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Income Tax Return Preparation

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Income Tax Return Preparation

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The Department of Agriculture's Rural Business and Cooperative programs provide support for rural businesses primarily through grants and loans.

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The Income Tax Return Preparation

Income tax return preparation 1. Income tax return preparation   Rental Income and Expenses (If No Personal Use of Dwelling) Table of Contents Rental IncomeWhen To Report Types of Income Rental ExpensesWhen To Deduct Types of Expenses This chapter discusses the various types of rental income and expenses for a residential rental activity with no personal use of the dwelling. Income tax return preparation Generally, each year you will report all income and deduct all out-of-pocket expenses in full. Income tax return preparation The deduction to recover the cost of your rental property—depreciation—is taken over a prescribed number of years, and is discussed in chapter 2, Depreciation of Rental Property. Income tax return preparation If your rental income is from property you also use personally or rent to someone at less than a fair rental price, first read the information in chapter 5 , Personal Use of Dwelling Unit (Including Vacation Home). Income tax return preparation Rental Income In most cases, you must include in your gross income all amounts you receive as rent. Income tax return preparation Rental income is any payment you receive for the use or occupation of property. Income tax return preparation In addition to amounts you receive as normal rental payments, there are other amounts that may be rental income. Income tax return preparation When To Report When you report rental income on your tax return generally depends on whether you are a cash basis taxpayer or use an accrual method. Income tax return preparation Most individual taxpayers use the cash method. Income tax return preparation Cash method. Income tax return preparation   You are a cash basis taxpayer if you report income on your return in the year you actually or constructively receive it, regardless of when it was earned. Income tax return preparation You constructively receive income when it is made available to you, for example, by being credited to your bank account. Income tax return preparation Accrual method. Income tax return preparation    If you are an accrual basis taxpayer, you generally report income when you earn it, rather than when you receive it. Income tax return preparation You generally deduct your expenses when you incur them, rather than when you pay them. Income tax return preparation More information. Income tax return preparation   See Publication 538, Accounting Periods and Methods, for more information about when you constructively receive income and accrual methods of accounting. Income tax return preparation Types of Income The following are common types of rental income. Income tax return preparation Advance rent. Income tax return preparation   Advance rent is any amount you receive before the period that it covers. Income tax return preparation Include advance rent in your rental income in the year you receive it regardless of the period covered or the method of accounting you use. Income tax return preparation Example. Income tax return preparation On March 18, 2013, you signed a 10-year lease to rent your property. Income tax return preparation During 2013, you received $9,600 for the first year's rent and $9,600 as rent for the last year of the lease. Income tax return preparation You must include $19,200 in your rental income in the first year. Income tax return preparation Canceling a lease. Income tax return preparation   If your tenant pays you to cancel a lease, the amount you receive is rent. Income tax return preparation Include the payment in your income in the year you receive it regardless of your method of accounting. Income tax return preparation Expenses paid by tenant. Income tax return preparation   If your tenant pays any of your expenses, those payments are rental income. Income tax return preparation Because you must include this amount in income, you can also deduct the expenses if they are deductible rental expenses. Income tax return preparation For more information, see Rental Expenses , later. Income tax return preparation Example 1. Income tax return preparation Your tenant pays the water and sewage bill for your rental property and deducts the amount from the normal rent payment. Income tax return preparation Under the terms of the lease, your tenant does not have to pay this bill. Income tax return preparation Include the utility bill paid by the tenant and any amount received as a rent payment in your rental income. Income tax return preparation You can deduct the utility payment made by your tenant as a rental expense. Income tax return preparation Example 2. Income tax return preparation While you are out of town, the furnace in your rental property stops working. Income tax return preparation Your tenant pays for the necessary repairs and deducts the repair bill from the rent payment. Income tax return preparation Include the repair bill paid by the tenant and any amount received as a rent payment in your rental income. Income tax return preparation You can deduct the repair payment made by your tenant as a rental expense. Income tax return preparation Property or services. Income tax return preparation   If you receive property or services as rent, instead of money, include the fair market value of the property or services in your rental income. Income tax return preparation   If the services are provided at an agreed upon or specified price, that price is the fair market value unless there is evidence to