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Irs Forms And Publications

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Irs Forms And Publications

Irs forms and publications Publication 936 - Main Content Table of Contents Part I. Irs forms and publications Home Mortgage InterestSecured Debt Qualified Home Special Situations Points Mortgage Insurance Premiums Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement How To Report Special Rule for Tenant-Stockholders in Cooperative Housing Corporations Part II. Irs forms and publications Limits on Home Mortgage Interest DeductionHome Acquisition Debt Home Equity Debt Grandfathered Debt Table 1 Instructions How To Get Tax HelpLow Income Taxpayer Clinics Part I. Irs forms and publications Home Mortgage Interest This part explains what you can deduct as home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications It includes discussions on points, mortgage insurance premiums, and how to report deductible interest on your tax return. Irs forms and publications Generally, home mortgage interest is any interest you pay on a loan secured by your home (main home or a second home). Irs forms and publications The loan may be a mortgage to buy your home, a second mortgage, a line of credit, or a home equity loan. Irs forms and publications You can deduct home mortgage interest if all the following conditions are met. Irs forms and publications You file Form 1040 and itemize deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040). Irs forms and publications The mortgage is a secured debt on a qualified home in which you have an ownership interest. Irs forms and publications Secured Debt and Qualified Home are explained later. Irs forms and publications  Both you and the lender must intend that the loan be repaid. Irs forms and publications Fully deductible interest. Irs forms and publications   In most cases, you can deduct all of your home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications How much you can deduct depends on the date of the mortgage, the amount of the mortgage, and how you use the mortgage proceeds. Irs forms and publications   If all of your mortgages fit into one or more of the following three categories at all times during the year, you can deduct all of the interest on those mortgages. Irs forms and publications (If any one mortgage fits into more than one category, add the debt that fits in each category to your other debt in the same category. Irs forms and publications ) If one or more of your mortgages does not fit into any of these categories, use Part II of this publication to figure the amount of interest you can deduct. Irs forms and publications   The three categories are as follows. Irs forms and publications Mortgages you took out on or before October 13, 1987 (called grandfathered debt). Irs forms and publications Mortgages you took out after October 13, 1987, to buy, build, or improve your home (called home acquisition debt), but only if throughout 2013 these mortgages plus any grandfathered debt totaled $1 million or less ($500,000 or less if married filing separately). Irs forms and publications Mortgages you took out after October 13, 1987, other than to buy, build, or improve your home (called home equity debt), but only if throughout 2013 these mortgages totaled $100,000 or less ($50,000 or less if married filing separately) and totaled no more than the fair market value of your home reduced by (1) and (2). Irs forms and publications The dollar limits for the second and third categories apply to the combined mortgages on your main home and second home. Irs forms and publications   See Part II for more detailed definitions of grandfathered, home acquisition, and home equity debt. Irs forms and publications    You can use Figure A to check whether your home mortgage interest is fully deductible. Irs forms and publications This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. Irs forms and publications Please click the link to view the image. Irs forms and publications Figure A. Irs forms and publications Is My Home Mortgage Interest Fully Deductible? Secured Debt You can deduct your home mortgage interest only if your mortgage is a secured debt. Irs forms and publications A secured debt is one in which you sign an instrument (such as a mortgage, deed of trust, or land contract) that: Makes your ownership in a qualified home security for payment of the debt, Provides, in case of default, that your home could satisfy the debt, and Is recorded or is otherwise perfected under any state or local law that applies. Irs forms and publications In other words, your mortgage is a secured debt if you put your home up as collateral to protect the interests of the lender. Irs forms and publications If you cannot pay the debt, your home can then serve as payment to the lender to satisfy (pay) the debt. Irs forms and publications In this publication, mortgage will refer to secured debt. Irs forms and publications Debt not secured by home. Irs forms and publications   A debt is not secured by your home if it is secured solely because of a lien on your general assets or if it is a security interest that attaches to the property without your consent (such as a mechanic's lien or judgment lien). Irs forms and publications   A debt is not secured by your home if it once was, but is no longer secured by your home. Irs forms and publications Wraparound mortgage. Irs forms and publications   This is not a secured debt unless it is recorded or otherwise perfected under state law. Irs forms and publications Example. Irs forms and publications Beth owns a home subject to a mortgage of $40,000. Irs forms and publications She sells the home for $100,000 to John, who takes it subject to the $40,000 mortgage. Irs forms and publications Beth continues to make the payments on the $40,000 note. Irs forms and publications John pays $10,000 down and gives Beth a $90,000 note secured by a wraparound mortgage on the home. Irs forms and publications Beth does not record or otherwise perfect the $90,000 mortgage under the state law that applies. Irs forms and publications Therefore, the mortgage is not a secured debt and John cannot deduct any of the interest he pays on it as home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications Choice to treat the debt as not secured by your home. Irs forms and publications   You can choose to treat any debt secured by your qualified home as not secured by the home. Irs forms and publications This treatment begins with the tax year for which you make the choice and continues for all later tax years. Irs forms and publications You can revoke your choice only with the consent of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Irs forms and publications   You may want to treat a debt as not secured by your home if the interest on that debt is fully deductible (for example, as a business expense) whether or not it qualifies as home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications This may allow you, if the limits in Part II apply, more of a deduction for interest on other debts that are deductible only as home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications Cooperative apartment owner. Irs forms and publications   If you own stock in a cooperative housing corporation, see the Special Rule for Tenant-Stockholders in Cooperative Housing Corporations , near the end of this Part I. Irs forms and publications Qualified Home For you to take a home mortgage interest deduction, your debt must be secured by a qualified home. Irs forms and publications This means your main home or your second home. Irs forms and publications A home includes a house, condominium, cooperative, mobile home, house trailer, boat, or similar property that has sleeping, cooking, and toilet facilities. Irs forms and publications The interest you pay on a mortgage on a home other than your main or second home may be deductible if the proceeds of the loan were used for business, investment, or other deductible purposes. Irs forms and publications Otherwise, it is considered personal interest and is not deductible. Irs forms and publications Main home. Irs forms and publications   You can have only one main home at any one time. Irs forms and publications This is the home where you ordinarily live most of the time. Irs forms and publications Second home. Irs forms and publications   A second home is a home that you choose to treat as your second home. Irs forms and publications Second home not rented out. Irs forms and publications   If you have a second home that you do not hold out for rent or resale to others at any time during the year, you can treat it as a qualified home. Irs forms and publications You do not have to use the home during the year. Irs forms and publications Second home rented out. Irs forms and publications   If you have a second home and rent it out part of the year, you also must use it as a home during the year for it to be a qualified home. Irs forms and publications You must use this home more than 14 days or more than 10% of the number of days during the year that the home is rented at a fair rental, whichever is longer. Irs forms and publications If you do not use the home long enough, it is considered rental property and not a second home. Irs forms and publications For information on residential rental property, see Publication 527. Irs forms and publications More than one second home. Irs forms and publications   If you have more than one second home, you can treat only one as the qualified second home during any year. Irs forms and publications However, you can change the home you treat as a second home during the year in the following situations. Irs forms and publications If you get a new home during the year, you can choose to treat the new home as your second home as of the day you buy it. Irs forms and publications If your main home no longer qualifies as your main home, you can choose to treat it as your second home as of the day you stop using it as your main home. Irs forms and publications If your second home is sold during the year or becomes your main home, you can choose a new second home as of the day you sell the old one or begin using it as your main home. Irs forms and publications Divided use of your home. Irs forms and publications   The only part of your home that is considered a qualified home is the part you use for residential living. Irs forms and publications If you use part of your home for other than residential living, such as a home office, you must allocate the use of your home. Irs forms and publications You must then divide both the cost and fair market value of your home between the part that is a qualified home and the part that is not. Irs forms and publications Dividing the cost may affect the amount of your home acquisition debt, which is limited to the cost of your home plus the cost of any improvements. Irs forms and publications (See Home Acquisition Debt in Part II. Irs forms and publications ) Dividing the fair market value may affect your home equity debt limit, also explained in Part II . Irs forms and publications Renting out part of home. Irs forms and publications   If you rent out part of a qualified home to another person (tenant), you can treat the rented part as being used by you for residential living only if all of the following conditions apply. Irs forms and publications The rented part of your home is used by the tenant primarily for residential living. Irs forms and publications The rented part of your home is not a self-contained residential unit having separate sleeping, cooking, and toilet facilities. Irs forms and publications You do not rent (directly or by sublease) the same or different parts of your home to more than two tenants at any time during the tax year. Irs forms and publications If two persons (and dependents of either) share the same sleeping quarters, they are treated as one tenant. Irs forms and publications Office in home. Irs forms and publications   If you have an office in your home that you use in your business, see Publication 587, Business Use of Your Home. Irs forms and publications It explains how to figure your deduction for the business use of your home, which includes the business part of your home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications Home under construction. Irs forms and publications   You can treat a home under construction as a qualified home for a period of up to 24 months, but only if it becomes your qualified home at the time it is ready for occupancy. Irs forms and publications   The 24-month period can start any time on or after the day construction begins. Irs forms and publications Home destroyed. Irs forms and publications   You may be able to continue treating your home as a qualified home even after it is destroyed in a fire, storm, tornado, earthquake, or other casualty. Irs forms and publications This means you can continue to deduct the interest you pay on your home mortgage, subject to the limits described in this publication. Irs forms and publications   You can continue treating a destroyed home as a qualified home if, within a reasonable period of time after the home is destroyed, you: Rebuild the destroyed home and move into it, or Sell the land on which the home was located. Irs forms and publications   This rule applies to your main home and to a second home that you treat as a qualified home. Irs forms and publications Time-sharing arrangements. Irs forms and publications   You can treat a home you own under a time-sharing plan as a qualified home if it meets all the requirements. Irs forms and publications A time-sharing plan is an arrangement between two or more people that limits each person's interest in the home or right to use it to a certain part of the year. Irs forms and publications Rental of time-share. Irs forms and publications   If you rent out your time-share, it qualifies as a second home only if you also use it as a home during the year. Irs forms and publications See Second home rented out , earlier, for the use requirement. Irs forms and publications To know whether you meet that requirement, count your days of use and rental of the home only during the time you have a right to use it or to receive any benefits from the rental of it. Irs forms and publications Married taxpayers. Irs forms and publications   If you are married and file a joint return, your qualified home(s) can be owned either jointly or by only one spouse. Irs forms and publications Separate returns. Irs forms and publications   If you are married filing separately and you and your spouse own more than one home, you can each take into account only one home as a qualified home. Irs forms and publications However, if you both consent in writing, then one spouse can take both the main home and a second home into account. Irs forms and publications Special Situations This section describes certain items that can be included as home mortgage interest and others that cannot. Irs forms and publications It also describes certain special situations that may affect your deduction. Irs forms and publications Late payment charge on mortgage payment. Irs forms and publications   You can deduct as home mortgage interest a late payment charge if it was not for a specific service performed in connection with your mortgage loan. Irs forms and publications Mortgage prepayment penalty. Irs forms and publications   If you pay off your home mortgage early, you may have to pay a penalty. Irs forms and publications You can deduct that penalty as home mortgage interest provided the penalty is not for a specific service performed or cost incurred in connection with your mortgage loan. Irs forms and publications Sale of home. Irs forms and publications   If you sell your home, you can deduct your home mortgage interest (subject to any limits that apply) paid up to, but not including, the date of the sale. Irs forms and publications Example. Irs forms and publications John and Peggy Harris sold their home on May 7. Irs forms and publications Through April 30, they made home mortgage interest payments of $1,220. Irs forms and publications The settlement sheet for the sale of the home showed $50 interest for the 6-day period in May up to, but not including, the date of sale. Irs forms and publications Their mortgage interest deduction is $1,270 ($1,220 + $50). Irs forms and publications Prepaid interest. Irs forms and publications   If you pay interest in advance for a period that goes beyond the end of the tax year, you must spread this interest over the tax years to which it applies. Irs forms and publications You can deduct in each year only the interest that qualifies as home mortgage interest for that year. Irs forms and publications However, there is an exception that applies to points, discussed later. Irs forms and publications Mortgage interest credit. Irs forms and publications    You may be able to claim a mortgage interest credit if you were issued a mortgage credit certificate (MCC) by a state or local government. Irs forms and publications Figure the credit on Form 8396, Mortgage Interest Credit. Irs forms and publications If you take this credit, you must reduce your mortgage interest deduction by the amount of the credit. Irs forms and publications   See Form 8396 and Publication 530 for more information on the mortgage interest credit. Irs forms and publications Ministers' and military housing allowance. Irs forms and publications   If you are a minister or a member of the uniformed services and receive a housing allowance that is not taxable, you can still deduct your home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications Hardest Hit Fund and Emergency Homeowners' Loan Programs. Irs forms and publications   You can use a special method to compute your deduction for mortgage interest and real estate taxes on your main home if you meet the following two conditions. Irs forms and publications You received assistance under: A State Housing Finance Agency (State HFA) Hardest Hit Fund program in which program payments could be used to pay mortgage interest, or An Emergency Homeowners' Loan Program administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) or a state. Irs forms and publications You meet the rules to deduct all of the mortgage interest on your loan and all of the real estate taxes on your main home. Irs forms and publications If you meet these tests, then you can deduct all of the payments you actually made during the year to your mortgage servicer, the State HFA, or HUD on the home mortgage (including the amount shown on box 3 of Form 1098–MA, Mortgage Assistance Payments), but not more than the sum of the amounts shown on Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement, in box 1 (mortgage interest received from payer(s) / borrower(s)), box 4 (mortgage insurance premiums), and box 5 (other information including real property taxes paid). Irs forms and publications However, you are not required to use this special method to compute your deduction for mortgage interest and real estate taxes on your main home. Irs forms and publications Mortgage assistance payments under section 235 of the National Housing Act. Irs forms and publications   If you qualify for mortgage assistance payments for lower-income families under section 235 of the National Housing Act, part or all of the interest on your mortgage may be paid for you. Irs forms and publications You cannot deduct the interest that is paid for you. Irs forms and publications No other effect on taxes. Irs forms and publications   Do not include these mortgage assistance payments in your income. Irs forms and publications Also, do not use these payments to reduce other deductions, such as real estate taxes. Irs forms and publications Divorced or separated individuals. Irs forms and publications   If a divorce or separation agreement requires you or your spouse or former spouse to pay home mortgage interest on a home owned by both of you, the payment of interest may be alimony. Irs forms and publications See the discussion of Payments for jointly-owned home under Alimony in Publication 504, Divorced or Separated Individuals. Irs forms and publications Redeemable ground rents. Irs forms and publications   In some states (such as Maryland), you can buy your home subject to a ground rent. Irs forms and publications A ground rent is an obligation you assume to pay a fixed amount per year on the property. Irs forms and publications Under this arrangement, you are leasing (rather than buying) the land on which your home is located. Irs forms and publications   If you make annual or periodic rental payments on a redeemable ground rent, you can deduct them as mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications   A ground rent is a redeemable ground rent if all of the following are true. Irs forms and publications Your lease, including renewal periods, is for more than 15 years. Irs forms and publications You can freely assign the lease. Irs forms and publications You have a present or future right (under state or local law) to end the lease and buy the lessor's entire interest in the land by paying a specific amount. Irs forms and publications The lessor's interest in the land is primarily a security interest to protect the rental payments to which he or she is entitled. Irs forms and publications   Payments made to end the lease and to buy the lessor's entire interest in the land are not deductible as mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications Nonredeemable ground rents. Irs forms and publications   Payments on a nonredeemable ground rent are not mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications You can deduct them as rent if they are a business expense or if they are for rental property. Irs forms and publications Reverse mortgages. Irs forms and publications   A reverse mortgage is a loan where the lender pays you (in a lump sum, a monthly advance, a line of credit, or a combination of all three) while you continue to live in your home. Irs forms and publications With a reverse mortgage, you retain title to your home. Irs forms and publications Depending on the plan, your reverse mortgage becomes due with interest when you move, sell your home, reach the end of a pre-selected loan period, or die. Irs forms and publications Because reverse mortgages are considered loan advances and not income, the amount you receive is not taxable. Irs forms and publications Any interest (including original issue discount) accrued on a reverse mortgage is not deductible until you actually pay it, which is usually when you pay off the loan in full. Irs forms and publications Your deduction may be limited because a reverse mortgage loan generally is subject to the limit on Home Equity Debt discussed in Part II. Irs forms and publications Rental payments. Irs forms and publications   If you live in a house before final settlement on the purchase, any payments you make for that period are rent and not interest. Irs forms and publications This is true even if the settlement papers call them interest. Irs forms and publications You cannot deduct these payments as home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications Mortgage proceeds invested in tax-exempt securities. Irs forms and publications   You cannot deduct the home mortgage interest on grandfathered debt or home equity debt if you used the proceeds of the mortgage to buy securities or certificates that produce tax-free income. Irs forms and publications “Grandfathered debt” and “home equity debt” are defined in Part II of this publication. Irs forms and publications Refunds of interest. Irs forms and publications   If you receive a refund of interest in the same tax year you paid it, you must reduce your interest expense by the amount refunded to you. Irs forms and publications If you receive a refund of interest you deducted in an earlier year, you generally must include the refund in income in the year you receive it. Irs forms and publications However, you need to include it only up to the amount of the deduction that reduced your tax in the earlier year. Irs forms and publications This is true whether the interest overcharge was refunded to you or was used to reduce the outstanding principal on your mortgage. Irs forms and publications If you need to include the refund in income, report it on Form 1040, line 21. Irs forms and publications   If you received a refund of interest you overpaid in an earlier year, you generally will receive a Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement, showing the refund in box 3. Irs forms and publications For information about Form 1098, see Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement , later. Irs forms and publications   For more information on how to treat refunds of interest deducted in earlier years, see Recoveries in Publication 525, Taxable and Nontaxable Income. Irs forms and publications Cooperative apartment owner. Irs forms and publications   If you own a cooperative apartment, you must reduce your home mortgage interest deduction by your share of any cash portion of a patronage dividend that the cooperative receives. Irs forms and publications The patronage dividend is a partial refund to the cooperative housing corporation of mortgage interest it paid in a prior year. Irs forms and publications   If you receive a Form 1098 from the cooperative housing corporation, the form should show only the amount you can deduct. Irs forms and publications Points The term “points” is used to describe certain charges paid, or treated as paid, by a borrower to obtain a home mortgage. Irs forms and publications Points may also be called loan origination fees, maximum loan charges, loan discount, or discount points. Irs forms and publications This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. Irs forms and publications Please click the link to view the image. Irs forms and publications Figure B. Irs forms and publications Are My Points Fully Deductible This Year? A borrower is treated as paying any points that a home seller pays for the borrower's mortgage. Irs forms and publications See Points paid by the seller , later. Irs forms and publications General Rule You generally cannot deduct the full amount of points in the year paid. Irs forms and publications Because they are prepaid interest, you generally deduct them ratably over the life (term) of the mortgage. Irs forms and publications See Deduction Allowed Ratably , next. Irs forms and publications For exceptions to the general rule, see Deduction Allowed in Year Paid , later. Irs forms and publications Deduction Allowed Ratably If you do not meet the tests listed under Deduction Allowed in Year Paid , later, the loan is not a home improvement loan, or you choose not to deduct your points in full in the year paid, you can deduct the points ratably (equally) over the life of the loan if you meet all the following tests. Irs forms and publications You use the cash method of accounting. Irs forms and publications This means you report income in the year you receive it and deduct expenses in the year you pay them. Irs forms and publications Most individuals use this method. Irs forms and publications Your loan is secured by a home. Irs forms and publications (The home does not need to be your main home. Irs forms and publications ) Your loan period is not more than 30 years. Irs forms and publications If your loan period is more than 10 years, the terms of your loan are the same as other loans offered in your area for the same or longer period. Irs forms and publications Either your loan amount is $250,000 or less, or the number of points is not more than: 4, if your loan period is 15 years or less, or 6, if your loan period is more than 15 years. Irs forms and publications Example. Irs forms and publications You use the cash method of accounting. Irs forms and publications In 2013, you took out a $100,000 loan payable over 20 years. Irs forms and publications The terms of the loan are the same as for other 20-year loans offered in your area. Irs forms and publications You paid $4,800 in points. Irs forms and publications You made 3 monthly payments on the loan in 2013. Irs forms and publications You can deduct $60 [($4,800 ÷ 240 months) x 3 payments] in 2013. Irs forms and publications In 2014, if you make all twelve payments, you will be able to deduct $240 ($20 x 12). Irs forms and publications Deduction Allowed in Year Paid You can fully deduct points in the year paid if you meet all the following tests. Irs forms and publications (You can use Figure B as a quick guide to see whether your points are fully deductible in the year paid. Irs forms and publications ) Your loan is secured by your main home. Irs forms and publications (Your main home is the one you ordinarily live in most of the time. Irs forms and publications ) Paying points is an established business practice in the area where the loan was made. Irs forms and publications The points paid were not more than the points generally charged in that area. Irs forms and publications You use the cash method of accounting. Irs forms and publications This means you report income in the year you receive it and deduct expenses in the year you pay them. Irs forms and publications Most individuals use this method. Irs forms and publications The points were not paid in place of amounts that ordinarily are stated separately on the settlement statement, such as appraisal fees, inspection fees, title fees, attorney fees, and property taxes. Irs forms and publications The funds you provided at or before closing, plus any points the seller paid, were at least as much as the points charged. Irs forms and publications The funds you provided are not required to have been applied to the points. Irs forms and publications They can include a down payment, an escrow deposit, earnest money, and other funds you paid at or before closing for any purpose. Irs forms and publications You cannot have borrowed these funds from your lender or mortgage broker. Irs forms and publications You use your loan to buy or build your main home. Irs forms and publications The points were computed as a percentage of the principal amount of the mortgage. Irs forms and publications The amount is clearly shown on the settlement statement (such as the Settlement Statement, Form HUD-1) as points charged for the mortgage. Irs forms and publications The points may be shown as paid from either your funds or the seller's. Irs forms and publications Note. Irs forms and publications If you meet all of these tests, you can choose to either fully deduct the points in the year paid, or deduct them over the life of the loan. Irs forms and publications Home improvement loan. Irs forms and publications   You can also fully deduct in the year paid points paid on a loan to improve your main home, if tests (1) through (6) are met. Irs forms and publications Second home. Irs forms and publications You cannot fully deduct in the year paid points you pay on loans secured by your second home. Irs forms and publications You can deduct these points only over the life of the loan. Irs forms and publications Refinancing. Irs forms and publications   Generally, points you pay to refinance a mortgage are not deductible in full in the year you pay them. Irs forms and publications This is true even if the new mortgage is secured by your main home. Irs forms and publications   However, if you use part of the refinanced mortgage proceeds to improve your main home and you meet the first 6 tests listed under Deduction Allowed in Year Paid , you can fully deduct the part of the points related to the improvement in the year you paid them with your own funds. Irs forms and publications You can deduct the rest of the points over the life of the loan. Irs forms and publications Example 1. Irs forms and publications In 1998, Bill Fields got a mortgage to buy a home. Irs forms and publications In 2013, Bill refinanced that mortgage with a 15-year $100,000 mortgage loan. Irs forms and publications The mortgage is secured by his home. Irs forms and publications To get the new loan, he had to pay three points ($3,000). Irs forms and publications Two points ($2,000) were for prepaid interest, and one point ($1,000) was charged for services, in place of amounts that ordinarily are stated separately on the settlement statement. Irs forms and publications Bill paid the points out of his private funds, rather than out of the proceeds of the new loan. Irs forms and publications The payment of points is an established practice in the area, and the points charged are not more than the amount generally charged there. Irs forms and publications Bill's first payment on the new loan was due July 1. Irs forms and publications He made six payments on the loan in 2013 and is a cash basis taxpayer. Irs forms and publications Bill used the funds from the new mortgage to repay his existing mortgage. Irs forms and publications Although the new mortgage loan was for Bill's continued ownership of his main home, it was not for the purchase or improvement of that home. Irs forms and publications He cannot deduct all of the points in 2013. Irs forms and publications He can deduct two points ($2,000) ratably over the life of the loan. Irs forms and publications He deducts $67 [($2,000 ÷ 180 months) × 6 payments] of the points in 2013. Irs forms and publications The other point ($1,000) was a fee for services and is not deductible. Irs forms and publications Example 2. Irs forms and publications The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that Bill used $25,000 of the loan proceeds to improve his home and $75,000 to repay his existing mortgage. Irs forms and publications Bill deducts 25% ($25,000 ÷ $100,000) of the points ($2,000) in 2013. Irs forms and publications His deduction is $500 ($2,000 × 25%). Irs forms and publications Bill also deducts the ratable part of the remaining $1,500 ($2,000 − $500) that must be spread over the life of the loan. Irs forms and publications This is $50 [($1,500 ÷ 180 months) × 6 payments] in 2013. Irs forms and publications The total amount Bill deducts in 2013 is $550 ($500 + $50). Irs forms and publications Special Situations This section describes certain special situations that may affect your deduction of points. Irs forms and publications Original issue discount. Irs forms and publications   If you do not qualify to either deduct the points in the year paid or deduct them ratably over the life of the loan, or if you choose not to use either of these methods, the points reduce the issue price of the loan. Irs forms and publications This reduction results in original issue discount, which is discussed in chapter 4 of Publication 535. Irs forms and publications Amounts charged for services. Irs forms and publications    Amounts charged by the lender for specific services connected to the loan are not interest. Irs forms and publications Examples of these charges are: Appraisal fees, Notary fees, and Preparation costs for the mortgage note or deed of trust. Irs forms and publications  You cannot deduct these amounts as points either in the year paid or over the life of the mortgage. Irs forms and publications Points paid by the seller. Irs forms and publications   The term “points” includes loan placement fees that the seller pays to the lender to arrange financing for the buyer. Irs forms and publications Treatment by seller. Irs forms and publications   The seller cannot deduct these fees as interest. Irs forms and publications But they are a selling expense that reduces the amount realized by the seller. Irs forms and publications See Publication 523 for information on selling your home. Irs forms and publications Treatment by buyer. Irs forms and publications   The buyer reduces the basis of the home by the amount of the seller-paid points and treats the points as if he or she had paid them. Irs forms and publications If all the tests under Deduction Allowed in Year Paid , earlier, are met, the buyer can deduct the points in the year paid. Irs forms and publications If any of those tests are not met, the buyer deducts the points over the life of the loan. Irs forms and publications   If you need information about the basis of your home, see Publication 523 or Publication 530. Irs forms and publications Funds provided are less than points. Irs forms and publications   If you meet all the tests in Deduction Allowed in Year Paid , earlier, except that the funds you provided were less than the points charged to you (test (6)), you can deduct the points in the year paid, up to the amount of funds you provided. Irs forms and publications In addition, you can deduct any points paid by the seller. Irs forms and publications Example 1. Irs forms and publications When you took out a $100,000 mortgage loan to buy your home in December, you were charged one point ($1,000). Irs forms and publications You meet all the tests for deducting points in the year paid, except the only funds you provided were a $750 down payment. Irs forms and publications Of the $1,000 charged for points, you can deduct $750 in the year paid. Irs forms and publications You spread the remaining $250 over the life of the mortgage. Irs forms and publications Example 2. Irs forms and publications The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that the person who sold you your home also paid one point ($1,000) to help you get your mortgage. Irs forms and publications In the year paid, you can deduct $1,750 ($750 of the amount you were charged plus the $1,000 paid by the seller). Irs forms and publications You spread the remaining $250 over the life of the mortgage. Irs forms and publications You must reduce the basis of your home by the $1,000 paid by the seller. Irs forms and publications Excess points. Irs forms and publications   If you meet all the tests in Deduction Allowed in Year Paid , earlier, except that the points paid were more than generally paid in your area (test (3)), you deduct in the year paid only the points that are generally charged. Irs forms and publications You must spread any additional points over the life of the mortgage. Irs forms and publications Mortgage ending early. Irs forms and publications   If you spread your deduction for points over the life of the mortgage, you can deduct any remaining balance in the year the mortgage ends. Irs forms and publications However, if you refinance the mortgage with the same lender, you cannot deduct any remaining balance of spread points. Irs forms and publications Instead, deduct the remaining balance over the term of the new loan. Irs forms and publications   A mortgage may end early due to a prepayment, refinancing, foreclosure, or similar event. Irs forms and publications Example. Irs forms and publications Dan paid $3,000 in points in 2002 that he had to spread out over the 15-year life of the mortgage. Irs forms and publications He deducts $200 points per year. Irs forms and publications Through 2012, Dan has deducted $2,200 of the points. Irs forms and publications Dan prepaid his mortgage in full in 2013. Irs forms and publications He can deduct the remaining $800 of points in 2013. Irs forms and publications Limits on deduction. Irs forms and publications   You cannot fully deduct points paid on a mortgage that exceeds the limits discussed in Part II . Irs forms and publications See the Table 1 Instructions for line 10. Irs forms and publications Form 1098. Irs forms and publications    The mortgage interest statement you receive should show not only the total interest paid during the year, but also your deductible points paid during the year. Irs forms and publications See Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement , later. Irs forms and publications Mortgage Insurance Premiums You can treat amounts you paid during 2013 for qualified mortgage insurance as home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications The insurance must be in connection with home acquisition debt, and the insurance contract must have been issued after 2006. Irs forms and publications Qualified mortgage insurance. Irs forms and publications   Qualified mortgage insurance is mortgage insurance provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Federal Housing Administration, or the Rural Housing Service, and private mortgage insurance (as defined in section 2 of the Homeowners Protection Act of 1998 as in effect on December 20, 2006). Irs forms and publications   Mortgage insurance provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs is commonly known as a funding fee. Irs forms and publications If provided by the Rural Housing Service, it is commonly known as a guarantee fee. Irs forms and publications The funding fee and guarantee fee can either be included in the amount of the loan or paid in full at the time of closing. Irs forms and publications These fees can be deducted fully in 2013 if the mortgage insurance contract was issued in 2013. Irs forms and publications Contact the mortgage insurance issuer to determine the deductible amount if it is not reported in box 4 of Form 1098. Irs forms and publications Special rules for prepaid mortgage insurance. Irs forms and publications   Generally, if you paid premiums for qualified mortgage insurance that are properly allocable to periods after the close of the tax year, such premiums are treated as paid in the period to which they are allocated. Irs forms and publications You must allocate the premiums over the shorter of the stated term of the mortgage or 84 months, beginning with the month the insurance was obtained. Irs forms and publications No deduction is allowed for the unamortized balance if the mortgage is satisfied before its term. Irs forms and publications This paragraph does not apply to qualified mortgage insurance provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs or the Rural Housing Service. Irs forms and publications Example. Irs forms and publications Ryan purchased a home in May of 2012 and financed the home with a 15-year mortgage. Irs forms and publications Ryan also prepaid all of the $9,240 in private mortgage insurance required at the time of closing in May. Irs forms and publications Since the $9,240 in private mortgage insurance is allocable to periods after 2012, Ryan must allocate the $9,240 over the shorter of the life of the mortgage or 84 months. Irs forms and publications Ryan's adjusted gross income (AGI) for 2012 is $76,000. Irs forms and publications Ryan can deduct $880 ($9,240 ÷ 84 x 8 months) for qualified mortgage