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How To File 2012 Taxes

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How To File 2012 Taxes

How to file 2012 taxes Index A Accrual period, Accrual period. How to file 2012 taxes Acquisition premium, Acquisition premium. How to file 2012 taxes Adjusted issue price, Adjusted issue price. How to file 2012 taxes Assistance (see Tax help) B Backup withholding, Backup Withholding Bearer bonds and coupons, Bearer Bonds and Coupons Brokers (see Information for brokers and other middlemen) C Certificates of deposit, Certificates of Deposit Comments and suggestions, Comments and suggestions. How to file 2012 taxes Contingent payment debt instruments, Contingent Payment Debt Instruments D Debt instrument, Debt instrument. How to file 2012 taxes Debt instruments Long-term, Long-Term Debt Instruments Short-term, Short-Term Obligations Redeemed at Maturity Debt instruments and coupons purchased after 1984, Debt Instruments and Coupons Purchased After 1984 Debt instruments and coupons purchased after July 1, 1982, and before 1985, Debt Instruments and Coupons Purchased After July 1, 1982, and Before 1985 Debt instruments issued after 1954, corporate, Corporate Debt Instruments Issued After 1954 and Before May 28, 1969, and Government Debt Instruments Issued After 1954 and Before July 2, 1982 Debt instruments issued after 1984, Debt Instruments Issued After 1984 Debt instruments issued after July 1, 1982, Debt Instruments Issued After July 1, 1982, and Before 1985 Debt instruments issued after May 27, 1969, corporate, Corporate Debt Instruments Issued After May 27, 1969, and Before July 2, 1982 Debt instruments not on the OID list, Debt Instruments Not on the OID List Debt Instruments on the OID list, Debt Instruments on the OID List Definitions, Definitions Accrual period, Accrual period. How to file 2012 taxes Acquisition premium, Acquisition premium. How to file 2012 taxes Adjusted issue price, Adjusted issue price. How to file 2012 taxes Debt instrument, Debt instrument. How to file 2012 taxes Issue price, Issue price. How to file 2012 taxes Market discount, Market discount. How to file 2012 taxes Original issue discount (OID), Original issue discount (OID). How to file 2012 taxes Premium, Premium. How to file 2012 taxes Qualified stated interest, Qualified stated interest. How to file 2012 taxes Stated redemption price at maturity, Stated redemption price at maturity. How to file 2012 taxes Yield to maturity, Yield to maturity (YTM). How to file 2012 taxes E Electronic payee statements, Electronic payee statements. How to file 2012 taxes F Form 1099-OID, Form 1099-OID. How to file 2012 taxes Free tax services, Free help with your tax return. How to file 2012 taxes H Help (see Tax help) I Inflation-indexed debt instruments, Inflation-Indexed Debt Instruments Information for brokers and other middlemen, Information for Brokers and Other Middlemen Information for owners of OID debt instruments, Information for Owners of OID Debt Instruments Issue price, Issue price. How to file 2012 taxes Issuers of OID debt instruments, Instructions for, Instructions for issuers of OID debt instruments. How to file 2012 taxes L Long-term debt instruments, Long-Term Debt Instruments M Market discount, Market discount. How to file 2012 taxes O OID list, Debt Instruments on, Debt Instruments on the OID List OID on long-term debt instruments, figuring, Figuring OID on Long-Term Debt Instruments OID on stripped bonds and coupons, figuring, Figuring OID on Stripped Bonds and Coupons OID, figuring, Figuring OID. How to file 2012 taxes Using section I, Using Section I. How to file 2012 taxes Using the income tax regulations, Using the income tax regulations. How to file 2012 taxes Original issue discount (OID), Original issue discount (OID). How to file 2012 taxes Owners of OID debt instruments, information for, Information for Owners of OID Debt Instruments P Premium, Premium. How to file 2012 taxes Publications (see Tax help) Q Qualified stated interest, Qualified stated interest. How to file 2012 taxes R REMIC and CDO information reporting requirements, REMIC and CDO information reporting requirements. How to file 2012 taxes S Section I, Section I. How to file 2012 taxes Section II, Section II. How to file 2012 taxes Section III, Section III. How to file 2012 taxes Short-term obligations redeemed at maturity, Short-Term Obligations Redeemed at Maturity Stated redemption price at maturity, Stated redemption price at maturity. How to file 2012 taxes Stripped bonds and coupons, figuring OID, Figuring OID on Stripped Bonds and Coupons Suggestions, Comments and, Comments and suggestions. How to file 2012 taxes T Tax help, How To Get Tax Help Y Yield to maturity, Yield to maturity (YTM). How to file 2012 taxes , Yield to maturity (YTM). How to file 2012 taxes Prev  Up     Home   More Online Publications
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The How To File 2012 Taxes

How to file 2012 taxes 4. How to file 2012 taxes   Transportation Table of Contents Parking fees. How to file 2012 taxes Advertising display on car. How to file 2012 taxes Car pools. How to file 2012 taxes Hauling tools or instruments. How to file 2012 taxes Union members' trips from a union hall. How to file 2012 taxes Car ExpensesStandard Mileage Rate Actual Car Expenses Leasing a Car Disposition of a Car This chapter discusses expenses you can deduct for business transportation when you are not traveling away from home as defined in chapter 1. How to file 2012 taxes These expenses include the cost of transportation by air, rail, bus, taxi, etc. How to file 2012 taxes , and the cost of driving and maintaining your car. How to file 2012 taxes Transportation expenses include the ordinary and necessary costs of all of the following. How to file 2012 taxes Getting from one workplace to another in the course of your business or profession when you are traveling within the city or general area that is your tax home. How to file 2012 taxes Tax home is defined in chapter 1. How to file 2012 taxes Visiting clients or customers. How to file 2012 taxes Going to a business meeting away from your regular workplace. How to file 2012 taxes Getting from your home to a temporary workplace when you have one or more regular places of work. How to file 2012 taxes These temporary workplaces can be either within the area of your tax home or outside that area. How to file 2012 taxes Transportation expenses do not include expenses you have while traveling away from home overnight. How to file 2012 taxes Those expenses are travel expenses discussed in chapter 1 . How to file 2012 taxes However, if you use your car while traveling away from home overnight, use the rules in this chapter to figure your car expense deduction. How to file 2012 taxes See Car Expenses , later. How to file 2012 taxes Daily transportation expenses you incur while traveling from home to one or more regular places of business are generally nondeductible commuting expenses. How to file 2012 taxes However, there may be exceptions to this general rule. How to file 2012 taxes You can deduct daily transportation expenses incurred going between your residence and a temporary work station outside the metropolitan area where you live. How to file 2012 taxes Also, daily transportation expenses can be deducted if: (1) you have one or more regular work locations away from your residence or (2) your residence is your principal place of business and you incur expenses going between the residence and another work location in the same trade or business, regardless of whether the work is temporary or permanent and regardless of the distance. How to file 2012 taxes Illustration of transportation expenses. How to file 2012 taxes    Figure B , earlier, illustrates the rules that apply for deducting transportation expenses when you have a regular or main job away from your home. How to file 2012 taxes You may want to refer to it when deciding whether you can deduct your transportation expenses. How to file 2012 taxes Temporary work location. How to file 2012 taxes   If you have one or more regular work locations away from your home and you commute to a temporary work location in the same trade or business, you can deduct the expenses of the daily round-trip transportation between your home and the temporary location, regardless of distance. How to file 2012 taxes   If your employment at a work location is realistically expected to last (and does in fact last) for 1 year or less, the employment is temporary unless there are facts and circumstances that would indicate otherwise. How to file 2012 taxes   If your employment at a work location is realistically expected to last for more than 1 year or if there is no realistic expectation that the employment will last for 1 year or less, the employment is not temporary, regardless of whether it actually lasts for more than 1 year. How to file 2012 taxes   If employment at a work location initially is realistically expected to last for 1 year or less, but at some later date the employment is realistically expected to last more than 1 year, that employment will be treated as temporary (unless there are facts and circumstances that would indicate otherwise) until your expectation changes. How to file 2012 taxes It will not be treated as temporary after the date you determine it will last more than 1 year. How to file 2012 taxes   If the temporary work location is beyond the general area of your regular place of work and you stay overnight, you are traveling away from home. How to file 2012 taxes You may have deductible travel expenses as discussed in chapter 1 . How to file 2012 taxes No regular place of work. How to file 2012 taxes   If you have no regular place of work but ordinarily work in the metropolitan area where you live, you can deduct daily transportation costs between home and a temporary work site outside that metropolitan area. How to file 2012 taxes   Generally, a metropolitan area includes the area within the city limits and the suburbs that are considered part of that metropolitan area. How to file 2012 taxes   You cannot deduct daily transportation costs between your home and temporary work sites within your metropolitan area. How to file 2012 taxes These are nondeductible commuting expenses. How to file 2012 taxes Two places of work. How to file 2012 taxes   If you work at two places in one