the contrary. Income tax return preparation Example. Income tax return preparation Your tenant is a house painter. Income tax return preparation He offers to paint your rental property instead of paying 2 months rent. Income tax return preparation You accept his offer. Income tax return preparation Include in your rental income the amount the tenant would have paid for 2 months rent. Income tax return preparation You can deduct that same amount as a rental expense for painting your property. Income tax return preparation Security deposits. Income tax return preparation   Do not include a security deposit in your income when you receive it if you plan to return it to your tenant at the end of the lease. Income tax return preparation But if you keep part or all of the security deposit during any year because your tenant does not live up to the terms of the lease, include the amount you keep in your income in that year. Income tax return preparation    If an amount called a security deposit is to be used as a final payment of rent, it is advance rent. Income tax return preparation Include it in your income when you receive it. Income tax return preparation Other Sources of Rental Income Lease with option to buy. Income tax return preparation   If the rental agreement gives your tenant the right to buy your rental property, the payments you receive under the agreement are generally rental income. Income tax return preparation If your tenant exercises the right to buy the property, the payments you receive for the period after the date of sale are considered part of the selling price. Income tax return preparation Part interest. Income tax return preparation   If you own a part interest in rental property, you must report your part of the rental income from the property. Income tax return preparation Rental of property also used as your home. Income tax return preparation   If you rent property that you also use as your home and you rent it less than 15 days during the tax year, do not include the rent you receive in your income and do not deduct rental expenses. Income tax return preparation However, you can deduct on Schedule A (Form 1040), Itemized Deductions, the interest, taxes, and casualty and theft losses that are allowed for nonrental property. Income tax return preparation See chapter 5, Personal Use of Dwelling Unit (Including Vacation Home). Income tax return preparation Rental Expenses In most cases, the expenses of renting your property, such as maintenance, insurance, taxes, and interest, can be deducted from your rental income. Income tax return preparation Personal use of rental property. Income tax return preparation   If you sometimes use your rental property for personal purposes, you must divide your expenses between rental and personal use. Income tax return preparation Also, your rental expense deductions may be limited. Income tax return preparation See chapter 5, Personal Use of Dwelling Unit (Including Vacation Home). Income tax return preparation Part interest. Income tax return preparation   If you own a part interest in rental property, you can deduct expenses you paid according to your percentage of ownership. Income tax return preparation Example. Income tax return preparation Roger owns a one-half undivided interest in a rental house. Income tax return preparation Last year he paid $968 for necessary repairs on the property. Income tax return preparation Roger can deduct $484 (50% × $968) as a rental expense. Income tax return preparation He is entitled to reimbursement for the remaining half from the co-owner. Income tax return preparation When To Deduct You generally deduct your rental expenses in the year you pay them. Income tax return preparation If you use the accrual method, see Publication 538 for more information. Income tax return preparation Types of Expenses Listed below are the most common rental expenses. Income tax return preparation Advertising. Income tax return preparation Auto and travel expenses. Income tax return preparation Cleaning and maintenance. Income tax return preparation Commissions. Income tax return preparation Depreciation. Income tax return preparation Insurance. Income tax return preparation Interest (other). Income tax return preparation Legal and other professional fees. Income tax return preparation Local transportation expenses. Income tax return preparation Management fees. Income tax return preparation Mortgage interest paid to banks, etc. Income tax return preparation Points. Income tax return preparation Rental payments. Income tax return preparation Repairs. Income tax return preparation Taxes. Income tax return preparation Utilities. Income tax return preparation Some of these expenses, as well as other less common ones, are discussed below. Income tax return preparation Depreciation. Income tax return preparation   Depreciation is a capital expense. Income tax return preparation It is the mechanism for recovering your cost in an income producing property and must be taken over the expected life of the property. Income tax return preparation   You can begin to depreciate rental property when it is ready and available for rent. Income tax return preparation See Placed in Service under When Does Depreciation Begin and End in chapter 2. Income tax return preparation Insurance premiums paid in advance. Income tax return preparation   If you pay an insurance premium for more than one year in advance, for each year of coverage you can deduct the part of the premium payment that will apply to that year. Income tax return preparation You cannot deduct the total premium in the year you pay it. Income tax return preparation See chapter 6 of Publication 535 for information on deductible premiums. Income tax return preparation Interest expense. Income tax return preparation   You can deduct mortgage interest you pay on your rental