insurance premiums in 2012. Irs forms and publications For 2013, Ryan can deduct $1,320 ($9,240 ÷ 84 x 12 months) if his AGI is $100,000 or less. Irs forms and publications In this example, the mortgage insurance premiums are allocated over 84 months, which is shorter than the life of the mortgage of 15 years (180 months). Irs forms and publications Limit on deduction. Irs forms and publications   If your adjusted gross income on Form 1040, line 38, is more than $100,000 ($50,000 if your filing status is married filing separately), the amount of your mortgage insurance premiums that are otherwise deductible is reduced and may be eliminated. Irs forms and publications See Line 13 in the instructions for Schedule A (Form 1040) and complete the Mortgage Insurance Premiums Deduction Worksheet to figure the amount you can deduct. Irs forms and publications If your adjusted gross income is more than $109,000 ($54,500 if married filing separately), you cannot deduct your mortgage insurance premiums. Irs forms and publications Form 1098. Irs forms and publications   The mortgage interest statement you receive should show not only the total interest paid during the year, but also your mortgage insurance premiums paid during the year, which may qualify to be treated as deductible mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications See Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement, next. Irs forms and publications Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement If you paid $600 or more of mortgage interest (including certain points and mortgage insurance premiums) during the year on any one mortgage, you generally will receive a Form 1098 or a similar statement from the mortgage holder. Irs forms and publications You will receive the statement if you pay interest to a person (including a financial institution or cooperative housing corporation) in the course of that person's trade or business. Irs forms and publications A governmental unit is a person for purposes of furnishing the statement. Irs forms and publications The statement for each year should be sent to you by January 31 of the following year. Irs forms and publications A copy of this form will also be sent to the IRS. Irs forms and publications The statement will show the total interest you paid during the year, any mortgage insurance premiums you paid, and if you purchased a main home during the year, it also will show the deductible points paid during the year, including seller-paid points. Irs forms and publications However, it should not show any interest that was paid for you by a government agency. Irs forms and publications As a general rule, Form 1098 will include only points that you can fully deduct in the year paid. Irs forms and publications However, certain points not included on Form 1098 also may be deductible, either in the year paid or over the life of the loan. Irs forms and publications See the earlier discussion of Points to determine whether you can deduct points not shown on Form 1098. Irs forms and publications Prepaid interest on Form 1098. Irs forms and publications   If you prepaid interest in 2013 that accrued in full by January 15, 2014, this prepaid interest may be included in box 1 of Form 1098. Irs forms and publications However, you cannot deduct the prepaid amount for January 2014 in 2013. Irs forms and publications (See Prepaid interest , earlier. Irs forms and publications ) You will have to figure the interest that accrued for 2014 and subtract it from the amount in box 1. Irs forms and publications You will include the interest for January 2014 with other interest you pay for 2014. Irs forms and publications Refunded interest. Irs forms and publications   If you received a refund of mortgage interest you overpaid in an earlier year, you generally will receive a Form 1098 showing the refund in box 3. Irs forms and publications See Refunds of interest , earlier. Irs forms and publications Mortgage insurance premiums. Irs forms and publications   The amount of mortgage insurance premiums you paid during 2013 may be shown in Box 4 of Form 1098. Irs forms and publications See Mortgage Insurance Premiums , earlier. Irs forms and publications How To Report Deduct the home mortgage interest and points reported to you on Form 1098 on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 10. Irs forms and publications If you paid more deductible interest to the financial institution than the amount shown on Form 1098, show the larger deductible amount on line 10. Irs forms and publications Attach a statement explaining the difference and print “See attached” next to line 10. Irs forms and publications Deduct home mortgage interest that was not reported to you on Form 1098 on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 11. Irs forms and publications If you paid home mortgage interest to the person from whom you bought your home, show that person's name, address, and taxpayer identification number (TIN) on the dotted lines next to line 11. Irs forms and publications The seller must give you this number and you must give the seller your TIN. Irs forms and publications A Form W-9, Request for Taxpayer Identification Number and Certification, can be used for this purpose. Irs forms and publications Failure to meet any of these requirements may result in a $50 penalty for each failure. Irs forms and publications The TIN can be either a social security number, an individual taxpayer identification number (issued by the Internal Revenue Service), or an employer identification number. Irs forms and publications If you can take a deduction for points that were not reported to you on Form 1098, deduct those points on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 12. Irs forms and publications Deduct mortgage insurance premiums on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 13. Irs forms and publications More than one borrower. Irs forms and publications   If you and at least one other person (other than your spouse if you file a joint return) were liable for and paid interest on a mortgage that was for your home, and the other person received a Form 1098 showing the interest that was paid during the year, attach a statement to your return explaining this. Irs forms and publications Show how much of the interest each of you paid, and give the name and address of the person who received the form. Irs forms and publications Deduct your share of the interest on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 11, and print “See attached” next to the line. Irs forms and publications Also, deduct your share of any qualified mortgage insurance premiums on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 13. Irs forms and publications   Similarly, if you are the payer of record on a mortgage on which there are other borrowers entitled to a deduction for the interest shown on the Form 1098 you received, deduct only your share of the interest on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 10. Irs forms and publications Let each of the other borrowers know what his or her share is. Irs forms and publications Mortgage proceeds used for business or investment. Irs forms and publications   If your home mortgage interest deduction is limited under the rules explained in Part II , but all or part of the mortgage proceeds were used for business, investment, or other deductible activities, see Table 2 near the end of this publication. Irs forms and publications It shows where to deduct the part of your excess interest that is for those activities. Irs forms and publications The Table 1 Instructions for line 13 in Part II explain how to divide the excess interest among the activities for which the mortgage proceeds were used. Irs forms and publications Special Rule for Tenant-Stockholders in Cooperative Housing Corporations A qualified home includes stock in a cooperative housing corporation owned by a tenant-stockholder. Irs forms and publications This applies only if the tenant-stockholder is entitled to live in the house or apartment because of owning stock in the cooperative. Irs forms and publications Cooperative housing corporation. Irs forms and publications   This is a corporation that meets all of the following conditions. Irs forms and publications Has only one class of stock outstanding, Has no stockholders other than those who own the stock that can live in a house, apartment, or house trailer owned or leased by the corporation, Has no stockholders who can receive any distribution out of capital other than on a liquidation of the corporation, and Meets at least one of the following requirements. Irs forms and publications Receives at least 80% of its gross income for the year in which the mortgage interest is paid or incurred from tenant-stockholders. Irs forms and publications For this purpose, gross income is all income received during the entire year, including amounts received before the corporation changed to cooperative ownership. Irs forms and publications At all times during the year, at least 80% of the total square footage of the corporation's property is used or available for use by the tenant-stockholders for residential or residential-related use. Irs forms and publications At least 90% of the corporation's expenditures paid or incurred during the year are for the acquisition, construction, management, maintenance, or care of corporate property for the benefit of the tenant-stockholders. Irs forms and publications Stock used to secure debt. Irs forms and publications   In some cases, you cannot use your cooperative housing stock to secure a debt because of either: Restrictions under local or state law, or Restrictions in the cooperative agreement (other than restrictions in which the main purpose is to permit the tenant- stockholder to treat unsecured debt as secured debt). Irs forms and publications However, you can treat a debt as secured by the stock to the extent that the proceeds are used to buy the stock under the allocation of interest rules. Irs forms and publications See chapter 4 of Publication 535 for details on these rules. Irs forms and publications Figuring deductible home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications   Generally, if you are a tenant-stockholder, you can deduct payments you make for your share of the interest paid or incurred by the cooperative. Irs forms and publications The interest must be on a debt to buy, build, change, improve, or maintain the cooperative's housing, or on a debt to buy the land. Irs forms and publications   Figure your share of this interest by multiplying the total by the following fraction. Irs forms and publications      Your shares of stock in the cooperative   The total shares of stock in the cooperative Limits on deduction. Irs forms and publications   To figure how the limits discussed in Part II apply to you, treat your share of the cooperative's debt as debt incurred by you. Irs forms and publications The cooperative should determine your share of its grandfathered debt, its home acquisition debt, and its home equity debt. Irs forms and publications (Your share of each of these types of debt is equal to the average balance of each debt multiplied by the fraction just given. Irs forms and publications ) After your share of the average balance of each type of debt is determined, you include it with the average balance of that type of debt secured by your stock. Irs forms and publications Form 1098. Irs forms and publications    The cooperative should give you a Form 1098 showing your share of the interest. Irs forms and publications Use the rules in this publication to determine your deductible mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications Part II. Irs forms and publications Limits on Home Mortgage Interest Deduction This part of the publication discusses the limits on deductible home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications These limits apply to your home mortgage interest expense if you have a home mortgage that does not fit into any of the three categories listed at the beginning of Part I under Fully deductible interest . Irs forms and publications Your home mortgage interest deduction is limited to the interest on the part of your home mortgage debt that is not more than your qualified loan limit. Irs forms and publications This is the part of your home mortgage debt that is grandfathered debt or that is not more than the limits for home acquisition debt and home equity debt. Irs forms and publications Table 1 can help you figure your qualified loan limit and your deductible home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications Home Acquisition Debt Home acquisition debt is a mortgage you took out after October 13, 1987, to buy, build, or substantially improve a qualified home (your main or second home). Irs forms and publications It also must be secured by that home. Irs forms and publications If the amount of your mortgage is more than the cost of the home plus the cost of any substantial improvements, only the debt that is not more than the cost of the home plus improvements qualifies as home acquisition debt. Irs forms and publications The additional debt may qualify as home equity debt (discussed later). Irs forms and publications Home acquisition debt limit. Irs forms and publications   The total amount you can treat as home acquisition debt at any time on your main home and second home cannot be more than $1 million ($500,000 if married filing separately). Irs forms and publications This limit is reduced (but not below zero) by the amount of your grandfathered debt (discussed later). Irs forms and publications Debt over this limit may qualify as home equity debt (also discussed later). Irs forms and publications Refinanced home acquisition debt. Irs forms and publications   Any secured debt you use to refinance home acquisition debt is treated as home acquisition debt. Irs forms and publications However, the new debt will qualify as home acquisition debt only up to the amount of the balance of the old mortgage principal just before the refinancing. Irs forms and publications Any additional debt not used to buy, build, or substantially improve a qualified home is not home acquisition debt, but may qualify as home equity debt (discussed later). Irs forms and publications Mortgage that qualifies later. Irs forms and publications   A mortgage that does not qualify as home acquisition debt because it does not meet all the requirements may qualify at a later time. Irs forms and publications For example, a debt that you use to buy your home may not qualify as home acquisition debt because it is not secured by the home. Irs forms and publications However, if the debt is later secured by the home, it may qualify as home acquisition debt after that time. Irs forms and publications Similarly, a debt that you use to buy property may not qualify because the property is not a qualified home. Irs forms and publications However, if the property later becomes a qualified home, the debt may qualify after that time. Irs forms and publications Mortgage treated as used to buy, build, or improve home. Irs forms and publications   A mortgage secured by a qualified home may be treated as home acquisition debt, even if you do not actually use the proceeds to buy, build, or substantially improve the home. Irs forms and publications This applies in the following situations. Irs forms and publications You buy your home within 90 days before or after the date you take out the mortgage. Irs forms and publications The home acquisition debt is limited to the home's cost, plus the cost of any substantial improvements within the limit described below in (2) or (3). Irs forms and publications (See Example 1 later. Irs forms and publications ) You build or improve your home and take out the mortgage before the work is completed. Irs forms and publications The home acquisition debt is limited to the amount of the expenses incurred within 24 months before the date of the mortgage. Irs forms and publications You build or improve your home and take out the mortgage within 90 days after the work is completed. Irs forms and publications The home acquisition debt is limited to the amount of the expenses incurred within the period beginning 24 months before the work is completed and ending on the date of the mortgage. Irs forms and publications (See Example 2 later. Irs forms and publications ) Example 1. Irs forms and publications You bought your main home on June 3 for $175,000. Irs forms and publications You paid for the home with cash you got from the sale of your old home. Irs forms and publications On July 15, you took out a mortgage of $150,000 secured by your main home. Irs forms and publications You used the $150,000 to invest in stocks. Irs forms and publications You can treat the mortgage as taken out to buy your home because you bought the home within 90 days before you took out the mortgage. Irs forms and publications The entire mortgage qualifies as home acquisition debt because it was not more than the home's cost. Irs forms and publications Example 2. Irs forms and publications On January 31, John began building a home on the lot that he owned. Irs forms and publications He used $45,000 of his personal funds to build the home. Irs forms and publications The home was completed on October 31. Irs forms and publications On November 21, John took out a $36,000 mortgage that was secured by the home. Irs forms and publications The mortgage can be treated as used to build the home because it was taken out within 90 days after the home was completed. Irs forms and publications The entire mortgage qualifies as home acquisition debt because it was not more than the expenses incurred within the period beginning 24 months before the home was completed. Irs forms and publications This is illustrated by Figure C. Irs forms and publications   Please click here for the text description of the image. Irs forms and publications Figure C. Irs forms and publications John's example Date of the mortgage. Irs forms and publications   The date you take out your mortgage is the day the loan proceeds are disbursed. Irs forms and publications This is generally the closing date. Irs forms and publications You can treat the day you apply in writing for your mortgage as the date you take it out. Irs forms and publications However, this applies only if you receive the loan proceeds within a reasonable time (such as within 30 days) after your application is approved. Irs forms and publications If a timely application you make is rejected, a reasonable additional time will be allowed to make a new application. Irs forms and publications Cost of home or improvements. Irs forms and publications   To determine your cost, include amounts paid to acquire any interest in a qualified home or to substantially improve the home. Irs forms and publications   The cost of building or substantially improving a qualified home includes the costs to acquire real property and building materials, fees for architects and design plans, and required building permits. Irs forms and publications Substantial improvement. Irs forms and publications   An improvement is substantial if it: Adds to the value of your home, Prolongs your home's useful life, or Adapts your home to new uses. Irs forms and publications    Repairs that maintain your home in good condition, such as repainting your home, are not substantial improvements. Irs forms and publications However, if you paint your home as part of a renovation that substantially improves your qualified home, you can include the painting costs in the cost of the improvements. Irs forms and publications Acquiring an interest in a home because of a divorce. Irs forms and publications   If you incur debt to acquire the interest of a spouse or former spouse in a home, because of a divorce or legal separation, you can treat that debt as home acquisition debt. Irs forms and publications Part of home not a qualified home. Irs forms and publications    To figure your home acquisition debt, you must divide the cost of your home and improvements between the part of your home that is a qualified home and any part that is not a qualified home. Irs forms and publications See Divided use of your home under Qualified Home in Part I. Irs forms and publications Home Equity Debt If you took out a loan for reasons other than to buy, build, or substantially improve your home, it may qualify as home equity debt. Irs forms and publications In addition, debt you incurred to buy, build, or substantially improve your home, to the extent it is more than the home acquisition debt limit (discussed earlier), may qualify as home equity debt. Irs forms and publications Home equity debt is a mortgage you took out after October 13, 1987, that: Does not qualify as home acquisition debt or as grandfathered debt, and Is secured by your qualified home. Irs forms and publications Example. Irs forms and publications You bought your home for cash 10 years ago. Irs forms and publications You did not have a mortgage on your home until last year, when you took out a $50,000 loan, secured by your home, to pay for your daughter's college tuition and your father's medical bills. Irs forms and publications This loan is home equity debt. Irs forms and