day, whether or not for the same employer, you can deduct the expense of getting from one workplace to the other. How to file 2012 taxes However, if for some personal reason you do not go directly from one location to the other, you cannot deduct more than the amount it would have cost you to go directly from the first location to the second. How to file 2012 taxes   Transportation expenses you have in going between home and a part-time job on a day off from your main job are commuting expenses. How to file 2012 taxes You cannot deduct them. How to file 2012 taxes Armed Forces reservists. How to file 2012 taxes   A meeting of an Armed Forces reserve unit is a second place of business if the meeting is held on a day on which you work at your regular job. How to file 2012 taxes You can deduct the expense of getting from one workplace to the other as just discussed under Two places of work . How to file 2012 taxes   You usually cannot deduct the expense if the reserve meeting is held on a day on which you do not work at your regular job. How to file 2012 taxes In this case, your transportation generally is a nondeductible commuting expense. How to file 2012 taxes However, you can deduct your transportation expenses if the location of the meeting is temporary and you have one or more regular places of work. How to file 2012 taxes   If you ordinarily work in a particular metropolitan area but not at any specific location and the reserve meeting is held at a temporary location outside that metropolitan area, you can deduct your transportation expenses. How to file 2012 taxes   If you travel away from home overnight to attend a guard or reserve meeting, you can deduct your travel expenses. How to file 2012 taxes These expenses are discussed in chapter 1 . How to file 2012 taxes   If you travel more than 100 miles away from home in connection with your performance of services as a member of the reserves, you may be able to deduct some of your reserve-related travel costs as an adjustment to gross income rather than as an itemized deduction. How to file 2012 taxes For more information, see Armed Forces Reservists Traveling More Than 100 Miles From Home under Special Rules, in chapter 6. How to file 2012 taxes Commuting expenses. How to file 2012 taxes   You cannot deduct the costs of taking a bus, trolley, subway, or taxi, or of driving a car between your home and your main or regular place of work. How to file 2012 taxes These costs are personal commuting expenses. How to file 2012 taxes You cannot deduct commuting expenses no matter how far your home is from your regular place of work. How to file 2012 taxes You cannot deduct commuting expenses even if you work during the commuting trip. How to file 2012 taxes Example. How to file 2012 taxes You sometimes use your cell phone to make business calls while commuting to and from work. How to file 2012 taxes Sometimes business associates ride with you to and from work, and you have a business discussion in the car. How to file 2012 taxes These activities do not change the trip from personal to business. How to file 2012 taxes You cannot deduct your commuting expenses. How to file 2012 taxes Parking fees. How to file 2012 taxes    Fees you pay to park your car at your place of business are nondeductible commuting expenses. How to file 2012 taxes You can, however, deduct business-related parking fees when visiting a customer or client. How to file 2012 taxes Advertising display on car. How to file 2012 taxes   Putting display material that advertises your business on your car does not change the use of your car from personal use to business use. How to file 2012 taxes If you use this car for commuting or other personal uses, you still cannot deduct your expenses for those uses. How to file 2012 taxes Car pools. How to file 2012 taxes   You cannot deduct the cost of using your car in a nonprofit car pool. How to file 2012 taxes Do not include payments you receive from the passengers in your income. How to file 2012 taxes These payments are considered reimbursements of your expenses. How to file 2012 taxes However, if you operate a car pool for a profit, you must include payments from passengers in your income. How to file 2012 taxes You can then deduct your car expenses (using the rules in this publication). How to file 2012 taxes Hauling tools or instruments. How to file 2012 taxes   Hauling tools or instruments in your car while commuting to and from work does not make your car expenses deductible. How to file 2012 taxes However, you can deduct any additional costs you have for hauling tools or instruments (such as for renting a trailer you tow with your car). How to file 2012 taxes Union members' trips from a union hall. How to file 2012 taxes   If you get your work assignments at a union hall and then go to your place of work, the costs of getting from the union hall to your place of work are nondeductible commuting expenses. How to file 2012 taxes Although you need the union to get your work assignments, you are employed where you work, not where the union hall is located. How to file 2012 taxes Office in the home. How to file 2012 taxes   If you have an office in your home that qualifies as a principal place of business, you can deduct your daily transportation costs between your home and another work location in the same trade or business. How to file 2012 taxes (See Publication 587, Business Use of Your Home, for information on determining if your home office qualifies as a principal place of business. How to file 2012 taxes ) Examples of deductible transportation. How to file 2012 taxes   The following examples show when you can deduct transportation expenses based on the location of your work and your home. How to file 2012 taxes Example 1. How to file 2012 taxes You regularly work in an office in the city where you live. How to file 2012 taxes Your employer sends you to a 1-week training session at a different office in the same city. How to file 2012 taxes You travel directly from your home to the training location and return each day. How to file 2012 taxes You can deduct the cost of your daily round-trip transportation between your home and the training location. How to file 2012 taxes Example 2. How to file 2012 taxes Your principal place of business is in your home. How to file 2012 taxes You can deduct the cost of round-trip transportation between your qualifying home office and your client's or customer's place of business. How to file 2012 taxes Example 3. How to file 2012 taxes You have no regular office, and you do not have an office in your home. How to file 2012 taxes In this case, the location of your first business contact inside the metropolitan area is considered your office. How to file 2012 taxes Transportation expenses between your home and this first contact are nondeductible commuting expenses. How to file 2012 taxes Transportation expenses between your last business contact and your home are also nondeductible commuting expenses. How to file 2012 taxes While you cannot deduct the costs of these trips, you can deduct the costs of going from one client or customer to another. How to file 2012 taxes Car Expenses If you use your car for business purposes, you ordinarily can deduct car expenses. How to file 2012 taxes You generally can use one of the two following methods to figure your deductible expenses. How to file 2012 taxes Standard mileage rate. How to file 2012 taxes Actual car expenses. How to file 2012 taxes If you use actual expenses to figure your deduction for a car you lease, there are rules that affect the amount of your lease payments you can deduct. How to file 2012 taxes See Leasing a Car , later. How to file 2012 taxes In this publication, “car” includes a van, pickup, or panel truck. How to file 2012 taxes For the definition of “car” for depreciation purposes, see Car defined under Actual Car Expenses, later. How to file 2012 taxes Rural mail carriers. How to file 2012 taxes   If you are a rural mail carrier, you may be able to treat the qualified reimbursement you received as your allowable expense. How to file 2012 taxes Because the qualified reimbursement is treated as paid under an accountable plan, your employer should not include the reimbursement in your income. How to file 2012 taxes   If your vehicle expenses are more than the amount of your reimbursement, you can deduct the unreimbursed expenses as an itemized deduction on Schedule A (Form 1040). How to file 2012 taxes You must complete Form 2106 and attach it to your Form 1040, U. How to file 2012 taxes S. How to file 2012 taxes Individual Income Tax Return. How to file 2012 taxes   A “qualified reimbursement” is the reimbursement you receive that meets both of the following conditions. How to file 2012 taxes It is given as an equipment maintenance allowance (EMA) to employees of the U. How to file 2012 taxes S. How to file 2012 taxes Postal Service. How to file 2012 taxes It is at the rate contained in the 1991 collective bargaining agreement. How to file 2012 taxes Any later agreement cannot increase the qualified reimbursement amount by more than the rate of inflation. How to file 2012 taxes See your employer for information on your reimbursement. How to file 2012 taxes    If you are a rural mail carrier and received a qualified reimbursement, you cannot use the standard mileage rate. How to file 2012 taxes Standard Mileage Rate You may be able to use the standard mileage rate to figure the deductible costs of operating your car for business purposes. How to file 2012 taxes For 2013, the standard mileage rate for the cost of operating your car for business use is 56½ cents per mile. How to file 2012 taxes If you use the standard mileage rate for a year, you cannot deduct your actual car expenses for that year. How to file 2012 taxes You cannot deduct depreciation, lease payments, maintenance and repairs, gasoline (including gasoline taxes), oil, insurance, or vehicle registration fees. How to file 2012 taxes See Choosing the standard mileage rate and Standard mileage rate not allowed, later. How to file 2012 taxes You generally can use the standard mileage rate whether or not you are reimbursed and whether or not any reimbursement is more or less than the amount figured using the standard mileage rate. How to file 2012 taxes See chapter 6 for more information on reimbursements . How to file 2012 taxes Choosing the standard mileage rate. How to file 2012 taxes   If you want to use the standard mileage rate for a car you own, you must choose to use it in the first year the car is available for use in your business. How to file 2012 taxes Then, in later years, you can choose to use either the standard mileage rate or actual expenses. How to file 2012 taxes   If you want to use the standard mileage rate for a car you lease, you must use it for the entire lease period. How to file 2012 taxes For leases that began on or before December 31, 1997, the standard mileage rate must be used for the entire portion of the lease period (including renewals) that is after 1997. How to file 2012 taxes   You must make the choice to use the standard mileage rate by the due date (including extensions) of your return. How to file 2012 taxes You cannot revoke the choice. How to file 2012 taxes However, in later years, you can switch from the standard mileage rate to the actual expenses method. How to file 2012 taxes If you change to the actual expenses method in a later year, but before your car is fully depreciated, you have to estimate the remaining useful life of the car and use straight line depreciation. How to file 2012 taxes Example. How to file 2012 taxes Larry is an employee who occasionally uses his own car for business purposes. How to file 2012 taxes He purchased the car in 2011, but he did not claim any unreimbursed employee expenses on his 2011 tax return. How to file 2012 taxes Because Larry did not use the standard mileage rate the first year the car was available for business use, he cannot use the standard mileage rate in 2013 to claim unreimbursed employee business expenses. How to file 2012 taxes   For more information about depreciation included in the standard mileage rate, see Exception under Methods of depreciation, later. How to file 2012 taxes Standard mileage rate not allowed. How to file 2012 taxes   You cannot use the standard mileage rate if you: Use five or more cars at the same time (such as in fleet operations), Claimed a depreciation deduction for the car using any method other than straight line, for example, MACRS (as discussed later under Depreciation Deduction), Claimed a section 179 deduction (discussed later) on the car, Claimed the special depreciation allowance on the car, Claimed actual car expenses after 1997 for a car you leased, or Are a rural mail carrier who received a qualified reimbursement. How to file 2012 taxes (See Rural mail carriers , earlier. How to file 2012 taxes ) Note. How to file 2012 taxes You can elect to use the standard mileage rate if you used a car for hire (such as a taxi) unless the standard mileage rate is otherwise not allowed, as discussed above. How to file 2012 taxes Five or more cars. How to file 2012 taxes   If you own or lease five or more cars that are used for business at the same time, you cannot use the standard mileage rate for the business use of any car. How to file 2012 taxes However, you may be able to deduct your actual expenses for operating each of the cars in your business. How to file 2012 taxes See Actual Car Expenses , later, for information on how to figure your deduction. How to file 2012 taxes   You are not using five or more cars for business at the same time if you alternate using (use at different times) the cars for business. How to file 2012 taxes   The following examples illustrate the rules for when you can and cannot use the standard mileage rate for five or more cars. How to file 2012 taxes Example 1. How to file 2012 taxes Marcia, a salesperson, owns three cars and two vans that she alternates using for calling on her customers. How to file 2012 taxes She can use the standard mileage rate for the business mileage of the three cars and the two vans because she does not use them at the same time. How to file 2012 taxes Example 2. How to file 2012 taxes Tony and his employees use his four pickup trucks in his landscaping business. How to file 2012 taxes During the year, he traded in two of his old trucks for two newer ones. How to file 2012 taxes Tony can use the standard mileage rate for the business mileage of all six of the trucks he owned during the year. How to file 2012 taxes Example 3. How to file 2012 taxes Chris owns a repair shop and an insurance business. How to file 2012 taxes He and his employees use his two pickup trucks and van for the repair shop. How to file 2012 taxes Chris alternates using his two cars for the insurance business. How to file 2012 taxes No one else uses the cars for business purposes. How to file 2012 taxes Chris can use the standard mileage rate for the business use of the pickup trucks, van, and the cars because he never has more than four vehicles used for business at the same time. How to file 2012 taxes Example 4. How to file 2012 taxes Maureen owns a car and four vans that are used in her housecleaning business. How to file 2012 taxes Her employees use the vans, and she uses the car to travel to various customers. How to file 2012 taxes Maureen cannot use the standard mileage rate for the car or the vans. How to file 2012 taxes This is because all five vehicles are used in Maureen's business at the same time. How to file 2012 taxes She must use actual expenses for all vehicles. How to file 2012 taxes Interest. How to file 2012 taxes   If you are an employee, you cannot deduct any interest paid on a car loan. How to file 2012 taxes This applies even if you use the car 100% for business as an employee. How to file 2012 taxes   However, if you are self-employed and use your car in your business, you can deduct that part of the interest expense that represents your business use of the car. How to file 2012 taxes For example, if you use your car 60% for business, you can deduct 60% of the interest on Schedule C (Form 1040). How to file 2012 taxes You cannot deduct the part of the interest expense that represents your personal use of the car. How to file 2012 taxes    If you use a home equity loan to purchase your car, you may be able to deduct the interest. How to file 2012 taxes See Publication 936, Home Mortgage Interest Deduction, for more information. How to file 2012 taxes Personal property taxes. How to file 2012 taxes   If you itemize your deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040), you can deduct on line 7 state and local personal property taxes on motor vehicles. How to file 2012 taxes You can take this deduction even if you use the standard mileage rate or if you do not use the car for business. How to file 2012 taxes   If you are self-employed and use your car in your business, you can deduct the business part of state and local personal property taxes on motor vehicles on Schedule C (Form 1040), Schedule C-EZ (Form 1040), or Schedule F (Form 1040). How to file 2012 taxes If you itemize your deductions, you can include the remainder of your state and local personal property taxes on the car on Schedule A (Form 1040). How to file 2012 taxes Parking fees and tolls. How to file 2012 taxes   In addition to using the standard mileage rate, you can deduct any business-related parking fees and tolls. How to file 2012 taxes (Parking fees you pay to park your car at your place of work are nondeductible commuting expenses. How to file 2012 taxes ) Sale, trade-in, or other disposition. How to file 2012 taxes   If you sell, trade in, or otherwise dispose of your car, you may have a gain or loss on the transaction or an adjustment to the basis of your new car. How to file 2012 taxes See Disposition of a Car , later. How to file 2012 taxes Actual Car Expenses If you do not use the standard mileage rate, you may be able to deduct your actual car expenses. How to file 2012 taxes If you qualify to use both methods, you may want to figure your deduction both ways to see which gives you a larger deduction. How to file 2012 taxes Actual car expenses include: Depreciation Licenses Lease  payments Registration  fees Gas Insurance Repairs Oil Garage rent Tires Tolls Parking fees   If you have fully depreciated a car that you still use in your business, you can continue to claim your other actual car expenses. How to file 2012 taxes Continue to keep records, as explained later in chapter 5 . How to file 2012 taxes Business and personal use. How to file 2012 taxes   If you use your car for both business and personal purposes, you must divide your expenses between business and personal use. How to file 2012 taxes You can divide your expense based on the miles driven for each purpose. How to file 2012 taxes Example. How to file 2012 taxes You are a sales representative for a clothing firm and drive your car 20,000 miles during the year: 12,000 miles for business and 8,000 miles for personal use. How to file 2012 taxes You can claim only 60% (12,000 ÷ 20,000) of the cost of operating your car as a business expense. How to file 2012 taxes Employer-provided vehicle. How to file 2012 taxes   If you use a vehicle provided by your employer for business purposes, you can deduct your actual unreimbursed car expenses. How to file 2012 taxes You cannot use the standard mileage rate. How to file 2012 taxes See Vehicle Provided by Your Employer in chapter 6. How to file 2012 taxes Interest on car loans. How to file 2012 taxes   If you are an employee, you cannot deduct any interest paid on a car loan. How to file 2012 taxes This interest is treated as personal interest and is not deductible. How to file 2012 taxes If you are self-employed and use your car in that business, see Interest , earlier, under Standard Mileage Rate. How to file 2012 taxes Taxes paid on your car. How to file 2012 taxes   If you are an employee, you can deduct personal property taxes paid on your car if you itemize deductions. How to file 2012 taxes Enter the amount paid on line 7 of Schedule A (Form 1040). How to file 2012 taxes Sales taxes. How to file 2012 taxes   Generally, sales taxes on your car are part of your car's basis and are recovered through depreciation, discussed later. How to file 2012 taxes Fines and collateral. How to file 2012 taxes   You cannot deduct fines you pay or collateral you forfeit for traffic violations. How to file 2012 taxes Casualty and theft losses. How to file 2012 taxes   If your car is damaged, destroyed, or stolen, you may be able to deduct part of the loss not covered by insurance. How to file 2012 taxes See Publication 547, Casualties, Disasters, and Thefts, for information on deducting a loss on your car. How to file 2012 taxes Depreciation and section 179 deductions. How to file 2012 taxes   Generally, the cost of a car, plus sales tax and improvements, is a capital expense. How to file 2012 taxes Because the benefits last longer than 1 year, you generally cannot deduct a capital expense. How to file 2012 taxes However, you can recover this cost through the section 179 deduction (the deduction allowed by section 179 of the Internal Revenue Code), special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deductions. How to file 2012 taxes Depreciation allows you to recover the cost over more than 1 year by deducting part of it each year. How to file 2012 taxes The section 179 deduction , special depreciation allowance , and depreciation deductions are discussed later. How to file 2012 taxes   Generally, there are limits on these deductions. How to file 2012 taxes Special rules apply if you use your car 50% or less in your work or business. How to file 2012 taxes   You can claim a section 179 deduction and use a depreciation method other than straight line only if you do not use the standard mileage rate to figure your business-related car expenses in the year you first place a car in service. How to file 2012 taxes   If, in the year you first place a car in service, you claim either a section 179 deduction or use a depreciation method other than straight line for its estimated useful life, you cannot use the standard mileage rate on that car in any future year. How to file 2012 taxes Car defined. How to file 2012 taxes   For depreciation purposes, a car is any four-wheeled vehicle (including a truck or van) made primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways. How to file 2012 taxes Its unloaded gross vehicle weight must not be more than 6,000 pounds. How to file 2012 taxes A car includes any part, component, or other item physically attached to it or usually included in the purchase price. How to file 2012 taxes   A car does not include: An ambulance, hearse, or combination ambulance-hearse used directly in a business, A vehicle used directly in the business of transporting persons or property for pay or hire, or A truck or van that is a qualified nonpersonal use vehicle. How to file 2012 taxes Qualified nonpersonal use vehicles. How to file 2012 taxes   These are vehicles that by their nature are not likely to be used more than a minimal amount for personal purposes. How to file 2012 taxes They include trucks and vans that have been specially modified so that they are not likely to be used more than a minimal amount for personal purposes, such as by installation of permanent shelving and painting the vehicle to display advertising or the company's name. How to file 2012 taxes Delivery trucks with seating only for the driver, or only for the driver plus a folding jump seat, are qualified nonpersonal use vehicles. How to file 2012 taxes More information. How to file 2012 taxes   See Depreciation Deduction , later, for more information on how to depreciate your vehicle. How to file 2012 taxes Section 179 Deduction The section 179 deduction allows you to treat a portion or all of the cost of a car as a current expense. How to file 2012 taxes If you choose to deduct all or part of the cost as a current expense, you must reduce your depreciable basis in the car by the amount of the section 179 deduction. How to file 2012 taxes There is a limit on the total section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction for cars, trucks, and vans that may reduce or eliminate any benefit from claiming the section 179 deduction. How to file 2012 taxes See Depreciation Limits, later. How to file 2012 taxes You can claim the section 179 deduction only in the year you place the car in service. How to file 2012 taxes For this purpose, a car is placed in service when it is ready and available for a specifically assigned use, whether in a trade or business, a tax-exempt activity, a personal activity, or for the production of income. How to file 2012 taxes Even if you are not using the property, it is in service when it is ready and available for its specifically assigned use. How to file 2012 taxes A car first used for personal purposes cannot qualify for the deduction in a later year when its use changes to business. How to file 2012 taxes Example. How to file 2012 taxes In 2012, you bought a new car and used it for personal purposes. How to file 2012 taxes In 2013, you began to use it for business. How to file 2012 taxes Changing its use to business use does not qualify the cost of your car for a section 179 deduction in 2013. How to file 2012 taxes However, you can claim a depreciation deduction for the business use of the car starting in 2013. How to file 2012 taxes See Depreciation Deduction , later. How to file 2012 taxes More than 50% business use requirement. How to file 2012 taxes   You must use the property more than 50% for business to claim any section 179 deduction. How to file 2012 taxes If you used the property more than 50% for business, multiply the cost of the property by the percentage of business use. How to file 2012 taxes The result is the cost of the property that can qualify for the section 179 deduction. How to file 2012 taxes Example. How to file 2012 taxes Peter purchased a car in April 2013 for $24,500 and used it 60% for business. How to file 2012 taxes Based on his business usage, the total cost of Peter's car that qualifies for the section 179 deduction is $14,700 ($24,500 cost × 60% business use). How to file 2012 taxes But see Limit on total section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction , discussed later. How to file 2012 taxes Limits. How to file 2012 taxes   There are limits on: The amount of the section 179 deduction, The section 179 deduction for sport utility and certain other vehicles, and The total amount of the section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction (discussed later ) you can claim for a qualified property. How to file 2012 taxes Limit on the amount of the section 179 deduction. How to file 2012 taxes   For 2013, the total amount you can choose to deduct under section 179 generally cannot be more than $500,000. How to file 2012 taxes   If the cost of your section 179 property placed in service in 2013 is over $2,000,000, you must reduce the $500,000 dollar limit (but not below zero) by the amount of cost over $2,000,000. How to file 2012 taxes If the cost of your section 179 property placed in service during 2013 is $2,500,000 or more, you cannot take a section 179 deduction. How to file 2012 taxes   The total amount you can deduct under section 179 each year after you apply the limits listed above cannot be more than the taxable income from the active conduct of any trade or business during the year. How to file 2012 taxes   If you are married and file a joint return, you and your spouse are treated as one taxpayer in determining any reduction to the dollar limit, regardless of which of you purchased the property or placed it in service. How to file 2012 taxes   If you and your spouse file separate returns, you are treated as one taxpayer for the dollar limit. How to file 2012 taxes You must allocate the dollar limit (after any reduction) between you. How to file 2012 taxes   For more information on the above section 179 deduction limits, see Publication 946. How to file 2012 taxes Limit for sport utility and certain other vehicles. How to file 2012 taxes   For sport utility and certain other vehicles placed in service in 2013, the portion of the vehicle's cost taken into account in figuring your section 179 deduction is limited to $25,000. How to file 2012 taxes This rule applies to any four-wheeled vehicle primarily designed or used to carry passengers over public streets, roads, or highways, that is not subject to any of the passenger automobile limits explained under Depreciation Limits , later, and that is rated at no more than 14,000 pounds gross vehicle weight. How to file 2012 taxes However, the $25,000 limit does not apply to any vehicle: Designed to have a seating capacity of more than nine persons behind the driver's seat, Equipped with a cargo area of at least 6 feet in interior length that is an open area or is designed for use as an open area but is enclosed by a cap and is not readily accessible directly from the passenger compartment, or That has an integral enclosure, fully enclosing the driver compartment and load carrying device, does not have seating rearward of the driver's seat, and has no body section protruding more than 30 inches ahead of the leading edge of the windshield. How to file 2012 taxes    Limit on total section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction. How to file 2012 taxes   Generally, the total amount of section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction you can claim for a car that is qualified property and that you placed in service in 2013 is $11,160. How to file 2012 taxes The limit is reduced if your business use of the car is less than 100%. How to file 2012 taxes See Depreciation Limits , later, for more information. How to file 2012 taxes Example. How to file 2012 taxes In the earlier example under More than 50% business use requirement, Peter had a car with a cost (for purposes of the section 179 deduction) of $14,700. How to file 2012 taxes However, based on Peter's business usage of his car, the total of his section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deductions is limited to $6,696 ($11,160 limit x 60% business use). How to file 2012 taxes Cost of car. How to file 2012 taxes   For purposes of the section 179 deduction, the cost of the car does not include any amount figured by reference to any other property held by you at any time. How to file 2012 taxes For example, if you buy (for cash and a trade-in) a new car to use in your business, your cost for purposes of the section 179 deduction does not include your adjusted basis in the car you trade in for the new car. How to file 2012 taxes Your cost includes only the cash you paid. How to file 2012 taxes Basis of car for depreciation. How to file 2012 taxes   The amount of the section 179 deduction reduces your basis in your car. How to file 2012 taxes If you choose the section 179 deduction, you must subtract the amount of the deduction from the cost of your car. How to file 2012 taxes The resulting amount is the basis in your car you use to figure your depreciation deduction. How to file 2012 taxes When to choose. How to file 2012 taxes   If you want to take the section 179 deduction, you must make the choice in the tax year you place the car in service for business or work. How to file 2012 taxes How to choose. How to file 2012 taxes    Employees use Form 2106 to make this choice and report the section 179 deduction. How to file 2012 taxes All others use Form 4562. How to file 2012 taxes   File the appropriate form with either of the following. How to file 2012 taxes Your original tax return filed for the year the property was placed in service (whether or not you file it timely). How to file 2012 taxes An amended return filed within the time prescribed by law. How to file 2012 taxes An election made on an amended return must specify the item of section 179 property to which the election applies and the part of the cost of each such item to be taken into account. How to file 2012 taxes The amended return must also include any resulting adjustments to taxable income. How to file 2012 taxes    You must keep records that show the specific identification of each piece of qualifying section 179 property. How to file 2012 taxes These records must show how you acquired the property, the person you acquired it from, and when you placed it in service. How to file 2012 taxes Revoking an election. How to file 2012 taxes   An election (or any specification made in the election) to take a section 179 deduction for 2013 can only be revoked with the Commissioner's approval. How to file 2012 taxes Recapture of section 179 deduction. How to file 2012 taxes   To be eligible to claim the section 179 deduction, you must use your car more than 50% for business or work in the year you acquired it. How to file 2012 taxes If your business use of the car is 50% or less in a later tax year during the recovery period, you have to recapture (include in income) in that later year any excess depreciation. How to file 2012 taxes Any section 179 deduction claimed on the car is included in calculating the excess depreciation. How to file 2012 taxes For information on this calculation, see Excess depreciation , later in this chapter under Car Used 50% or Less for Business. How to file 2012 taxes Dispositions. How to file 2012 taxes   If you dispose of a car on which you had claimed the section 179 deduction, the amount of that deduction is treated as a depreciation deduction for recapture purposes. How to file 2012 taxes You treat any gain on the disposition of the property as ordinary income up to the amount of the section 179 deduction and any allowable depreciation (unless you establish the amount actually allowed). How to file 2012 taxes For information on the disposition of a car, see Disposition of a Car , later. How to file 2012 taxes Special Depreciation Allowance You may be able to claim the special depreciation allowance for your car, truck, or van, if it is qualified property and was placed in service in 2013. How to file 2012 taxes The allowance is an additional depreciation deduction of 50% of the car's depreciable basis (after any section 179 deduction, but before figuring your regular depreciation deduction under MACRS). How to file 2012 taxes The special depreciation allowance applies only for the first year the car is placed in service. How to file 2012 taxes To qualify for the allowance more than 50% of the use of the car must be in a qualified business use (as defined under Depreciation Deduction, later). How to file 2012 taxes Combined depreciation. How to file 2012 taxes   Your combined section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and regular MACRS depreciation deduction is limited to the maximum allowable depreciation deduction for cars of $11,160 ($3,160 if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance). How to file 2012 taxes For trucks and vans, the first-year limit remains at $11,360 ($3,360 if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance). How to file 2012 taxes See Depreciation Limits , later in this chapter. How to file 2012 taxes Qualified car. How to file 2012 taxes   To be a qualified car (including trucks and vans), the car must meet all of the following tests. How to file 2012 taxes You purchased the car new on or after January 1, 2008, but only if no binding written contract to acquire the car existed before January 1, 2008, You placed the car in service in your trade or business before January 1, 2014, You used the car more than 50% in a qualified business use. How to file 2012 taxes Election not to claim the special depreciation allowance. How to file 2012 taxes   You can elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance for your car, truck, or van, that is qualified property. How to file 2012 taxes If you make this election, it applies to all 5-year property placed in service during the year. How to file 2012 taxes   To make the election, attach a statement to your timely filed return (including extensions) indicating the class of property (5-year for cars) for which you are making the election and that you are electing not to claim the special depreciation allowance for qualified property acquired on or after January 1, 2008. How to file 2012 taxes    Unless you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance, you must reduce the car's adjusted basis by the amount of the allowance, even if the allowance was not claimed. How to file 2012 taxes Depreciation Deduction If you use actual car expenses to figure your deduction for a car you own and use in your business, you can claim a depreciation deduction. How to file 2012 taxes This means you can deduct a certain amount each year as a recovery of your cost or other basis in your car. How to file 2012 taxes You generally need to know the following things about the car you intend to depreciate. How to file 2012 taxes Your basis in the car. How to file 2012 taxes The date you place the car in service. How to file 2012 taxes The method of depreciation and recovery period you will use. How to file 2012 taxes Basis. How to file 2012 taxes   Your basis in a car for figuring depreciation is generally its cost. How to file 2012 taxes This includes any amount you borrow or pay in cash, other property, or services. How to file 2012 taxes   Generally, you figure depreciation on your car, truck, or van using your unadjusted basis (see Unadjusted basis , later). How to file 2012 taxes However, in some situations you will use your adjusted basis (your basis reduced by depreciation allowed or allowable in earlier years). How to file 2012 taxes For one of these situations see Exception under Methods of depreciation, later. How to file 2012 taxes   If you change the use of a car from personal to business, your basis for depreciation is the lesser of the fair market value or your adjusted basis in the car on the date of conversion. How to file 2012 taxes Additional rules concerning basis are discussed later in this chapter under Unadjusted basis . How to file 2012 taxes Placed in service. How to file 2012 taxes   You generally place a car in service when it is available for use in your work or business, in an income-producing activity, or in a personal activity. How to file 2012 taxes Depreciation begins when the car is placed in service for use in your work or business or for the production of income. How to file 2012 taxes   For purposes of computing depreciation, if you first start using the car only for personal use and later convert it to business use, you place the car in service on the date of conversion. How to file 2012 taxes Car placed in service and disposed of in the same year. How to file 2012 taxes   If you place a car in service and dispose of it in the same tax year, you cannot claim any depreciation deduction for that car. How to file 2012 taxes Methods of depreciation. How to file 2012 taxes   Generally, you figure depreciation on cars using the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS). How to file 2012 taxes MACRS is discussed later in this chapter. How to file 2012 taxes Exception. How to file 2012 taxes   If you used the standard mileage rate in the first year of business use and change to the actual expenses method in a later year, you cannot depreciate your car under the MACRS rules. How to file 2012 taxes You must use straight line depreciation over the estimated remaining useful life of the car. How to file 2012 taxes   To figure depreciation under the straight line method, you must reduce your basis in the car (but not below zero) by a set rate per mile for all miles for which you used the standard mileage rate. How to file 2012 taxes The rate per mile varies depending on the year(s) you used the standard mileage rate. How to file 2012 taxes For the rate(s) to use, see Depreciation adjustment when you used the standard mileage rate under Disposition of a Car, later. How to file 2012 taxes   This reduction of basis is in addition to those basis adjustments described later under Unadjusted basis . How to file 2012 taxes You must use your adjusted basis in your car to figure your depreciation deduction. How to file 2012 taxes For additional information on the straight line method of depreciation, see Publication 946. How to file 2012 taxes More-than-50%-use test. How to file 2012 taxes   Generally, you must use your car more than 50% for qualified business use (defined next) during the year to use MACRS. How to file 2012 taxes You must meet this more-than-50%-use test each year of the recovery period (6 years under MACRS) for your car. How to file 2012 taxes   If your business use is 50% or less, you must use the straight line method to depreciate your car. How to file 2012 taxes This is explained later under Car Used 50% or Less for Business . How to file 2012 taxes Qualified business use. How to file 2012 taxes   A qualified business use is any use in your trade or business. How to file 2012 taxes It does not include use for the production of income (investment use). How to file 2012 taxes However, you do combine your business and investment use to compute your depreciation deduction for the tax year. How to file 2012 taxes Use of your car by another person. How to file 2012 taxes   Do not treat any use of your car by another person as use in your trade or business unless that use meets one of the following conditions. How to file 2012 taxes It is directly connected with your business. How to file 2012 taxes It is properly reported by you as income to the other person (and, if you have to, you withhold tax on the income). How to file 2012 taxes It results in a payment of fair market rent. How to file 2012 taxes This includes any payment to you for the use of your car. How to file 2012 taxes Business use changes. How to file 2012 taxes   If you used your car more than 50% in qualified business use in the year you placed it in service, but 50% or less in a later year (including the year of disposition), you have to change to the straight line method of depreciation. How to file 2012 taxes See Qualified business use 50% or less in a later year under Car Used 50% or Less for Business, later. How to file 2012 taxes    Property does not cease to be used more than 50% in qualified business use by reason of a transfer at death. How to file 2012 taxes Use for more than one purpose. How to file 2012 taxes   If you use your car for more than one purpose during the tax year, you must allocate the use to the various purposes. How to file 2012 taxes You do this on the basis of mileage. How to file 2012 taxes Figure the percentage of qualified business use by dividing the number of miles you drive your car for business purposes during the year by the total number of miles you drive the car during the year for any purpose. How to file 2012 taxes Change from personal to business use. How to file 2012 taxes   If you change the use of a car from 100% personal use to business use during the tax year, you may not have mileage records for the time before the change to business use. How to file 2012 taxes In this case, you figure the percentage of business use for the year as follows. How to file 2012 taxes Determine the percentage of business use for the period following the change. How to file 2012 taxes Do this by dividing business miles by total miles driven during that period. How to file 2012 taxes Multiply the percentage in (1) by a fraction. How to file 2012 taxes The numerator (top number) is the number of months the car is used for business and the denominator (bottom number) is 12. How to file 2012 taxes Example. How to file 2012 taxes You use a car only for personal purposes during the first 6 months of the year. How to file 2012 taxes During the last 6 months of the year, you drive the car a total of 15,000 miles of which 12,000 miles are for business. How to file 2012 taxes This gives you a business use percentage of 80% (12,000 ÷ 15,000) for that period. How to file 2012 taxes Your business use for the year is 40% (80% × 6/12). How to file 2012 taxes Limits. How to file 2012 taxes   The amount you can claim for section 179, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deductions may be limited. How to file 2012 taxes The maximum amount you can claim depends on the year in which you placed your car in service. How to file 2012 taxes You have to reduce the maximum amount if you did not use the car exclusively for business. How to file 2012 taxes See Depreciation Limits , later. How to file 2012 taxes Unadjusted basis. How to file 2012 taxes   You use your unadjusted basis (often referred to as your basis or your basis for depreciation) to figure your depreciation using the MACRS depreciation chart, explained later under Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) . How to file 2012 taxes Your unadjusted basis for figuring depreciation is your original basis increased or decreased by certain amounts. How to file 2012 taxes   To figure your unadjusted basis, begin with your car's original basis, which generally is its cost. How to file 2012 taxes Cost includes sales taxes (see Sales taxes , earlier), destination charges, and dealer preparation. How to file 2012 taxes Increase your basis by any substantial improvements you make to your car, such as adding air conditioning or a new engine. How to file 2012 taxes Decrease your basis by any section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, gas guzzler tax, clean-fuel vehicle deduction (for vehicles placed in service before Jan. How to file 2012 taxes 1, 2006), and alternative motor vehicle credit. How to file 2012 taxes   See Form 8910 for information on the alternative motor vehicle credit. How to file 2012 taxes If your business use later falls to 50% or less, you may have to recapture (include in your income) any excess depreciation. How to file 2012 taxes See Car Used 50% or Less for Business, later, for more information. How to file 2012 taxes If you acquired the car by gift or inheritance, see Publication 551, Basis of Assets, for information on your basis in the car. How to file 2012 taxes Improvements. How to file 2012 taxes   A major improvement to a car is treated as a new item of 5-year recovery property. How to file 2012 taxes It is treated as placed in service in the year the improvement is made. How to file 2012 taxes It does not matter how old the car is when the improvement is added. How to file 2012 taxes Follow the same steps for depreciating the improvement as you would for depreciating the original cost of the car. How to file 2012 taxes However, you must treat the improvement and the car as a whole when applying the limits on the depreciation deductions. How to file 2012 taxes Your car's depreciation deduction for the year (plus any section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation on any improvements) cannot be more than the depreciation limit that applies for that year. How to file 2012 taxes See Depreciation Limits , later. How to file 2012 taxes Car trade-in. How to file 2012 taxes   If you traded one car (the “old car”) for another car (the “new car”) in 2013, there are two ways you can treat the transaction. How to file 2012 taxes You can elect to treat the transaction as a tax-free disposition of the old car and the purchase of the new car. How to file 2012 taxes If you make this election, you treat the old car as disposed of at the time of the trade-in. How to file 2012 taxes The depreciable basis of the new car is the adjusted basis of the old car (figured as if 100% of the car's use had been for business purposes) plus any additional amount you paid for the new car. How to file 2012 taxes You then figure your depreciation deduction for the new car beginning with the date you placed it in service. How to file 2012 taxes You make this election by completing Form 2106, Part II, Section D. How to file 2012 taxes This method is explained later, beginning at Effect of trade-in on basis . How to file 2012 taxes If you do not make the election described in (1), you must figure depreciation separately for the remaining basis of the old car and for any additional amount you paid for the new car. How to file 2012 taxes You must apply two depreciation limits (see Depreciation Limits , later). How to file 2012 taxes The limit that applies to the remaining basis of the old car generally is the amount that would have been allowed had you not traded in the old car. How to file 2012 taxes The limit that applies to the additional amount you paid for the new car generally is the limit that applies for the tax year, reduced by the depreciation allowance for the remaining basis of the old car. How to file 2012 taxes You must use Form 4562 to compute your depreciation deduction. How to file 2012 taxes You cannot use Form 2106, Part II, Section D. How to file 2012 taxes This method is explained in Publication 946. How to file 2012 taxes   If you elect to use the method described in (1), you must do so on a timely filed tax return (including extensions). How to file 2012 taxes Otherwise, you must use the method described in (2). How to file 2012 taxes Effect of trade-in on basis. How to file 2012 taxes   The discussion that follows applies to trade-ins of cars in 2013, where the election was made to treat the transaction as a tax-free disposition of the old car and the purchase of the new car. How to file 2012 taxes For information on how to figure depreciation for cars involved in a like-kind exchange (trade-in) in 2013, for which the election was not made, see Publication 946 and Regulations section 1. How to file 2012 taxes 168(i)-6(d)(3). How to file 2012 taxes Traded car used only for business. How to file 2012 taxes   If you trade in a car you used only in your business for another car that will be used only in your business, your original basis in the new car is your adjusted basis in the old car, plus any additional amount you pay for the new car. How to file 2012 taxes Example. How to file 2012 taxes Paul trades in a car that has an adjusted basis of $5,000 for a new car. How to file 2012 taxes In addition, he pays cash of $20,000 for the new car. How to file 2012 taxes His original basis of the new car is $25,000 (his $5,000 adjusted basis in the old car plus the $20,000 cash paid). How to file 2012 taxes Paul's unadjusted basis is $25,000 unless he claims the section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, or has other increases or decreases to his original basis, discussed under Unadjusted basis , earlier. How to file 2012 taxes Traded car used partly in business. How to file 2012 taxes   If you trade in a car you used partly in your business for a new car you will use in your business, you must make a “trade-in” adjustment for the personal use of the old car. How to file 2012 taxes This adjustment has the effect of reducing your basis in your old car, but not below zero, for purposes of figuring your depreciation deduction for the new car. How to file 2012 taxes (This adjustment is not used, however, when you determine the gain or loss on the later disposition of the new car. How to file 2012 taxes See Publication 544, Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets, for information on how to report the disposition of your car. How to file 2012 taxes )   To figure the unadjusted basis of your new car for depreciation, first add to your adjusted basis in the old car any additional amount you pay for the new car. How to file 2012 taxes Then subtract from that total the excess, if any, of: The total of the amounts that would have been allowable as depreciation during the tax years before the trade if 100% of the use of the car had been business and investment use, over The total of the amounts actually allowed as depreciation during those years. How to file 2012 taxes For information about figuring depreciation, see Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) , which follows Example 2, later. How to file 2012 taxes Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS). How to file 2012 taxes   The Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) is the name given to the tax rules for getting back (recovering) through depreciation deductions the cost of property used in a trade or business or to produce income. How to file 2012 taxes   The maximum amount you can deduct is limited, depending on the year you placed your car in service. How to file 2012 taxes See Depreciation Limits , later. How to file 2012 taxes Recovery period. How to file 2012 taxes   Under MACRS, cars are classified as 5-year property. How to file 2012 taxes You actually depreciate the cost of a car, truck, or van over a period of 6 calendar years. How to file 2012 taxes This is because your car is generally treated as placed in service in the middle of the year, and you claim depreciation for one-half of both the first year and the sixth year. How to file 2012 taxes Depreciation deduction for certain Indian reservation property. How to file 2012 taxes   Shorter recovery periods are provided under MACRS for qualified Indian reservation property placed in service on Indian reservations after 1993 and before 2014. How to file 2012 taxes The recovery that applies for a business-use car is 3 years instead of 5 years. How to file 2012 taxes However, the depreciation limits, discussed later, will still apply. How to file 2012 taxes   For more information on the qualifications for this shorter recovery period and the percentages to use in figuring the depreciation deduction, see chapter 4 of Publication 946. How to file 2012 taxes Depreciation methods. How to file 2012 taxes   You can use one of the following methods to depreciate your car. How to file 2012 taxes The 200% declining balance method (200% DB) over a 5-year recovery period that switches to the straight line method when that method provides an equal or greater deduction. How to file 2012 taxes The 150% declining balance method (150% DB) over a 5-year recovery period that switches to the straight line method when that method provides an equal or greater deduction. How to file 2012 taxes The straight line method (SL) over a 5-year recovery period. How to file 2012 taxes    If you use Table 4-1 (discussed later under MACRS depreciation chart) to determine your depreciation rate for 2013, you do not need to determine in what year using the straight line method provides an equal or greater deduction. How to file 2012 taxes This is because the chart has the switch to the straight line method built into its rates. How to file 2012 taxes   Before choosing a method, you may wish to consider the following facts. How to file 2012 taxes Using the straight line method provides equal yearly deductions throughout the recovery period. How to file 2012 taxes Using the declining balance methods provides greater deductions during the earlier recovery years with the deductions generally getting smaller each year. How to file 2012 taxes MACRS depreciation chart. How to file 2012 taxes   A 2013 MACRS Depreciation Chart and instructions are included in this chapter as Table 4-1 . How to file 2012 taxes Using this table will make it easy for you to figure the 2013 depreciation deduction for your car. How to file 2012 taxes A similar chart appears in the Instructions for Form 2106. How to file 2012 taxes    You may have to use the tables in Publication 946 instead of using this MACRS Depreciation Chart. How to file 2012 taxes   You must use the Depreciation Tables in Publication 946 rather than the 2013 MACRS Depreciation Chart in this publication if any one of the following four conditions applies to you. How to file 2012 taxes You file your return on a fiscal year basis. How to file 2012 taxes You file your return for a short tax year (less than 12 months). How to file 2012 taxes During the year, all of the following conditions apply. How to file 2012 taxes You placed some property in service from January through September. How to file 2012 taxes You placed some property in service from October through December. How to file 2012 taxes Your basis in the property you placed in service from October through December (excluding nonresidential real property, residential rental property, and property placed in service and disposed of in the same year) was more than 40% of your total bases in all property you placed in service during the year. How to file 2012 taxes   You placed qualified property in service on an Indian reservation. How to file 2012 taxes Depreciation in future years. How to file 2012 taxes   If you use the percentages from the chart, you generally must continue to use them for the entire recovery period of your car. How to file 2012 taxes However, you cannot continue to use the chart if your basis in your car is adjusted because of a casualty. How to file 2012 taxes In that case, for the year of the adjustment and the remaining recovery period, figure the depreciation without the chart using your adjusted basis in the car at the end of the year of the adjustment and over the remaining recovery period. How to file 2012 taxes See Figuring the Deduction Without Using the Tables in chapter 4 of Publication 946. How to file 2012 taxes    In future years, do not use the chart in this edition of the publication. How to file 2012 taxes Instead, use the chart in the publication or the form instructions for those future years. How to file 2012 taxes Disposition of car during recovery period. How to file 2012 taxes   If you dispose of the car before the end of the recovery period, you are generally allowed a half year of depreciation in the year of disposition unless you purchased the car during the last quarter of a year. How to file 2012 taxes See Depreciation deduction for the year of disposition under Disposition of a Car, later, for information on how to figure the depreciation allowed in the year of disposition. How to file 2012 taxes How to use the 2013 chart. How to file 2012 taxes   To figure your depreciation deduction for 2013, find the percentage in the column of Table 4-1 based on the date that you first placed the car in service and the depreciation method that you are using. How to file 2012 taxes Multiply the unadjusted basis of your car (defined earlier) by that percentage to determine the amount of your depreciation deduction. How to file 2012 taxes If you prefer to figure your depreciation deduction without the help of the chart, see Publication 946. How to file 2012 taxes    Your deduction cannot be more than the maximum depreciation limit for cars. How to file 2012 taxes See Depreciation Limits, later. How to file 2012 taxes Example. How to file 2012 taxes Phil bought a used truck in February 2012 to use exclusively in his landscape business. How to file 2012 taxes He paid $9,200 for the truck with no trade-in. How to file 2012 taxes Phil did not claim any section 179 deduction, the truck did not qualify for the special depreciation allowance, and he chose to use the 200% DB method to get the largest depreciation deduction in the early years. How to file 2012 taxes Phil used the MACRS depreciation chart in 2012 to find his percentage. How to file 2012 taxes The unadjusted basis of his truck equals its cost because Phil used it exclusively for business. How to file 2012 taxes He multiplied the unadjusted basis of his truck, $9,200, by the percentage that applied, 20%, to figure his 2012 depreciation deduction of $1,840. How to file 2012 taxes In 2013, Phil used the truck for personal purposes when he repaired his father's cabin. How to file 2012 taxes His records show that the business use of his truck was 90% in 2013. How to file 2012 taxes Phil used Table 4-1 to find his percentage. How to file 2012 taxes Reading down the first column for the date placed in service and across to the 200% DB column, he locates his percentage, 32%. How to file 2012 taxes He multiplies the unadjusted basis of his truck, $8,280 ($9,200 cost × 90% business use), by 32% to figure his 2013 depreciation deduction of $2,650. How to file 2012 taxes Depreciation Limits There are limits on the amount you can deduct for depreciation of your car, truck, or van. How to file 2012 taxes The section 179 deduction and special depreciation allowance are treated as depreciation for purposes of the limits. How to file 2012 taxes The maximum amount you can deduct each year depends on the year you place the car in service. How to file 2012 taxes These limits are shown in the following tables. How to file 2012 taxes   Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Cars Date       4th & Placed 1st 2nd 3rd Later In Service Year Year Year Years 2012–2013 $11,1601 $5,100 $3,050 $1,875 2010–2011 11,0602 4,900 2,950 1,775 2008–2009 10,9603 4,800 2,850 1,775 2007 3,060 4,900 2,850 1,775 2006 2,960 4,800 2,850 1,775 2005 2,960 4,700 2,850 1,675 2004 10,6103 4,800 2,850 1,675 5/06/2003– 12/31/2003 10,7104 4,900 2,950 1,775 1/01/2003– 5/05/2003 7,6605 4,900 2,950 1,775 2001–2002 7,6605 4,900 2,950 1,775 2000 3,060 4,900 2,950 1,775 1$3,160 if the car is not qualified property or if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance. How to file 2012 taxes 2$3,060 if the car is not qualified property or if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance. How to file 2012 taxes 3$2,960 if the car is not qualified property or if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance. How to file 2012 taxes 4$7,660 if you acquired the car before 5/6/2003. How to file 2012 taxes $3,060 if the car is not qualified property or if you elect not to claim any special depreciation allowance. How to file 2012 taxes 5$3,060 if you acquired the car before 9/11/2001, the car is not qualified property, or you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance. How to file 2012 taxes Trucks and vans. How to file 2012 taxes   For 2013, the maximum depreciation deductions for trucks and vans are generally higher than those for cars. How to file 2012 taxes A truck or van is a passenger automobile that is classified by the manufacturer as a truck or van and rated at 6,000 pounds gross vehicle weight or less. How to file 2012 taxes For trucks and vans placed in service before 2003, use the Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Cars table. How to file 2012 taxes Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Trucks and Vans Date       4th & Placed 1st 2nd 3rd Later In Service Year Year Year Years 2013 $11,3601 $5,400 $3,250 $1,975 2012 $11,3601 $5,300 $3,150 $1,875 2011 11,2601 5,200 3,150 1,875 2010 11,1601 5,100 3,050 1,875 2009 11,0601 4,900 2,950 1,775 2008 11,1601 5,100 3,050 1,875 2007 3,260 5,200 3,050 1,875 2005–2006 3,260 5,200 3,150 1,875 2004 10,9101 5,300 3,150 1,875 2003 11,0101,2 5,400 3,250 1,975 1If the special depreciation allowance does not apply or you make the election not to claim the special depreciation allowance, the first-year limit is $3,360 for 2012 and 2013, $3,260 for 2011, $3,160 for 2010, $3,060 for 2009, $3,160 for 2008, $3,260 for 2004, and $3,360 for 2003. How to file 2012 taxes 2If the truck or van was acquired before 5/06/2003, the truck or van is qualified property, and you claim the special depreciation allowance for the truck or van, the maximum deduction is $7,960. How to file 2012 taxes Car used less than full year. How to file 2012 taxes   The depreciation limits are not reduced if you use a car for less than a full year. How to file 2012 taxes This means that you do not reduce the limit when you either place a car in service or dispose of a car during the year. How to file 2012 taxes However, the depreciation limits are reduced if you do not use the car exclusively for business and investment purposes. How to file 2012 taxes See Reduction for personal use , next. How to file 2012 taxes Reduction for personal use. How to file 2012 taxes   The depreciation limits are reduced based on your percentage of personal use. How to file 2012 taxes If you use a car less than 100% in your business or work, you must determine the depreciation deduction limit by multiplying the limit amount by the percentage of business and investment use during the tax year. How to file 2012 taxes Section 179 deduction. How to file 2012 taxes   The section 179 deduction is treated as a depreciation deduction. How to file 2012 taxes If you place a car that is not a truck or van in service in 2013, use it only for business, and choose the section 179 deduction, the special depreciation allowance, and the depreciation deduction for that car for 2013 is limited to $11,160. How to file 2012 taxes Example. How to file 2012 taxes On September 4, 2013, Jack bought a used car for $10,000 and placed it in service. How to file 2012 taxes He used it 80% for his business, and he chooses to take a section 179 deduction for the car. How to file 2012 taxes The car is not qualified property for purposes of the special depreciation allowance. How to file 2012 taxes Before applying the limit, Jack figures his maximum section 179 deduction to be $8,000. How to file 2012 taxes This is the cost of his qualifying property (up to the maximum $500,000 amount) multiplied by his business use ($10,000 × 80%). How to file 2012 taxes Jack then figures that his section 179 deduction for 2013 is limited to $2,528 (80% of $3,160). How to file 2012 taxes He then figures his unadjusted basis of $5,472 (($10,000 × 80%) − $2,528) for determining his depreciation deduction. How to file 2012 taxes Jack has reached his maximum depreciation deduction for 2013. How to file 2012 taxes For 2014, Jack will use his unadjusted basis of $5,472 to figure his depreciation deduction. How to file 2012 taxes Deductions in years after the recovery period. How to file 2012 taxes   If the depreciation deductions for your car are reduced under the passenger automobile limits (discussed earlier), you will have unrecovered basis in your car at the end of the recovery period. How to file 2012 taxes If you continue to use your car for business, you can deduct that unrecovered basis (subject to depreciation limits) after the recovery period ends. How to file 2012 taxes Unrecovered basis. How to file 2012 taxes   This is your cost or other basis in the car reduced by any clean-fuel vehicle deduction (for vehicles placed in service before January 1, 2006), alternative motor vehicle credit, electric vehicle credit, gas guzzler tax, and depreciation (including any special depreciation allowance , discussed earlier, unless you elect not to claim it) and section 179 deductions that would have been allowable if you had used the car 100% for business and investment use. How to file 2012 taxes The recovery period. How to file 2012 taxes   For 5-year property, your recovery period is 6 calendar years. How to file 2012 taxes A part year's depreciation is allowed in the first calendar year, a full year's depreciation is allowed in each of the next 4 calendar years, and a part year's depreciation is allowed in the 6th calendar year. How to file 2012 taxes   Under MACRS, your recovery period is the same whether you use declining balance or straight line depreciation. How to file 2012 taxes You determine your unrecovered basis in the 7th year after you placed the car in service. How to file 2012 taxes How to treat unrecovered basis. How to file 2012 taxes   If you continue to use your car for business after the recovery period, you can claim a depreciation deduction in each succeeding tax year until you recover your basis in the car. How to file 2012 taxes The maximum amount you can deduct each year is determined by the date you placed the car in service and your business-use percentage. How to file 2012 taxes For example, no deduction is allowed for a year you use your car 100% for personal purposes. How to file 2012 taxes Example. How to file 2012 taxes In April 2007, Bob bought and placed in service a car he used exclusively in his business. How to file 2012 taxes The car cost $31,500. How to file 2012 taxes Bob did not claim a section 179 deduction or the special depreciation allowance for the car. How to file 2012 taxes He continued to use the car 100% in his business throughout the recovery period (2007 through 2012). How to file 2012 taxes For those years, Bob used the MACRS Depreciation Chart (200% declining balance method) and the Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Cars table, earlier, for the applicable tax year to compute his depreciation deductions during the recovery period. How to file 2012 taxes Bob's depreciation deductions were subject to the depreciation limits so he will have unrecovered basis at the end of the recovery period as shown in the following table. How to file 2012 taxes      MACRS     Deprec. How to file 2012 taxes Year % Amount Limit Allowed 2007 20. How to file 2012 taxes 00 $6,300 $3,060 $ 3,060 2008 32. How to file 2012 taxes 00 10,080 4,900 4,900 2009 19. How to file 2012 taxes 20 6,048 2,850 2,850 2010 11. How to file 2012 taxes 52 3,629 1,775 1,775 2011 11. How to file 2012 taxes 52 3,629 1,775 1,775 2012 5. How to file 2012 taxes 76 1,814 1,775 1,775 Total $31,500   16,135 For the correct limit, see Maximum Depreciation Deduction for Cars under “Depreciation Limits,” earlier, for the maximum amount of depreciation allowed each year. How to file 2012 taxes   At the end of 2012, Bob had an unrecovered basis in the car of $15,365 ($31,500 – $16,135). How to file 2012 taxes If Bob continued to use the car 100% for business in 2013 and later years, he can claim a depreciation deduction equal to the lesser of $1,775 or his remaining unrecovered basis. How to file 2012 taxes   If Bob's business use of the car was less than 100% during any year, his depreciation deduction would be less than the maximum amount allowable for that year. How to file 2012 taxes However, in determining his unrecovered basis in the car, he would still reduce his original basis by the maximum amount allowable as if the business use had been 100%. How to file 2012 taxes For example, if Bob had used his car 60% for business instead of 100%, his allowable depreciation deductions would have been $9,681 ($16,135 × 60%), but he still would have to reduce his basis by $16,135 to determine his unrecovered basis. How to file 2012 taxes Table 4-1. How to file 2012 taxes 2013 MACRS Depreciation Chart (Use to Figure Depreciation for 2013. How to file 2012 taxes ) If you claim actual expenses for your car, use the chart below to find the depreciation method and percentage to use for your 2013 return for cars placed in service in 2013. How to file 2012 taxes   First, using the left column, find the date you first placed the car in service in 2013. How to file 2012 taxes Then select the depreciation method and percentage from column (a), (b), or (c) following the rules explained in this chapter. How to file 2012 taxes For cars placed in service before 2013, you must use the same method you used on last year's return unless a decline in your business use requires you to change to the straight line method. How to file 2012 taxes Refer back to the MACRS Depreciation Chart for the year you placed the car in service. How to file 2012 taxes (See Car Used 50% or Less for Business . How to file 2012 taxes )  Multiply the unadjusted basis of your car by your business use percentage. How to file 2012 taxes Multiply the result by the percentage you found in the chart to find the amount of your depreciation deduction for 2013. How to file 2012 taxes (Also see Depreciation Limits . How to file 2012 taxes )   If you placed your car in service after September of any year and you placed other business property in service during the same year, you may have to use the Jan. How to file 2012 taxes 1—Sept. How to file 2012 taxes 30 percentage instead of the Oct. How to file 2012 taxes 1—Dec. How to file 2012 taxes 31 percentage for your car. How to file 2012 taxes               To find out if this applies to you, determine: 1) the basis of all business property you placed in service after September of that year and 2) the basis of all business property you placed in service during that entire year. How to file 2012 taxes If the basis of the property placed in service after September is not more than 40% of the basis of all property (certain property is excluded) placed in service for the entire year, use the percentage for Jan. How to file 2012 taxes 1—Sept. How to file 2012 taxes 30 for figuring depreciation for your car. How to file 2012 taxes See Which Convention Applies? in chapter 4 of Publication 946 for more details. How to file 2012 taxes               Example. How to file 2012 taxes You buy machinery (basis of $32,000) in May 2013 and a new van (basis of $20,000) in October 2013, both used 100% in your business. How to file 2012 taxes You