property. Income tax return preparation When you refinance a rental property for more than the previous outstanding balance, the portion of the interest allocable to loan proceeds not related to rental use generally cannot be deducted as a rental expense. Income tax return preparation Chapter 4 of Publication 535 explains mortgage interest in detail. Income tax return preparation Expenses paid to obtain a mortgage. Income tax return preparation   Certain expenses you pay to obtain a mortgage on your rental property cannot be deducted as interest. Income tax return preparation These expenses, which include mortgage commissions, abstract fees, and recording fees, are capital expenses that are part of your basis in the property. Income tax return preparation Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement. Income tax return preparation   If you paid $600 or more of mortgage interest on your rental property to any one person, you should receive a Form 1098 or similar statement showing the interest you paid for the year. Income tax return preparation If you and at least one other person (other than your spouse if you file a joint return) were liable for, and paid interest on, the mortgage, and the other person received the Form 1098, report your share of the interest on Schedule E (Form 1040), line 13. Income tax return preparation Attach a statement to your return showing the name and address of the other person. Income tax return preparation On the dotted line next to line 13, enter “See attached. Income tax return preparation ” Legal and other professional fees. Income tax return preparation   You can deduct, as a rental expense, legal and other professional expenses such as tax return preparation fees you paid to prepare Schedule E, Part I. Income tax return preparation For example, on your 2013 Schedule E you can deduct fees paid in 2013 to prepare Part I of your 2012 Schedule E. Income tax return preparation You can also deduct, as a rental expense, any expense (other than federal taxes and penalties) you paid to resolve a tax underpayment related to your rental activities. Income tax return preparation Local benefit taxes. Income tax return preparation   In most cases, you cannot deduct charges for local benefits that increase the value of your property, such as charges for putting in streets, sidewalks, or water and sewer systems. Income tax return preparation These charges are nondepreciable capital expenditures and must be added to the basis of your property. Income tax return preparation However, you can deduct local benefit taxes that are for maintaining, repairing, or paying interest charges for the benefits. Income tax return preparation Local transportation expenses. Income tax return preparation   You may be able to deduct your ordinary and necessary local transportation expenses if you incur them to collect rental income or to manage, conserve, or maintain your rental property. Income tax return preparation However, transportation expenses incurred to travel between your home and a rental property generally constitute nondeductible commuting costs unless you use your home as your principal place of business. Income tax return preparation See Publication 587, Business Use of Your Home, for information on determining if your home office qualifies as a principal place of business. Income tax return preparation   Generally, if you use your personal car, pickup truck, or light van for rental activities, you can deduct the expenses using one of two methods: actual expenses or the standard mileage rate. Income tax return preparation For 2013, the standard mileage rate for business use is 56. Income tax return preparation 5 cents per mile. Income tax return preparation For more information, see chapter 4 of Publication 463. Income tax return preparation    To deduct car expenses under either method, you must keep records that follow the rules in chapter 5 of Publication 463. Income tax return preparation In addition, you must complete Form 4562, Part V, and attach it to your tax return. Income tax return preparation Pre-rental expenses. Income tax return preparation   You can deduct your ordinary and necessary expenses for managing, conserving, or maintaining rental property from the time you make it available for rent. Income tax return preparation Rental of equipment. Income tax return preparation   You can deduct the rent you pay for equipment that you use for rental purposes. Income tax return preparation However, in some cases, lease contracts are actually purchase contracts. Income tax return preparation If so, you cannot deduct these payments. Income tax return preparation You can recover the cost of purchased equipment through depreciation. Income tax return preparation Rental of property. Income tax return preparation   You can deduct the rent you pay for property that you use for rental purposes. Income tax return preparation If you buy a leasehold for rental purposes, you can deduct an equal part of the cost each year over the term of the lease. Income tax return preparation Travel expenses. Income tax return preparation   You can deduct the ordinary and necessary expenses of traveling away from home if the primary purpose of the trip is to collect rental income or to manage, conserve, or maintain your rental property. Income tax return preparation You must properly allocate your expenses between rental and nonrental activities. Income tax return preparation You cannot deduct the cost of traveling away from home if the primary purpose of the trip is to improve the property. Income tax return preparation The cost of improvements is recovered by taking depreciation. Income tax return preparation For information on travel expenses, see chapter 1 of Publication 463. Income tax return preparation    To deduct travel expenses, you must keep records that follow the rules in