weight these averages in inverse order by the respective number of trading days between the bid and asked dates and the valuation date. Irs gov free file Example. Irs gov free file On the day you gave stock to a qualified organization, no prices were available. Irs gov free file Bona fide bid and asked prices 3 days before the valuation date were $10 and 2 days after the valuation date were $15. Irs gov free file The FMV on the valuation date is $13, figured as follows: [(2 x $10) + (3 x $15)] ÷ 5 = $13 Prices only before or after valuation date, but not both. Irs gov free file   If no selling prices or bona fide bid and asked prices are available on a date within a reasonable period before the valuation date, but are available on a date within a reasonable period after the valuation date, or vice versa, then the average price between the highest and lowest of such available prices may be treated as the value. Irs gov free file Large blocks of stock. Irs gov free file   When a large block of stock is put on the market, it may lower the selling price of the stock if the supply is greater than the demand. Irs gov free file On the other hand, market forces may exist that will afford higher prices for large blocks of stock. Irs gov free file Because of the many factors to be considered, determining the value of large blocks of stock usually requires the help of experts specializing in underwriting large quantities of securities, or in trading in the securities of the industry of which the particular company is a part. Irs gov free file Unavailable prices or closely held corporation. Irs gov free file   If selling prices or bid and asked prices are not available, or if securities of a closely held corporation are involved, determine the FMV by considering the following factors. Irs gov free file For bonds, the soundness of the security, the interest yield, the date of maturity, and other relevant factors. Irs gov free file For shares of stock, the company's net worth, prospective earning power and dividend-paying capacity, and other relevant factors. Irs gov free file Other factors. Irs gov free file   Other relevant factors include: The nature and history of the business, especially its recent history, The goodwill of the business, The economic outlook in the particular industry, The company's position in the industry, its competitors, and its management, and The value of securities of corporations engaged in the same or similar business. Irs gov free file For preferred stock, the most important factors are its yield, dividend coverage, and protection of its liquidation preference. Irs gov free file   You should keep complete financial and other information on which the valuation is based. Irs gov free file This includes copies of reports of examinations of the company made by accountants, engineers, or any technical experts on or close to the valuation date. Irs gov free file Restricted securities. Irs gov free file   Some classes of stock cannot be traded publicly because of restrictions imposed by the Securities and Exchange Commission, or by the corporate charter or a trust agreement. Irs gov free file These restricted securities usually trade at a discount in relation to freely traded securities. Irs gov free file   To arrive at the FMV of restricted securities, factors that you must consider include the resale provisions found in the restriction agreements, the relative negotiating strengths of the buyer and seller, and the market experience of freely traded securities of the same class as the restricted securities. Irs gov free file Real Estate Because each piece of real estate is unique and its valuation is complicated, a detailed appraisal by a professional appraiser is necessary. Irs gov free file The appraiser must be thoroughly trained in the application of appraisal principles and theory. Irs gov free file In some instances the opinions of equally qualified appraisers may carry unequal weight, such as when one appraiser has a better knowledge of local conditions. Irs gov free file The appraisal report must contain a complete description of the property, such as street address, legal description, and lot and block number, as well as physical features, condition, and dimensions. Irs gov free file The use to which the property is put, zoning and permitted uses, and its potential use for other higher and better uses are also relevant. Irs gov free file In general, there are three main approaches to the valuation of real estate. Irs gov free file An appraisal may require the combined use of two or three methods rather than one method only. Irs gov free file 1. Irs gov free file Comparable Sales The comparable sales method compares the donated property with several similar properties that have been sold. Irs gov free file The selling prices, after adjustments for differences in date of sale, size, condition, and location, would then indicate the estimated FMV of the donated property. Irs gov free file If the comparable sales method is used to determine the value of unimproved real property (land without significant buildings, structures, or any other improvements that add to its value), the appraiser should consider the following factors when comparing the potential comparable property and the donated property: Location, size, and zoning or use restrictions, Accessibility and road frontage, and available utilities and water rights, Riparian rights (right of access to and use of the water by owners of land on the bank of a river) and existing easements, rights-of-way, leases, etc. Irs gov free file , Soil characteristics, vegetative cover, and status of mineral rights, and Other factors affecting value. Irs gov free file For each comparable sale, the appraisal must include the names of the buyer and seller, the deed book and page number, the date of sale and selling price, a property description, the amount and terms of mortgages, property surveys, the assessed value, the tax rate, and the assessor's appraised FMV. Irs gov free file The comparable selling prices must be adjusted to account for differences between the sale property and the donated property. Irs gov free file Because differences of opinion may arise between appraisers as to the degree of comparability and the amount of the adjustment considered necessary for comparison purposes, an appraiser should document each item of adjustment. Irs gov free file Only comparable sales having the least adjustments in terms of items and/or total dollar adjustments should be considered as comparable to the donated property. Irs gov free file 2. Irs gov free file Capitalization of Income This method capitalizes the net income from the property at a rate that represents a fair return on the particular investment at the particular time, considering the risks involved. Irs gov free file The key elements are the determination of the income to be capitalized and the rate of capitalization. Irs gov free file 3. Irs gov free file Replacement Cost New or Reproduction Cost Minus Observed Depreciation This method, used alone, usually does not result in a determination of FMV. Irs gov free file Instead, it generally tends to set the upper limit of value, particularly in periods of rising costs, because it is reasonable to assume that an informed buyer will not pay more for the real estate than it would cost to reproduce a similar property. Irs gov free file Of course, this reasoning does not apply if a similar property cannot be created because of location, unusual construction, or some other reason. Irs gov free file Generally, this method serves to support the value determined from other methods. Irs gov free file When the replacement cost method is applied to improved realty, the land and improvements are valued separately. Irs gov free file The replacement cost of a building is figured by considering the materials, the quality of workmanship, and the number of square feet or cubic feet in the building. Irs gov free file This cost represents the total cost of labor and material, overhead, and profit. Irs gov free file After the replacement cost has been figured, consideration must be given to the following factors: Physical deterioration—the wear and tear on the building itself, Functional obsolescence—usually in older buildings with, for example, inadequate lighting, plumbing, or heating, small rooms, or a poor floor plan, and Economic obsolescence—outside forces causing the whole area to become less desirable. Irs gov free file Interest in a Business The FMV of any interest in a business, whether a sole proprietorship or a partnership, is the amount that a willing buyer would pay for the interest to a willing seller after consideration of all relevant factors. Irs gov free file The relevant factors to be considered in valuing the business are: The FMV of the assets of the business, The demonstrated earnings capacity of the business, based on a review of past and current earnings, and The other factors used in evaluating corporate stock, if they apply. Irs gov free file The value of the goodwill of the business should also be taken into consideration. Irs gov free file You should keep complete financial and other information on which you base the valuation. Irs gov free file This includes copies of reports of examinations of the business made by accountants, engineers, or any technical experts on or close to the valuation date. Irs gov free file Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, Remainders, and Reversions The value of these kinds of property is their present value, except in the case of annuities under contracts issued by companies regularly engaged in their sale. Irs gov free file The valuation of these commercial annuity contracts and of insurance policies is discussed later under Certain Life Insurance and Annuity Contracts. Irs gov free file To determine present value, you must know the applicable interest rate and use actuarial tables. Irs gov free file Interest rate. Irs gov free file   The applicable interest rate varies. Irs gov free file It is announced monthly in a news release and published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin as a Revenue Ruling. Irs gov free file The interest rate to use is under the heading “Rate Under Section 7520” for a given month and year. Irs gov free file You can call the IRS office at 1-800-829-1040 to obtain this rate. Irs gov free file Actuarial tables. Irs gov free file   You need to refer to actuarial tables to determine a qualified interest in the form of an annuity, any interest for life or a term of years, or any remainder interest to a charitable organization. Irs gov free file   Use the valuation tables set forth in IRS Publications 1457, Actuarial Values (Book Aleph), and 1458, Actuarial Values (Book Beth). Irs gov free file Both of these publications provide tables containing actuarial factors to be used in determining the present value of an annuity, an interest for life or for a term of years, or a remainder or reversionary interest. Irs gov free file For qualified charitable transfers, you can use the factor for the month in which you made the contribution or for either of the 2 months preceding that month. Irs gov free file   Publication 1457 also contains actuarial factors for computing the value of a remainder interest in a charitable remainder annuity trust and a pooled income fund. Irs gov free file Publication 1458 contains the factors for valuing the remainder interest in a charitable remainder unitrust. Irs gov free file You can download Publications 1457 and 1458 from www. Irs gov free file irs. Irs gov free file gov. Irs gov free file In addition, they are available for purchase via the website of the U. Irs gov free file S. Irs gov free file Government Printing Office, by phone at (202) 512-1800, or by mail from the: Superintendent of Documents P. Irs gov free file O. Irs gov free file Box 371954 Pittsburgh, PA 15250-7954 Tables containing actuarial factors for transfers to pooled income funds may also be found in Income Tax Regulation 1. Irs gov free file 642(c)-6(e)(6), transfers to charitable remainder unitrusts in Regulation 1. Irs gov free file 664-4(e), and other transfers in Regulation 20. Irs gov free file 2031-7(d)(6). Irs gov free file Special factors. Irs gov free file   If you need a special factor for an actual transaction, you can request a letter ruling. Irs gov free file Be sure to include the date of birth of each person the duration of whose life may affect the value of the interest. Irs gov free file Also include copies of the relevant instruments. Irs gov free file IRS charges a user fee for providing special factors. Irs gov free file   For more information about requesting a ruling, see Revenue Procedure 2006-1 (or annual update), 2006-1 I. Irs gov free file R. Irs gov free file B. Irs gov free file 1. Irs gov free file Revenue Procedure 2006-1 is available at www. Irs gov free file irs. Irs gov free file gov/irb/2006-01_IRB/ar06. Irs gov free file html. Irs gov free file   For information on the circumstances under which a charitable deduction may be allowed for the donation of a partial interest in property not in trust, see Partial Interest in Property Not in Trust, later. Irs gov free file Certain Life Insurance and Annuity Contracts The value of an annuity contract or a life insurance policy issued by a company regularly engaged in the sale of such contracts or policies is the amount that company would charge for a comparable contract. Irs gov free file But if the donee of a life insurance policy may reasonably be expected to cash the policy rather than hold it as an investment, then the FMV is the cash surrender value rather than the replacement cost. Irs gov free file If an annuity is payable under a combination annuity contract and life insurance policy (for example, a retirement income policy with a death benefit) and there was no insurance element when it was transferred to the charity, the policy is treated as an annuity contract. Irs gov free file Partial Interest in Property Not in Trust Generally, no deduction is allowed for a charitable contribution, not made in trust, of less than your entire interest in property. Irs gov free file However, this does not apply to a transfer of less than your entire interest if it is a transfer of: A remainder interest in your personal residence or farm, An undivided part of your entire interest in property, or A qualified conservation contribution. Irs gov free file Remainder Interest in Real Property The amount of the deduction for a donation of a remainder interest in real property is the FMV of the remainder interest at the time of the contribution. Irs gov free file To determine this value, you must know the FMV of the property on the date of the contribution. Irs gov free file Multiply this value by the appropriate factor. Irs gov free file Publications 1457 and 1458 contain these factors. Irs gov free file You must make an adjustment for depreciation or depletion using the factors shown in Publication 1459, Actuarial Values (Book Gimel). Irs gov free file You can use the factors for the month in which you made the contribution or for either of the two months preceding that month. Irs gov free file See the earlier discussion on Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, Remainders, and Reversions. Irs gov free file You can download Publication 1459 from www. Irs gov free file irs. Irs gov free file gov. Irs gov free file For this purpose, the term “depreciable property” means any property subject to wear and tear or obsolescence, even if not used in a trade or business or for the production of income. Irs gov free file If the remainder interest includes both depreciable and nondepreciable property, for example a house and land, the FMV must be allocated between each kind of property at the time of the contribution. Irs gov free file This rule also applies to a gift of a remainder interest that includes property that is part depletable and part not depletable. Irs gov free file Take into account depreciation or depletion only for the property that is subject to depreciation or depletion. Irs gov free file For more information, see section 1. Irs gov free file 170A-12 of the Income Tax Regulations. Irs gov free file Undivided Part of Your Entire Interest A contribution of an undivided part of your entire interest in property must consist of a part of each and every substantial interest or right you own in the property. Irs gov free file It must extend over the entire term of your interest in the property. Irs gov free file For example, you are entitled to the income from certain property for your life (life estate) and you contribute 20% of that life estate to a qualified organization. Irs gov free file You can claim a deduction for the contribution if you do not have any other interest in the property. Irs gov free file To figure the value of a contribution involving a partial interest, see Publication 1457. Irs gov free file If the only interest you own in real property is a remainder interest and you transfer part of that interest to a qualified organization, see the previous discussion on valuation of a remainder interest in real property. Irs gov free file Qualified Conservation Contribution A qualified conservation contribution is a contribution of a qualified real property interest to a qualified organization to be used only for conservation purposes. Irs gov free file Qualified organization. Irs gov free file   For purposes of a qualified conservation contribution, a qualified organization is: A governmental unit, A publicly supported charitable, religious, scientific, literary, educational, etc. Irs gov free file , organization, or An organization that is controlled by, and operated for the exclusive benefit of, a governmental unit or a publicly supported charity. Irs gov free file The organization also must have a commitment to protect the conservation purposes of the donation and must have the resources to enforce the restrictions. Irs gov free file Conservation purposes. Irs gov free file   Your contribution must be made only for one of the following conservation purposes. Irs gov free file Preserving land areas for outdoor recreation by, or for the education of, the general public. Irs gov free file Protecting a relatively natural habitat of fish, wildlife, or plants, or a similar ecosystem. Irs gov free file Preserving open space, including farmland and forest land, if it yields a significant public benefit. Irs gov free file It must be either for the scenic enjoyment of the general public or under a clearly defined federal, state, or local governmental conservation policy. Irs gov free file Preserving a historically important land area or a certified historic structure. Irs gov free file There must be some visual public access to the property. Irs gov free file Factors used in determining the type and amount of public access required include the historical significance of the property, the remoteness or accessibility of the site, and the extent to which intrusions on the privacy of individuals living on the property would be unreasonable. Irs gov free file Building in registered historic district. Irs gov free file   A contribution after July 25, 2006, of a qualified real property interest that is an easement or other restriction on the exterior of a building in a registered historic district is deductible only if it meets all of the following three conditions. Irs gov free file The restriction must preserve the entire exterior of the building and must prohibit any change to the exterior of the building that is inconsistent with its historical character. Irs gov free file You and the organization receiving the contribution must enter into a written agreement certifying, that the organization is a qualified organization and that it has the resources and commitment to maintain the property as donated. Irs gov free file If you make the contribution in a tax year beginning after August 17, 2006, you must include with your return: A qualified appraisal, Photographs of the building's entire exterior, and A description of all restrictions on development of the building, such as zoning laws and restrictive covenants. Irs gov free file   If you make this type of contribution after February 12, 2007, and claim a deduction of more than $10,000, your deduction will not be allowed unless you pay a $500 filing fee. Irs gov free file See Form 8283-V, Payment Voucher for Filing Fee Under Section 170(f)(13), and its instructions. Irs gov free file Qualified real property interest. Irs gov free file   This is any of the following interests in real property. Irs gov free file Your entire interest in real estate other than a mineral interest (subsurface oil, gas, or other minerals, and the right of access to these minerals). Irs gov free file A remainder interest. Irs gov free file A restriction (granted in perpetuity) on the use that may be made of the real property. Irs gov free file Valuation. Irs gov free file   A qualified real property interest described in (1) should be valued in a manner that is consistent with the type of interest transferred. Irs gov free file If you transferred all the interest in the property, the FMV of the property is the amount of the contribution. Irs gov free file If you do not transfer the mineral interest, the FMV of the surface rights in the property is the amount of the contribution. Irs gov free file   If you owned only a remainder interest or an income interest (life estate), see Undivided Part of Your Entire Interest, earlier. Irs gov free file If you owned the entire property but transferred only a remainder interest (item (2)), see Remainder Interest in Real Property, earlier. Irs gov free file   In determining the value of restrictions, you should take into account the selling price in arm's-length transactions of other properties that have comparable restrictions. Irs gov free file If there are no comparable sales, the restrictions are valued indirectly as the difference between the FMVs of the property involved before and after the grant of the restriction. Irs gov free file   The FMV of the property before contribution of the restriction should take into account not only current use but the likelihood that the property, without the restriction, would be developed. Irs gov free file You should also consider any zoning, conservation, or historical preservation laws that would restrict development. Irs gov free file Granting an easement may increase, rather than reduce, the value of property, and in such a situation no deduction would be allowed. Irs gov free file Example. Irs gov free file   You own 10 acres of farmland. Irs gov free file Similar land in the area has an FMV of $2,000 an acre. Irs gov free file However, land in the general area that is restricted solely to farm use has an FMV of $1,500 an acre. Irs gov free file Your county wants to preserve open space and prevent further development in your area. Irs gov free file   You grant to the county an enforceable open space easement in perpetuity on 8 of the 10 acres, restricting its use to farmland. Irs gov free file The value of this easement is $4,000, determined as follows: FMV of the property before granting easement:   $2,000 × 10 acres $20,000 FMV of the property after granting easement:   $1,500 × 8 acres $12,000   $2,000 × 2 acres 4,000 16,000 Value of easement   $4,000   If you later transfer in fee your remaining interest in the 8 acres to another qualified organization, the FMV of your remaining interest is the FMV of the 8 acres reduced by the FMV of the easement granted to the first organization. Irs gov free file More information. Irs gov free file   For more information about qualified conservation contributions, see Publication 526. Irs gov free file Appraisals Appraisals are not necessary for items of property for which you claim a deduction of $5,000 or less. Irs gov free file (There is one exception, described next, for certain clothing and household items. Irs gov free file ) However, you generally will need an appraisal for donated property for which you claim a deduction of more than $5,000. Irs gov free file There are exceptions. Irs gov free file See Deductions of More Than $5,000, later. Irs gov free file The weight given an appraisal depends on the completeness of the report, the qualifications of the appraiser, and the appraiser's demonstrated knowledge of the donated property. Irs gov free file An appraisal must give all the facts on which to base an intelligent judgment of the value of the property. Irs gov free file The appraisal will not be given much weight if: All the factors that apply are not considered, The opinion is not supported with facts, such as purchase price and comparable sales, or The opinion is not consistent with known facts. Irs gov free file The appraiser's opinion is never more valid than the facts on which it is based; without these facts it is simply a guess. Irs gov free file The opinion of a person claiming to be an expert is not binding on the Internal Revenue Service. Irs gov free file All facts associated with the donation must be considered. Irs gov free file Deduction over $500 for certain clothing or household items. Irs gov free file   You must include with your return a qualified appraisal of any single item of clothing or any household item that is not in good used condition or better, that you donated after August 17, 2006, and for which you deduct more than $500. Irs gov free file See Household Goods and Used Clothing, earlier. Irs gov free file Cost of appraisals. Irs gov free file   You may not take a charitable contribution deduction for fees you pay for appraisals of your donated property. Irs gov free file However, these fees may qualify as a miscellaneous deduction, subject to the 2% limit, on Schedule A (Form 1040) if paid to determine the amount allowable as a charitable contribution. Irs gov free file Deductions of More Than $5,000 Generally, if the claimed deduction for an item or group of similar items of donated property is more than $5,000, you must get a qualified appraisal made by a qualified appraiser, and you must attach Section B of Form 8283 to your tax return. Irs gov free file There are exceptions, discussed later. Irs gov free file You should keep the appraiser's report with your written records. Irs gov free file Records are discussed in Publication 526. Irs gov free file The phrase “similar items” means property of the same generic category or type (whether or not donated to the same donee), such as stamp collections, coin collections, lithographs, paintings, photographs, books, nonpublicly traded stock, nonpublicly traded securities other than nonpublicly traded stock, land, buildings, clothing, jewelry, furniture, electronic equipment, household appliances, toys, everyday kitchenware, china, crystal, or silver. Irs gov free file For example, if you give books to three schools and you deduct $2,000, $2,500, and $900, respectively, your claimed deduction is more than $5,000 for these books. Irs gov free file You must get a qualified appraisal of the books and for each school you must attach a fully completed Form 8283, Section B, to your tax return. Irs gov free file Exceptions. Irs gov free file   You do not need an appraisal if the property is: Nonpublicly traded stock of $10,000 or less, A vehicle (including a car, boat, or airplane) for which your deduction is limited to the gross proceeds from its sale, Qualified intellectual property, such as a patent, Certain publicly traded securities described next, Inventory and other property donated by a corporation that are “qualified contributions” for the care of the ill, the needy, or infants, within the meaning of section 170(e)(3)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code, or Stock in trade, inventory, or property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of your trade or business. Irs gov free file   Although an appraisal is not required for the types of property just listed, you must provide certain information about a donation of any of these types of property on Form 8283. Irs gov free file Publicly traded securities. Irs gov free file   Even if your claimed deduction is more than $5,000, neither a qualified appraisal nor Section B of Form 8283 is required for publicly traded securities that are: Listed on a stock exchange in which quotations are published on a daily basis, Regularly traded in a national or regional over-the-counter market for which published quotations are available, or Shares of an open-end investment company (mutual fund) for which quotations are published on a daily basis in a newspaper of general circulation throughout the United States. Irs gov free file Publicly traded securities that meet these requirements must be reported on Form 8283, Section A. Irs gov free file   A qualified appraisal is not required, but Form 8283, Section B, Parts I and IV, must be completed, for an issue of a security that does not meet the requirements just listed but does meet these requirements: The issue is regularly traded during the computation period (defined later) in a market for which there is an “interdealer quotation system” (defined later), The issuer or agent computes the “average trading price” (defined later) for the same issue for the computation period, The average trading price and total volume of the issue during the computation period are published in a newspaper of general circulation throughout the United States, not later than the last day of the month following the end of the calendar quarter in which the computation period ends, The issuer or agent keeps books and records that list for each transaction during the computation period the date of settlement of the transaction, the name and address of the broker or dealer making the market in which the transaction occurred, and the trading price and volume, and The issuer or agent permits the Internal Revenue Service to review the books and records described in item (4) with respect to transactions during the computation period upon receiving reasonable notice. Irs gov free file   An interdealer quotation system is any system of general circulation to brokers and dealers that regularly disseminates quotations of obligations by two or more identified brokers or dealers who are not related to either the issuer or agent who computes the average trading price of the security. Irs gov free file A quotation sheet prepared and distributed by a broker or dealer in the regular course of business and containing only quotations of that broker or dealer is not an interdealer quotation system. Irs gov free file   The average trading price is the average price of all transactions (weighted by volume), other than original issue or redemption transactions, conducted through a United States office of a broker or dealer who maintains a market in the issue of the security during the computation period. Irs gov free file Bid and asked quotations are not taken into account. Irs gov free file   The computation period is weekly during October through December and monthly during January through September. Irs gov free file The weekly computation periods during October through December begin with the first Monday in October and end with the first Sunday following the last Monday in December. Irs gov free file Nonpublicly traded stock. Irs gov free file   If you contribute nonpublicly traded stock, for which you claim a deduction of $10,000 or less, a qualified appraisal is not required. Irs gov free file However, you must attach Form 8283 to your tax return, with Section B, Parts I and IV, completed. Irs gov free file Deductions of More Than $500,000 If you claim a deduction of more than $500,000 for a donation of property, you must attach a qualified appraisal of the property to your return. Irs gov free file This does not apply to contributions of cash, inventory, publicly traded stock, or intellectual property. Irs gov free file If you do not attach the appraisal, you cannot deduct your contribution, unless your failure to attach the appraisal is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect. Irs gov free file Qualified Appraisal Generally, if the claimed deduction for an item or group of similar items of donated property is more than $5,000, you must get a qualified appraisal made by a qualified appraiser. Irs gov free file You must also complete Form 8283, Section B, and attach it to your tax return. Irs gov free file See Deductions of More Than $5,000, earlier. Irs gov free file A qualified appraisal is an appraisal document that: Is made, signed, and dated by a qualified appraiser (defined later) in accordance with generally accepted appraisal standards, Meets the relevant requirements of Regulations section 1. Irs gov free file 170A-13(c)(3) and Notice 2006-96, 2006-46 I. Irs gov free file R. Irs gov free file B. Irs gov free file 902 (available at www. Irs gov free file irs. Irs gov free file gov/irb/2006-46_IRB/ar13. Irs gov free file html), Relates to an appraisal made not earlier than 60 days before the date of contribution of the appraised property, Does not involve a prohibited appraisal fee, and Includes certain information (covered later). Irs gov free file You must receive the qualified appraisal before the due date, including extensions, of the return on which a charitable contribution deduction is first claimed for the donated property. Irs gov free file If the deduction is first claimed on an amended return, the qualified appraisal must be received before the date on which the amended return is filed. Irs gov free file Form 8283, Section B, must be attached to your tax return. Irs gov free file Generally, you do not need to attach the qualified appraisal itself, but you should keep a copy as long as it may be relevant under the tax law. Irs gov free file There are four exceptions. Irs gov free file If you claim a deduction of $20,000 or more for donations of art, you must attach a complete copy of the appraisal. Irs gov free file See Paintings, Antiques, and Other Objects of Art, earlier. Irs gov free file If you claim a deduction of more than $500,000 for a donation of property, you must attach the appraisal. Irs gov free file See Deductions of More Than $500,000, earlier. Irs gov free file If you claim a deduction of more than $500 for an article of clothing, or a household item, that is not in good used condition or better, that you donated after August 17, 2006, you must attach the appraisal. Irs gov free file See Deduction over $500 for certain clothing or household items, earlier. Irs gov free file If you claim a deduction in a tax year beginning after August 17, 2006, for an easement or other restriction on the exterior of a building in a historic district, you must attach the appraisal. Irs gov free file See Building in registered historic district, earlier. Irs gov free file Prohibited appraisal fee. Irs gov free file   Generally, no part of the fee arrangement for a qualified appraisal can be based on a percentage of the appraised value of the property. Irs gov free file If a fee arrangement is based on what is allowed as a deduction, after Internal Revenue Service examination or otherwise, it is treated as a fee based on a percentage of appraised value. Irs gov free file However, appraisals are not disqualified when an otherwise prohi