publications Home equity debt limit. Irs forms and publications   There is a limit on the amount of debt that can be treated as home equity debt. Irs forms and publications The total home equity debt on your main home and second home is limited to the smaller of: $100,000 ($50,000 if married filing separately), or The total of each home's fair market value (FMV) reduced (but not below zero) by the amount of its home acquisition debt and grandfathered debt. Irs forms and publications Determine the FMV and the outstanding home acquisition and grandfathered debt for each home on the date that the last debt was secured by the home. Irs forms and publications Example. Irs forms and publications You own one home that you bought in 2000. Irs forms and publications Its FMV now is $110,000, and the current balance on your original mortgage (home acquisition debt) is $95,000. Irs forms and publications Bank M offers you a home mortgage loan of 125% of the FMV of the home less any outstanding mortgages or other liens. Irs forms and publications To consolidate some of your other debts, you take out a $42,500 home mortgage loan [(125% × $110,000) − $95,000] with Bank M. Irs forms and publications Your home equity debt is limited to $15,000. Irs forms and publications This is the smaller of: $100,000, the maximum limit, or $15,000, the amount that the FMV of $110,000 exceeds the amount of home acquisition debt of $95,000. Irs forms and publications Debt higher than limit. Irs forms and publications   Interest on amounts over the home equity debt limit (such as the interest on $27,500 [$42,500 − $15,000] in the preceding example) generally is treated as personal interest and is not deductible. Irs forms and publications But if the proceeds of the loan were used for investment, business, or other deductible purposes, the interest may be deductible. Irs forms and publications If it is, see the Table 1 Instructions for line 13 for an explanation of how to allocate the excess interest. Irs forms and publications Part of home not a qualified home. Irs forms and publications   To figure the limit on your home equity debt, you must divide the FMV of your home between the part that is a qualified home and any part that is not a qualified home. Irs forms and publications See Divided use of your home under Qualified Home in Part I. Irs forms and publications Fair market value (FMV). Irs forms and publications    This is the price at which the home would change hands between you and a buyer, neither having to sell or buy, and both having reasonable knowledge of all relevant facts. Irs forms and publications Sales of similar homes in your area, on about the same date your last debt was secured by the home, may be helpful in figuring the FMV. Irs forms and publications Grandfathered Debt If you took out a mortgage on your home before October 14, 1987, or you refinanced such a mortgage, it may qualify as grandfathered debt. Irs forms and publications To qualify, it must have been secured by your qualified home on October 13, 1987, and at all times after that date. Irs forms and publications How you used the proceeds does not matter. Irs forms and publications Grandfathered debt is not limited. Irs forms and publications All of the interest you paid on grandfathered debt is fully deductible home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications However, the amount of your grandfathered debt reduces the $1 million limit for home acquisition debt and the limit based on your home's fair market value for home equity debt. Irs forms and publications Refinanced grandfathered debt. Irs forms and publications   If you refinanced grandfathered debt after October 13, 1987, for an amount that was not more than the mortgage principal left on the debt, then you still treat it as grandfathered debt. Irs forms and publications To the extent the new debt is more than that mortgage principal, it is treated as home acquisition or home equity debt, and the mortgage is a mixed-use mortgage (discussed later under Average Mortgage Balance in the Table 1 instructions). Irs forms and publications The debt must be secured by the qualified home. Irs forms and publications   You treat grandfathered debt that was refinanced after October 13, 1987, as grandfathered debt only for the term left on the debt that was refinanced. Irs forms and publications After that, you treat it as home acquisition debt or home equity debt, depending on how you used the proceeds. Irs forms and publications Exception. Irs forms and publications   If the debt before refinancing was like a balloon note (the principal on the debt was not amortized over the term of the debt), then you treat the refinanced debt as grandfathered debt for the term of the first refinancing. Irs forms and publications This term cannot be more than 30 years. Irs forms and publications Example. Irs forms and publications Chester took out a $200,000 first mortgage on his home in 1986. Irs forms and publications The mortgage was a five-year balloon note and the entire balance on the note was due in 1991. Irs forms and publications Chester refinanced the debt in 1991 with a new 20-year mortgage. Irs forms and publications The refinanced debt is treated as grandfathered debt for its entire term (20 years). Irs forms and publications Line-of-credit mortgage. Irs forms and publications    If you had a line-of-credit mortgage on October 13, 1987, and borrowed additional amounts against it after that date, then the additional amounts are either home acquisition debt or home equity debt depending on how you used the proceeds. Irs forms and publications The balance on the mortgage before you borrowed the additional amounts is grandfathered debt. Irs forms and publications The newly borrowed amounts are not grandfathered debt because the funds were borrowed after October 13, 1987. Irs forms and publications See Average Mortgage Balance in the Table 1 Instructions that follow. Irs forms and publications Table 1 Instructions Unless you are subject to the overall limit on itemized deductions, you can deduct all of the interest you paid during the year on mortgages secured by your main home or second home in either of the following two situations. Irs forms and publications All the mortgages are grandfathered debt. Irs forms and publications The total of the mortgage balances for the entire year is within the limits discussed earlier under Home Acquisition Debt and Home Equity Debt . Irs forms and publications In either of those cases, you do not need Table 1. Irs forms and publications Otherwise, you can use Table 1 to determine your qualified loan limit and deductible home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications Fill out only one Table 1 for both your main and second home regardless of how many mortgages you have. Irs forms and publications Table 1. Irs forms and publications Worksheet To Figure Your Qualified Loan Limit and Deductible Home Mortgage Interest For the Current Year See the Table 1 Instructions. Irs forms and publications Part I Qualified Loan Limit 1. Irs forms and publications Enter the average balance of all your grandfathered debt. Irs forms and publications See line 1 instructions 1. Irs forms and publications   2. Irs forms and publications Enter the average balance of all your home acquisition debt. Irs forms and publications See line 2 instructions 2. Irs forms and publications   3. Irs forms and publications Enter $1,000,000 ($500,000 if married filing separately) 3. Irs forms and publications   4. Irs forms and publications Enter the larger of the amount on line 1 or the amount on line 3 4. Irs forms and publications   5. Irs forms and publications Add the amounts on lines 1 and 2. Irs forms and publications Enter the total here 5. Irs forms and publications   6. Irs forms and publications Enter the smaller of the amount on line 4 or the amount on line 5 6. Irs forms and publications   7. Irs forms and publications If you have home equity debt, enter the smaller of $100,000 ($50,000 if married filing separately) or your limited amount. Irs forms and publications See the line 7 instructions for the limit which may apply to you. Irs forms and publications 7. Irs forms and publications   8. Irs forms and publications Add the amounts on lines 6 and 7. Irs forms and publications Enter the total. Irs forms and publications This is your qualified loan limit. Irs forms and publications 8. Irs forms and publications   Part II Deductible Home Mortgage Interest 9. Irs forms and publications Enter the total of the average balances of all mortgages on all qualified homes. Irs forms and publications  See line 9 instructions 9. Irs forms and publications     If line 8 is less than line 9, go on to line 10. Irs forms and publications If line 8 is equal to or more than line 9, stop here. Irs forms and publications All of your interest on all the mortgages included on line 9 is deductible as home mortgage interest on Schedule A (Form 1040). Irs forms and publications     10. Irs forms and publications Enter the total amount of interest that you paid. Irs forms and publications See line 10 instructions 10. Irs forms and publications   11. Irs forms and publications Divide the amount on line 8 by the amount on line 9. Irs forms and publications Enter the result as a decimal amount (rounded to three places) 11. Irs forms and publications × . Irs forms and publications 12. Irs forms and publications Multiply the amount on line 10 by the decimal amount on line 11. Irs forms and publications Enter the result. Irs forms and publications This is your deductible home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications Enter this amount on Schedule A (Form 1040) 12. Irs forms and publications   13. Irs forms and publications Subtract the amount on line 12 from the amount on line 10. Irs forms and publications Enter the result. Irs forms and publications This is not home mortgage interest. Irs forms and publications See line 13 instructions 13. Irs forms and publications   Home equity debt only. Irs forms and publications   If all of your mortgages are home equity debt, do not fill in lines 1 through 5. Irs forms and publications Enter zero on line 6 and complete the rest of Table 1. Irs forms and publications Average Mortgage Balance You have to figure the average balance of each mortgage to determine your qualified loan limit. Irs forms and publications You need these amounts to complete lines 1, 2, and 9 of Table 1. Irs forms and publications You can use the highest mortgage balances during the year, but you may benefit most by using the average balances. Irs forms and publications The following are methods you can use to figure your average mortgage balances. Irs forms and publications However, if a mortgage has more than one category of debt, see Mixed-use mortgages , later, in this section. Irs forms and publications Average of first and last balance method. Irs forms and publications   You can use this method if all the following apply. Irs forms and publications You did not borrow any new amounts on the mortgage during the year. Irs forms and publications (This does not include borrowing the original mortgage amount. Irs forms and publications ) You did not prepay more than one month's principal during the year. Irs forms and publications (This includes prepayment by refinancing your home or by applying proceeds from its sale. Irs forms and publications ) You had to make level payments at fixed equal intervals on at least a semi-annual basis. Irs forms and publications You treat your payments as level even if they were adjusted from time to time because of changes in the interest rate. Irs forms and publications    To figure your average balance, complete the following worksheet. Irs forms and publications    1. Irs forms and publications Enter the balance as of the first day of the year that the mortgage was secured by your qualified home during the year (generally January 1)   2. Irs forms and publications Enter the balance as of the last day of the year that the mortgage was secured by your qualified home during the year (generally December 31)   3. Irs forms and publications Add amounts on lines 1 and 2   4. Irs forms and publications Divide the amount on line 3 by 2. Irs forms and publications Enter the result   Interest paid divided by interest rate method. Irs forms and publications   You can use this method if at all times in 2013 the mortgage was secured by your qualified home and the interest was paid at least monthly. Irs forms and publications    Complete the following worksheet to figure your average balance. Irs forms and publications    1. Irs forms and publications Enter the interest paid in 2013. Irs forms and publications Do not include points, mortgage insurance premiums, or any interest paid in 2013 that is for a year after 2013. Irs forms and publications However, do include interest that is for 2013 but was paid in an earlier year   2. Irs forms and publications Enter the annual interest rate on the mortgage. Irs forms and publications If the interest rate varied in 2013, use the lowest rate for the year   3. Irs forms and publications Divide the amount on line 1 by the amount on line 2. Irs forms and publications Enter the result   Example. Irs forms and publications Mr. Irs forms and publications Blue had a line of credit secured by his main home all year. Irs forms and publications He paid interest of $2,500 on this loan. Irs forms and publications The interest rate on the loan was 9% (. Irs forms and publications 09) all year. Irs forms and publications His average balance using this method is $27,778, figured as follows. Irs forms and publications 1. Irs forms and publications Enter the interest paid in 2013. Irs forms and publications Do not include points, mortgage insurance premiums, or any interest paid in 2013 that is for a year after 2013. Irs forms and publications However, do include interest that is for 2013 but was paid in an earlier year $2,500 2. Irs forms and publications Enter the annual interest rate on the mortgage. Irs forms and publications If the interest rate varied in 2013, use the lowest rate for the year . Irs forms and publications 09 3. Irs forms and publications Divide the amount on line 1 by the amount on line 2. Irs forms and publications Enter the result $27,778 Statements provided by your lender. Irs forms and publications   If you receive monthly statements showing the closing balance or the average balance for the month, you can use either to figure your average balance for the year. Irs forms and publications You can treat the balance as zero for any month the mortgage was not secured by your qualified home. Irs forms and publications   For each mortgage, figure your average balance by adding your monthly closing or average balances and dividing that total by the number of months the home secured by that mortgage was a qualified home during the year. Irs forms and publications   If your lender can give you your average balance for the year, you can use that amount. Irs forms and publications Example. Irs forms and publications Ms. Irs forms and publications Brown had a home equity loan secured by her main home all year. Irs forms and publications She received monthly statements showing her average balance for each month. Irs forms and publications She can figure her average balance for the year by adding her monthly average balances and dividing the total by 12. Irs forms and publications Mixed-use mortgages. Irs forms and publications   A mixed-use mortgage is a loan that consists of more than one of the three categories of debt (grandfathered debt, home acquisition debt, and home equity debt). Irs forms and publications For example, a mortgage you took out during the year is a mixed-use mortgage if you used its proceeds partly to refinance a mortgage that you took out in an earlier year to buy your home (home acquisition debt) and partly to buy a car (home equity debt). Irs forms and publications   Complete lines 1 and 2 of Table 1 by including the separate average balances of any grandfathered debt and home acquisition debt in your mixed-use mortgage. Irs forms and publications Do not use the methods described earlier in this section to figure the average balance of either category. Irs forms and publications Instead, for each category, use the following method. Irs forms and publications Figure the balance of that category of debt for each month. Irs forms and publications This is the amount of the loan proceeds allocated to that category, reduced by your principal payments on the mortgage previously applied to that category. Irs forms and publications Principal payments on a mixed-use mortgage are applied in full to each category of debt, until its balance is zero, in the following order: First, any home equity debt, Next, any grandfathered debt, and Finally, any home acquisition debt. Irs forms and publications Add together the monthly balances figured in (1). Irs forms and publications Divide the result in (2) by 12. Irs forms and publications   Complete line 9 of Table 1 by including the average balance of the entire mixed-use mortgage, figured under one of the methods described earlier in this section. Irs forms and publications Example 1. Irs forms and publications In 1986, Sharon took out a $1,400,000 mortgage to buy her main home (grandfathered debt). Irs forms and publications On March 2, 2013, when the home had a fair market value of $1,700,000 and she owed $1,100,000 on the mortgage, Sharon took out a second mortgage for $200,000. Irs forms and publications She used $180,000 of the proceeds to make substantial improvements to her home (home acquisition debt) and the remaining $20,000 to buy a car (home equity debt). Irs forms and publications Under the loan agreement, Sharon must make principal payments of $1,000 at the end of each month. Irs forms and publications During 2013, her principal payments on the second mortgage totaled $10,000. Irs forms and publications To complete Table 1, line 2, Sharon must figure a separate average balance for the part of her second mortgage that is home acquisition debt. Irs forms and publications The January and February balances were zero. Irs forms and publications The March through December balances were all $180,000, because none of her principal payments are applied to the home acquisition debt. Irs forms and publications (They are all applied to the home equity debt, reducing it to $10,000 [$20,000 − $10,000]. Irs forms and publications ) The monthly balances of the home acquisition debt total $1,800,000 ($180,000 × 10). Irs forms and publications Therefore, the average balance of the home acquisition debt for 2013 was $150,000 ($1,800,000 ÷ 12). Irs forms and publications Example 2. Irs forms and publications The facts are the same as in Example 1. Irs forms and publications In 2014, Sharon's January through October principal payments on her second mortgage are applied to the home equity debt, reducing it to zero. Irs forms and publications The balance of the home acquisition debt remains $180,000 for each of those months. Irs forms and publications Because her November and December principal payments are applied to the home acquisition debt, the November balance is $179,000 ($180,000 − $1,000) and the December balance is $178,000 ($180,000 − $2,000). Irs forms and publications The monthly balances total $2,157,000 [($180,000 × 10) + $179,000 + $178,000]. Irs forms and publications Therefore, the average balance of the home acquisition debt for 2014 is $179,750 ($2,157,000 ÷ 12). Irs forms and publications L
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Understanding your CP153 Notice

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Tax publications you may find useful

How to get help

Calling the toll free number listed on the top right corner of your notice is the fastest way to get your questions answered.

You can also authorize someone (such as an accountant) to contact the IRS on your behalf using this Power of Attorney and Declaration of Representative (Form 2848).
 


What you need to do

Your refund should arrive in three to four weeks from the date of your notice. Please call the number listed on your notice if you haven't received your refund check after four weeks.


Answers to Common Questions

Why can't the IRS send me a direct deposit refund for my return from two years ago?
A Direct deposit refund is only available for this year's return. We mail refund checks for returns from earlier years.

What do I need to do next year to get my refund through a direct deposit?
Complete a Form 8050, Direct Deposit of Corporate Tax Refund and attach it to your return next year when you file your Form 1120, U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return, or your Form 1120S, U.S. Income Tax Return for an S Corporation.

Complete the requested banking information in the "Direct Deposit" section of your tax form the next time you file a Form 8038-CP, Return for Credit Payments to Issuers of Qualified Bonds.


Tips for next year

Consider filing your taxes electronically. Filing online can help you avoid mistakes and find credits and deductions that you may qualify for. In many cases you can file for free. Learn more about e-file.

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