chapter 5 of Publication 463. Income tax return preparation Uncollected rent. Income tax return preparation   If you are a cash basis taxpayer, do not deduct uncollected rent. Income tax return preparation Because you have not included it in your income, it is not deductible. Income tax return preparation   If you use an accrual method, report income when you earn it. Income tax return preparation If you are unable to collect the rent, you may be able to deduct it as a business bad debt. Income tax return preparation See chapter 10 of Publication 535 for more information about business bad debts. Income tax return preparation Vacant rental property. Income tax return preparation   If you hold property for rental purposes, you may be able to deduct your ordinary and necessary expenses (including depreciation) for managing, conserving, or maintaining the property while the property is vacant. Income tax return preparation However, you cannot deduct any loss of rental income for the period the property is vacant. Income tax return preparation Vacant while listed for sale. Income tax return preparation   If you sell property you held for rental purposes, you can deduct the ordinary and necessary expenses for managing, conserving, or maintaining the property until it is sold. Income tax return preparation If the property is not held out and available for rent while listed for sale, the expenses are not deductible rental expenses. Income tax return preparation Points The term “points” is often used to describe some of the charges paid, or treated as paid, by a borrower to take out a loan or a mortgage. Income tax return preparation These charges are also called loan origination fees, maximum loan charges, or premium charges. Income tax return preparation Any of these charges (points) that are solely for the use of money are interest. Income tax return preparation Because points are prepaid interest, you generally cannot deduct the full amount in the year paid, but must deduct the interest over the term of the loan. Income tax return preparation The method used to figure the amount of points you can deduct each year follows the original issue discount (OID) rules. Income tax return preparation In this case, points are equivalent to OID, which is the difference between: The amount borrowed (redemption price at maturity, or principal) and The proceeds (issue price). Income tax return preparation The first step is to determine whether your total OID (which you may have on bonds or other investments in addition to the mortgage loan), including the OID resulting from the points, is insignificant or de minimis. Income tax return preparation If the OID is not de minimis, you must use the constant-yield method to figure how much you can deduct. Income tax return preparation De minimis OID. Income tax return preparation   The OID is de minimis if it is less than one-fourth of 1% (. Income tax return preparation 0025) of the stated redemption price at maturity (principal amount of the loan) multiplied by the number of full years from the date of original issue to maturity (term of the loan). Income tax return preparation   If the OID is de minimis, you can choose one of the following ways to figure the amount of points you can deduct each year. Income tax return preparation On a constant-yield basis over the term of the loan. Income tax return preparation On a straight line basis over the term of the loan. Income tax return preparation In proportion to stated interest payments. Income tax return preparation In its entirety at maturity of the loan. Income tax return preparation You make this choice by deducting the OID (points) in a manner consistent with the method chosen on your timely filed tax return for the tax year in which the loan is issued. Income tax return preparation Example. Income tax return preparation Carol Madison took out a $100,000 mortgage loan on January 1, 2013, to buy a house she will use as a rental during 2013. Income tax return preparation The loan is to be repaid over 30 years. Income tax return preparation During 2013, Carol paid $10,000 of mortgage interest (stated interest) to the lender. Income tax return preparation When the loan was made, she paid $1,500 in points to the lender. Income tax return preparation The points reduced the principal amount of the loan from $100,000 to $98,500, resulting in $1,500 of OID. Income tax return preparation Carol determines that the points (OID) she paid are de minimis based on the following computation. Income tax return preparation Redemption price at maturity (principal amount of the loan) $100,000 Multiplied by: The term of the  loan in complete years ×30 Multiplied by ×. Income tax return preparation 0025 De minimis amount $7,500 The points (OID) she paid ($1,500) are less than the de minimis amount ($7,500). Income tax return preparation Therefore, Carol has de minimis OID and she can choose one of the four ways discussed earlier to figure the amount she can deduct each year. Income tax return preparation Under the straight line method, she can deduct $50 each year for 30 years. Income tax return preparation Constant-yield method. Income tax return preparation   If the OID is not de minimis, you must use the constant-yield method to figure how much you can deduct each year. Income tax return preparation   You figure your deduction for the first year in the following manner. Income tax return preparation Determine the issue price of the loan. Income tax return preparation If you paid points on the loan, the issue price generally is the difference between the principal and the points. Income tax return preparation Multiply the result in (1) by the yield to maturity (defined later). Income tax return preparation Subtract any qualified stated interest payments (defined later) from the result in (2). Income tax return preparation This is the OID you can deduct in the first year. Income tax return preparation Yield to maturity (YTM). Income tax return preparation   This rate is generally shown in the literature you receive from your lender. Income tax return preparation If you do not have this information, consult your lender or tax advisor. Income tax return preparation In general, the YTM is the discount rate that, when used in computing the present value of all principal and interest payments, produces an amount equal to the principal amount of the loan. Income tax return preparation Qualified stated interest (QSI). Income tax return preparation   In general, this is the stated interest that is unconditionally payable in cash or property (other than another loan of the issuer) at least annually over the term of the loan at a fixed rate. Income tax return preparation Example—Year 1. Income tax return preparation The facts are the same as in the previous example. Income tax return preparation The yield to maturity on Carol's loan is 10. Income tax return preparation 2467%, compounded annually. Income tax return preparation She figured the amount of points (OID) she could deduct in 2013 as follows. Income tax return preparation Principal amount of the loan $100,000 Minus: Points (OID) –1,500 Issue price of the loan $98,500 Multiplied by: YTM × . Income tax return preparation 102467 Total 10,093 Minus: QSI –10,000 Points (OID) deductible in 2013 $93 To figure your deduction in any subsequent year, you start with the adjusted issue price. Income tax return preparation To get the adjusted issue price, add to the issue price figured in Year 1 any OID previously deducted. Income tax return preparation Then follow steps (2) and (3), earlier. Income tax return preparation Example—Year 2. Income tax return preparation Carol figured the deduction for 2014 as follows. Income tax return preparation Issue price $98,500 Plus: Points (OID) deducted  in 2013 +93 Adjusted issue price $98,593 Multiplied by: YTM × . Income tax return preparation 102467 Total 10,103 Minus: QSI –10,000 Points (OID) deductible in 2014 $103 Loan or mortgage ends. Income tax return preparation    If your loan or mortgage ends, you may be able to deduct any remaining points (OID) in the tax year in which the loan or mortgage ends. Income tax return preparation A loan or mortgage may end due to a refinancing, prepayment, foreclosure, or similar event. Income tax return preparation However, if the refinancing is with the same lender, the remaining points (OID) generally are not deductible in the year in which the refinancing occurs, but may be deductible over the term of the new mortgage or loan. Income tax return preparation Points when loan refinance is more than the previous outstanding balance. Income tax return preparation   When you refinance a rental property for more than the previous outstanding balance, the portion of the points allocable to loan proceeds not related to rental use generally cannot be deducted as a rental expense. Income tax return preparation For example, if an individual refinanced a loan with a balance of $100,000, the amount of the new loan was $120,000, and the taxpayer used $20,000 to purchase a car, points allocable to the $20,000 would be treated as nondeductible personal interest. Income tax return preparation Repairs and Improvements Generally, an expense for repairing or maintaining your rental property may be deducted if you are not required to capitalize the expense. Income tax return preparation Improvements. Income tax return preparation   You must capitalize any expense you pay to improve your rental property. Income tax return preparation An expense is for an improvement if it results in a betterment to your property, restores your property, or adapts your property to a new or different use. Income tax return preparation Betterments. Income tax return preparation   Expenses that may result in a betterment to your property include expenses for fixing a pre-existing defect or condition, enlarging or expanding your property, or increasing the capacity, strength, or quality of your property. Income tax return preparation Restoration. Income tax return preparation   Expenses that may be for restoration include expenses for replacing a substantial structural part of your property, repairing damage to your property after you properly adjusted the basis of your property as a result of a casualty loss, or rebuilding your property to a like-new condition. Income tax return preparation Adaptation. Income tax return preparation   Expenses that may be for adaptation include expenses for altering your property to a use that is not consistent with the intended ordinary use of your property when you began renting the property. Income tax return preparation Separate the costs of repairs and improvements, and keep accurate records. Income tax return preparation You will need to know the cost of improvements when you sell or depreciate your property. Income tax return preparation The expenses you capitalize for improving your property can generally be depreciated as if the improvement were separate property. Income tax return preparation Table 1-1. Income tax return preparation Examples of Improvements Additions Bedroom Bathroom Deck Garage Porch Patio  Lawn & Grounds Landscaping Driveway Walkway Fence Retaining wall Sprinkler system Swimming pool Miscellaneous Storm windows, doors New roof Central vacuum Wiring upgrades Satellite dish Security system   Heating & Air Conditioning Heating system Central air conditioning Furnace Duct work Central humidifier Filtration system Plumbing Septic system Water heater Soft water system Filtration system  Interior Improvements Built-in appliances Kitchen modernization Flooring Wall-to-wall carpeting  Insulation Attic Walls, floor Pipes, duct work Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications