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H&r Block 2011 Tax Return

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H&r Block 2011 Tax Return

H&r block 2011 tax return 4. H&r block 2011 tax return   Interest Table of Contents Introduction Topics - This chapter discusses: Useful Items - You may want to see: Allocation of InterestOrder of funds spent. H&r block 2011 tax return Payments from checking accounts. H&r block 2011 tax return Amounts paid within 30 days. H&r block 2011 tax return Optional method for determining date of reallocation. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest on a segregated account. H&r block 2011 tax return How to report. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest You Can DeductStatement. H&r block 2011 tax return Expenses paid to obtain a mortgage. H&r block 2011 tax return Prepayment penalty. H&r block 2011 tax return De minimis OID. H&r block 2011 tax return Constant-yield method. H&r block 2011 tax return Loan or mortgage ends. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest You Cannot DeductPenalties. H&r block 2011 tax return Who is a key person? Exceptions for pre-June 1997 contracts. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest allocated to unborrowed policy cash value. H&r block 2011 tax return Capitalization of Interest When To Deduct InterestPrepaid interest. H&r block 2011 tax return Discounted loan. H&r block 2011 tax return Refunds of interest. H&r block 2011 tax return Prepaid interest. H&r block 2011 tax return Discounted loan. H&r block 2011 tax return Tax deficiency. H&r block 2011 tax return Related person. H&r block 2011 tax return Below-Market LoansLimit on forgone interest for gift loans of $100,000 or less. H&r block 2011 tax return Introduction This chapter discusses the tax treatment of business interest expense. H&r block 2011 tax return Business interest expense is an amount charged for the use of money you borrowed for business activities. H&r block 2011 tax return Topics - This chapter discusses: Allocation of interest Interest you can deduct Interest you cannot deduct Capitalization of interest When to deduct interest Below-market loans Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 537 Installment Sales 550 Investment Income and Expenses 936 Home Mortgage Interest Deduction Form (and Instructions) Sch A (Form 1040) Itemized Deductions Sch E (Form 1040) Supplemental Income and Loss Sch K-1 (Form 1065) Partner's Share of Income, Deductions, Credits, etc. H&r block 2011 tax return Sch K-1 (Form 1120S) Shareholder's Share of Income, Deductions, Credits, etc. H&r block 2011 tax return 1098 Mortgage Interest Statement 3115 Application for Change in Accounting Method 4952 Investment Interest Expense Deduction 8582 Passive Activity Loss Limitations See chapter 12 for information about getting publications and forms. H&r block 2011 tax return Allocation of Interest The rules for deducting interest vary, depending on whether the loan proceeds are used for business, personal, or investment activities. H&r block 2011 tax return If you use the proceeds of a loan for more than one type of expense, you must allocate the interest based on the use of the loan's proceeds. H&r block 2011 tax return Allocate your interest expense to the following categories. H&r block 2011 tax return Nonpassive trade or business activity interest Passive trade or business activity interest Investment interest Portfolio interest Personal interest In general, you allocate interest on a loan the same way you allocate the loan proceeds. H&r block 2011 tax return You allocate loan proceeds by tracing disbursements to specific uses. H&r block 2011 tax return The easiest way to trace disbursements to specific uses is to keep the proceeds of a particular loan separate from any other funds. H&r block 2011 tax return Secured loan. H&r block 2011 tax return   The allocation of loan proceeds and the related interest is not generally affected by the use of property that secures the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return Example. H&r block 2011 tax return You secure a loan with property used in your business. H&r block 2011 tax return You use the loan proceeds to buy an automobile for personal use. H&r block 2011 tax return You must allocate interest expense on the loan to personal use (purchase of the automobile) even though the loan is secured by business property. H&r block 2011 tax return    If the property that secures the loan is your home, you generally do not allocate the loan proceeds or the related interest. H&r block 2011 tax return The interest is usually deductible as qualified home mortgage interest, regardless of how the loan proceeds are used. H&r block 2011 tax return For more information, see Publication 936. H&r block 2011 tax return Allocation period. H&r block 2011 tax return   The period for which a loan is allocated to a particular use begins on the date the proceeds are used and ends on the earlier of the following dates. H&r block 2011 tax return The date the loan is repaid. H&r block 2011 tax return The date the loan is reallocated to another use. H&r block 2011 tax return Proceeds not disbursed to borrower. H&r block 2011 tax return   Even if the lender disburses the loan proceeds to a third party, the allocation of the loan is still based on your use of the funds. H&r block 2011 tax return This applies whether you pay for property, services, or anything else by incurring a loan, or you take property subject to a debt. H&r block 2011 tax return Proceeds deposited in borrower's account. H&r block 2011 tax return   Treat loan proceeds deposited in an account as property held for investment. H&r block 2011 tax return It does not matter whether the account pays interest. H&r block 2011 tax return Any interest you pay on the loan is investment interest expense. H&r block 2011 tax return If you withdraw the proceeds of the loan, you must reallocate the loan based on the use of the funds. H&r block 2011 tax return Example. H&r block 2011 tax return Celina, a calendar-year taxpayer, borrows $100,000 on January 4 and immediately uses the proceeds to open a checking account. H&r block 2011 tax return No other amounts are deposited in the account during the year and no part of the loan principal is repaid during the year. H&r block 2011 tax return On April 2, Celina uses $20,000 from the checking account for a passive activity expenditure. H&r block 2011 tax return On September 4, Celina uses an additional $40,000 from the account for personal purposes. H&r block 2011 tax return Under the interest allocation rules, the entire $100,000 loan is treated as property held for investment for the period from January 4 through April 1. H&r block 2011 tax return From April 2 through September 3, Celina must treat $20,000 of the loan as used in the passive activity and $80,000 of the loan as property held for investment. H&r block 2011 tax return From September 4 through December 31, she must treat $40,000 of the loan as used for personal purposes, $20,000 as used in the passive activity, and $40,000 as property held for investment. H&r block 2011 tax return Order of funds spent. H&r block 2011 tax return   Generally, you treat loan proceeds deposited in an account as used (spent) before either of the following amounts. H&r block 2011 tax return Any unborrowed amounts held in the same account. H&r block 2011 tax return Any amounts deposited after these loan proceeds. H&r block 2011 tax return Example. H&r block 2011 tax return On January 9, Olena opened a checking account, depositing $500 of the proceeds of Loan A and $1,000 of unborrowed funds. H&r block 2011 tax return The following table shows the transactions in her account during the tax year. H&r block 2011 tax return Date Transaction January 9 $500 proceeds of Loan A and $1,000 unborrowed funds deposited January 14 $500 proceeds of Loan B  deposited February 19 $800 used for personal purposes February 27 $700 used for passive activity June 19 $1,000 proceeds of Loan C  deposited November 20 $800 used for an investment December 18 $600 used for personal purposes Olena treats the $800 used for personal purposes as made from the $500 proceeds of Loan A and $300 of the proceeds of Loan B. H&r block 2011 tax return She treats the $700 used for a passive activity as made from the remaining $200 proceeds of Loan B and $500 of unborrowed funds. H&r block 2011 tax return She treats the $800 used for an investment as made entirely from the proceeds of Loan C. H&r block 2011 tax return She treats the $600 used for personal purposes as made from the remaining $200 proceeds of Loan C and $400 of unborrowed funds. H&r block 2011 tax return For the periods during which loan proceeds are held in the account, Olena treats them as property held for investment. H&r block 2011 tax return Payments from checking accounts. H&r block 2011 tax return   Generally, you treat a payment from a checking or similar account as made at the time the check is written if you mail or deliver it to the payee within a reasonable period after you write it. H&r block 2011 tax return You can treat checks written on the same day as written in any order. H&r block 2011 tax return Amounts paid within 30 days. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you receive loan proceeds in cash or if the loan proceeds are deposited in an account, you can treat any payment (up to the amount of the proceeds) made from any account you own, or from cash, as made from those proceeds. H&r block 2011 tax return This applies to any payment made within 30 days before or after the proceeds are received in cash or deposited in your account. H&r block 2011 tax return   If the loan proceeds are deposited in an account, you can apply this rule even if the rules stated earlier under Order of funds spent would otherwise require you to treat the proceeds as used for other purposes. H&r block 2011 tax return If you apply this rule to any payments, disregard those payments (and the proceeds from which they are made) when applying the rules stated under Order of funds spent. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you received the loan proceeds in cash, you can treat the payment as made on the date you received the cash instead of the date you actually made the payment. H&r block 2011 tax return Example. H&r block 2011 tax return Giovanni gets a loan of $1,000 on August 4 and receives the proceeds in cash. H&r block 2011 tax return Giovanni deposits $1,500 in an account on August 18 and on August 28 writes a check on the account for a passive activity expense. H&r block 2011 tax return Also, Giovanni deposits his paycheck, deposits other loan proceeds, and pays his bills during the same period. H&r block 2011 tax return Regardless of these other transactions, Giovanni can treat $1,000 of the deposit he made on August 18 as being paid on August 4 from the loan proceeds. H&r block 2011 tax return In addition, Giovanni can treat the passive activity expense he paid on August 28 as made from the $1,000 loan proceeds treated as deposited in the account. H&r block 2011 tax return Optional method for determining date of reallocation. H&r block 2011 tax return   You can use the following method to determine the date loan proceeds are reallocated to another use. H&r block 2011 tax return You can treat all payments from loan proceeds in the account during any month as taking place on the later of the following dates. H&r block 2011 tax return The first day of that month. H&r block 2011 tax return The date the loan proceeds are deposited in the account. H&r block 2011 tax return However, you can use this optional method only if you treat all payments from the account during the same calendar month in the same way. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest on a segregated account. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you have an account that contains only loan proceeds and interest earned on the account, you can treat any payment from that account as being made first from the interest. H&r block 2011 tax return When the interest earned is used up, any remaining payments are from loan proceeds. H&r block 2011 tax return Example. H&r block 2011 tax return You borrowed $20,000 and used the proceeds of this loan to open a new savings account. H&r block 2011 tax return When the account had earned interest of $867, you withdrew $20,000 for personal purposes. H&r block 2011 tax return You can treat the withdrawal as coming first from the interest earned on the account, $867, and then from the loan proceeds, $19,133 ($20,000 − $867). H&r block 2011 tax return All the interest charged on the loan from the time it was deposited in the account until the time of the withdrawal is investment interest expense. H&r block 2011 tax return The interest charged on the part of the proceeds used for personal purposes ($19,133) from the time you withdrew it until you either repay it or reallocate it to another use is personal interest expense. H&r block 2011 tax return The interest charged on the loan proceeds you left in the account ($867) continues to be investment interest expense until you either repay it or reallocate it to another use. H&r block 2011 tax return Loan repayment. H&r block 2011 tax return   When you repay any part of a loan allocated to more than one use, treat it as being repaid in the following order. H&r block 2011 tax return Personal use. H&r block 2011 tax return Investments and passive activities (other than those included in (3)). H&r block 2011 tax return Passive activities in connection with a rental real estate activity in which you actively participate. H&r block 2011 tax return Former passive activities. H&r block 2011 tax return Trade or business use and expenses for certain low-income housing projects. H&r block 2011 tax return Line of credit (continuous borrowings). H&r block 2011 tax return   The following rules apply if you have a line of credit or similar arrangement. H&r block 2011 tax return Treat all borrowed funds on which interest accrues at the same fixed or variable rate as a single loan. H&r block 2011 tax return Treat borrowed funds or parts of borrowed funds on which interest accrues at different fixed or variable rates as different loans. H&r block 2011 tax return Treat these loans as repaid in the order shown on the loan agreement. H&r block 2011 tax return Loan refinancing. H&r block 2011 tax return   Allocate the replacement loan to the same uses to which the repaid loan was allocated. H&r block 2011 tax return Make the allocation only to the extent you use the proceeds of the new loan to repay any part of the original loan. H&r block 2011 tax return Debt-financed distribution. H&r block 2011 tax return   A debt-financed distribution occurs when a partnership or S corporation borrows funds and allocates those funds to distributions made to partners or shareholders. H&r block 2011 tax return The manner in which you report the interest expense associated with the distributed debt proceeds depends on your use of those proceeds. H&r block 2011 tax return How to report. H&r block 2011 tax return   If the proceeds were used in a nonpassive trade or business activity, report the interest on Schedule E (Form 1040), line 28; enter “interest expense” and the name of the partnership or S corporation in column (a) and the amount in column (h). H&r block 2011 tax return If the proceeds were used in a passive activity, follow the Instructions for Form 8582, Passive Activity Loss Limitations, to determine the amount of interest expense that can be reported on Schedule E (Form 1040), line 28; enter “interest expense” and the name of the partnership in column (a) and the amount in column (f). H&r block 2011 tax return If the proceeds were used in an investment activity, enter the interest on Form 4952. H&r block 2011 tax return If the proceeds are used for personal purposes, the interest is generally not deductible. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest You Can Deduct You can generally deduct as a business expense all interest you pay or accrue during the tax year on debts related to your trade or business. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest relates to your trade or business if you use the proceeds of the loan for a trade or business expense. H&r block 2011 tax return It does not matter what type of property secures the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return You can deduct interest on a debt only if you meet all the following requirements. H&r block 2011 tax return You are legally liable for that debt. H&r block 2011 tax return Both you and the lender intend that the debt be repaid. H&r block 2011 tax return You and the lender have a true debtor-creditor relationship. H&r block 2011 tax return Partial liability. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you are liable for part of a business debt, you can deduct only your share of the total interest paid or accrued. H&r block 2011 tax return Example. H&r block 2011 tax return You and your brother borrow money. H&r block 2011 tax return You are liable for 50% of the note. H&r block 2011 tax return You use your half of the loan in your business, and you make one-half of the loan payments. H&r block 2011 tax return You can deduct your half of the total interest payments as a business deduction. H&r block 2011 tax return Mortgage. H&r block 2011 tax return   Generally, mortgage interest paid or accrued on real estate you own legally or equitably is deductible. H&r block 2011 tax return However, rather than deducting the interest currently, you may have to add it to the cost basis of the property as explained later under Capitalization of Interest. H&r block 2011 tax return Statement. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you paid $600 or more of mortgage interest (including certain points) during the year on any one mortgage, you generally will receive a Form 1098 or a similar statement. H&r block 2011 tax return You will receive the statement if you pay interest to a person (including a financial institution or a cooperative housing corporation) in the course of that person's trade or business. H&r block 2011 tax return A governmental unit is a person for purposes of furnishing the statement. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you receive a refund of interest you overpaid in an earlier year, this amount will be reported in box 3 of Form 1098. H&r block 2011 tax return You cannot deduct this amount. H&r block 2011 tax return For information on how to report this refund, see Refunds of interest, later in this chapter. H&r block 2011 tax return Expenses paid to obtain a mortgage. H&r block 2011 tax return   Certain expenses you pay to obtain a mortgage cannot be deducted as interest. H&r block 2011 tax return These expenses, which include mortgage commissions, abstract fees, and recording fees, are capital expenses. H&r block 2011 tax return If the property mortgaged is business or income-producing property, you can amortize the costs over the life of the mortgage. H&r block 2011 tax return Prepayment penalty. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you pay off your mortgage early and pay the lender a penalty for doing this, you can deduct the penalty as interest. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest on employment tax deficiency. H&r block 2011 tax return   Interest charged on employment taxes assessed on your business is deductible. H&r block 2011 tax return Original issue discount (OID). H&r block 2011 tax return   OID is a form of interest. H&r block 2011 tax return A loan (mortgage or other debt) generally has OID when its proceeds are less than its principal amount. H&r block 2011 tax return The OID is the difference between the stated redemption price at maturity and the issue price of the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return   A loan's stated redemption price at maturity is the sum of all amounts (principal and interest) payable on it other than qualified stated interest. H&r block 2011 tax return Qualified stated interest is stated interest that is unconditionally payable in cash or property (other than another loan of the issuer) at least annually over the term of the loan at a single fixed rate. H&r block 2011 tax return You generally deduct OID over the term of the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return Figure the amount to deduct each year using the constant-yield method, unless the OID on the loan is de minimis. H&r block 2011 tax return De minimis OID. H&r block 2011 tax return   The OID is de minimis if it is less than one-fourth of 1% (. H&r block 2011 tax return 0025) of the stated redemption price of the loan at maturity multiplied by the number of full years from the date of original issue to maturity (the term of the loan). H&r block 2011 tax return   If the OID is de minimis, you can choose one of the following ways to figure the amount you can deduct each year. H&r block 2011 tax return On a constant-yield basis over the term of the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return On a straight-line basis over the term of the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return In proportion to stated interest payments. H&r block 2011 tax return In its entirety at maturity of the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return You make this choice by deducting the OID in a manner consistent with the method chosen on your timely filed tax return for the tax year in which the loan is issued. H&r block 2011 tax return Example. H&r block 2011 tax return On January 1, 2013, you took out a $100,000 discounted loan and received $98,500 in proceeds. H&r block 2011 tax return The loan will mature on January 1, 2023 (a 10-year term), and the $100,000 principal is payable on that date. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest of $10,000 is payable on January 1 of each year, beginning January 1, 2014. H&r block 2011 tax return The $1,500 OID on the loan is de minimis because it is less than $2,500 ($100,000 × . H&r block 2011 tax return 0025 × 10). H&r block 2011 tax return You choose to deduct the OID on a straight-line basis over the term of the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return Beginning in 2013, you can deduct $150 each year for 10 years. H&r block 2011 tax return Constant-yield method. H&r block 2011 tax return   If the OID is not de minimis, you must use the constant-yield method to figure how much you can deduct each year. H&r block 2011 tax return You figure your deduction for the first year using the following steps. H&r block 2011 tax return Determine the issue price of the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return Generally, this equals the proceeds of the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return If you paid points on the loan (as discussed later), the issue price generally is the difference between the proceeds and the points. H&r block 2011 tax return Multiply the result in (1) by the yield to maturity. H&r block 2011 tax return Subtract any qualified stated interest payments from the result in (2). H&r block 2011 tax return This is the OID you can deduct in the first year. H&r block 2011 tax return   To figure your deduction in any subsequent year, follow the above steps, except determine the adjusted issue price in step (1). H&r block 2011 tax return To get the adjusted issue price, add to the issue price any OID previously deducted. H&r block 2011 tax return Then follow steps (2) and (3) above. H&r block 2011 tax return   The yield to maturity is generally shown in the literature you receive from your lender. H&r block 2011 tax return If you do not have this information, consult your lender or tax advisor. H&r block 2011 tax return In general, the yield to maturity is the discount rate that, when used in computing the present value of all principal and interest payments, produces an amount equal to the principal amount of the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return Example. H&r block 2011 tax return The facts are the same as in the previous example, except that you deduct the OID on a constant yield basis over the term of the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return The yield to maturity on your loan is 10. H&r block 2011 tax return 2467%, compounded annually. H&r block 2011 tax return For 2013, you can deduct $93 [($98,500 × . H&r block 2011 tax return 102467) − $10,000]. H&r block 2011 tax return For 2014, you can deduct $103 [($98,593 × . H&r block 2011 tax return 102467) − $10,000]. H&r block 2011 tax return Loan or mortgage ends. H&r block 2011 tax return   If your loan or mortgage ends, you may be able to deduct any remaining OID in the tax year in which the loan or mortgage ends. H&r block 2011 tax return A loan or mortgage may end due to a refinancing, prepayment, foreclosure, or similar event. H&r block 2011 tax return If you refinance with the original lender, you generally cannot deduct the remaining OID in the year in which the refinancing occurs, but you may be able to deduct it over the term of the new mortgage or loan. H&r block 2011 tax return See Interest paid with funds borrowed from original lender under Interest You Cannot Deduct, later. H&r block 2011 tax return Points. H&r block 2011 tax return   The term “points” is used to describe certain charges paid, or treated as paid, by a borrower to obtain a loan or a mortgage. H&r block 2011 tax return These charges are also called loan origination fees, maximum loan charges, discount points, or premium charges. H&r block 2011 tax return If any of these charges (points) are solely for the use of money, they are interest. H&r block 2011 tax return   Because points are prepaid interest, you generally cannot deduct the full amount in the year paid. H&r block 2011 tax return However, you can choose to fully deduct points in the year paid if you meet certain tests. H&r block 2011 tax return For exceptions to the general rule, see Publication 936. H&r block 2011 tax return The points reduce the issue price of the loan and result in original issue discount (OID), deductible as explained in the preceding discussion. H&r block 2011 tax return Partial payments on a nontax debt. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you make partial payments on a debt (other than a debt owed the IRS), the payments are applied, in general, first to interest and any remainder to principal. H&r block 2011 tax return You can deduct only the interest. H&r block 2011 tax return This rule does not apply when it can be inferred that the borrower and lender understood that a different allocation of the payments would be made. H&r block 2011 tax return Installment purchase. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you make an installment purchase of business property, the contract between you and the seller generally provides for the payment of interest. H&r block 2011 tax return If no interest or a low rate of interest is charged under the contract, a portion of the stated principal amount payable under the contract may be recharacterized as interest (unstated interest). H&r block 2011 tax return The amount recharacterized as interest reduces your basis in the property and increases your interest expense. H&r block 2011 tax return For more information on installment sales and unstated interest, see Publication 537. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest You Cannot Deduct Certain interest payments cannot be deducted. H&r block 2011 tax return In addition, certain other expenses that may seem to be interest but are not, cannot be deducted as interest. H&r block 2011 tax return You cannot currently deduct interest that must be capitalized, and you generally cannot deduct personal interest. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest paid with funds borrowed from original lender. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you use the cash method of accounting, you cannot deduct interest you pay with funds borrowed from the original lender through a second loan, an advance, or any other arrangement similar to a loan. H&r block 2011 tax return You can deduct the interest expense once you start making payments on the new loan. H&r block 2011 tax return   When you make a payment on the new loan, you first apply the payment to interest and then to the principal. H&r block 2011 tax return All amounts you apply to the interest on the first loan are deductible, along with any interest you pay on the second loan, subject to any limits that apply. H&r block 2011 tax return Capitalized interest. H&r block 2011 tax return   You cannot currently deduct interest you are required to capitalize under the uniform capitalization rules. H&r block 2011 tax return See Capitalization of Interest, later. H&r block 2011 tax return In addition, if you buy property and pay interest owed by the seller (for example, by assuming the debt and any interest accrued on the property), you cannot deduct the interest. H&r block 2011 tax return Add this interest to the basis of the property. H&r block 2011 tax return Commitment fees or standby charges. H&r block 2011 tax return   Fees you incur to have business funds available on a standby basis, but not for the actual use of the funds, are not deductible as interest payments. H&r block 2011 tax return You may be able to deduct them as business expenses. H&r block 2011 tax return   If the funds are for inventory or certain property used in your business, the fees are indirect costs and you generally must capitalize them under the uniform capitalization rules. H&r block 2011 tax return See Capitalization of Interest, later. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest on income tax. H&r block 2011 tax return   Interest charged on income tax assessed on your individual income tax return is not a business deduction even though the tax due is related to income from your trade or business. H&r block 2011 tax return Treat this interest as a business deduction only in figuring a net operating loss deduction. H&r block 2011 tax return Penalties. H&r block 2011 tax return   Penalties on underpaid deficiencies and underpaid estimated tax are not interest. H&r block 2011 tax return You cannot deduct them. H&r block 2011 tax return Generally, you cannot deduct any fines or penalties. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest on loans with respect to life insurance policies. H&r block 2011 tax return   You generally cannot deduct interest on a debt incurred with respect to any life insurance, annuity, or endowment contract that covers any individual unless that individual is a key person. H&r block 2011 tax return   If the policy or contract covers a key person, you can deduct the interest on up to $50,000 of debt for that person. H&r block 2011 tax return However, the deduction for any month cannot be more than the interest figured using Moody's Composite Yield on Seasoned Corporate Bonds (formerly known as Moody's Corporate Bond Yield Average-Monthly Average Corporates) (Moody's rate) for that month. H&r block 2011 tax return Who is a key person?   A key person is an officer or 20% owner. H&r block 2011 tax return However, the number of individuals you can treat as key persons is limited to the greater of the following. H&r block 2011 tax return Five individuals. H&r block 2011 tax return The lesser of 5% of the total officers and employees of the company or 20 individuals. H&r block 2011 tax return Exceptions for pre-June 1997 contracts. H&r block 2011 tax return   You can generally deduct the interest if the contract was issued before June 9, 1997, and the covered individual is someone other than an employee, officer, or someone financially interested in your business. H&r block 2011 tax return If the contract was purchased before June 21, 1986, you can generally deduct the interest no matter who is covered by the contract. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest allocated to unborrowed policy cash value. H&r block 2011 tax return   Corporations and partnerships generally cannot deduct any interest expense allocable to unborrowed cash values of life insurance, annuity, or endowment contracts. H&r block 2011 tax return This rule applies to contracts issued after June 8, 1997, that cover someone other than an officer, director, employee, or 20% owner. H&r block 2011 tax return For more information, see section 264(f) of the Internal Revenue Code. H&r block 2011 tax return Capitalization of Interest Under the uniform capitalization rules, you generally must capitalize interest on debt equal to your expenditures to produce real property or certain tangible personal property. H&r block 2011 tax return The property must be produced by you for use in your trade or business or for sale to customers. H&r block 2011 tax return You cannot capitalize interest related to property that you acquire in any other manner. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest you paid or incurred during the production period must be capitalized if the property produced is designated property. H&r block 2011 tax return Designated property is any of the following. H&r block 2011 tax return Real property. H&r block 2011 tax return Tangible personal property with a class life of 20 years or more. H&r block 2011 tax return Tangible personal property with an estimated production period of more than 2 years. H&r block 2011 tax return Tangible personal property with an estimated production period of more than 1 year if the estimated cost of production is more than $1 million. H&r block 2011 tax return Property you produce. H&r block 2011 tax return   You produce property if you construct, build, install, manufacture, develop, improve, create, raise, or grow it. H&r block 2011 tax return Treat property produced for you under a contract as produced by you up to the amount you pay or incur for the property. H&r block 2011 tax return Carrying charges. H&r block 2011 tax return   Carrying charges include taxes you pay to carry or develop real estate or to carry, transport, or install personal property. H&r block 2011 tax return You can choose to capitalize carrying charges not subject to the uniform capitalization rules if they are otherwise deductible. H&r block 2011 tax return For more information, see chapter 7. H&r block 2011 tax return Capitalized interest. H&r block 2011 tax return   Treat capitalized interest as a cost of the property produced. H&r block 2011 tax return You recover your interest when you sell or use the property. H&r block 2011 tax return If the property is inventory, recover capitalized interest through cost of goods sold. H&r block 2011 tax return If the property is used in your trade or business, recover capitalized interest through an adjustment to basis, depreciation, amortization, or other method. H&r block 2011 tax return Partnerships and S corporations. H&r block 2011 tax return   The interest capitalization rules are applied first at the partnership or S corporation level. H&r block 2011 tax return The rules are then applied at the partners' or shareholders' level to the extent the partnership or S corporation has insufficient debt to support the production or construction costs. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you are a partner or a shareholder, you may have to capitalize interest you incur during the tax year for the production costs of the partnership or S corporation. H&r block 2011 tax return You may also have to capitalize interest incurred by the partnership or S corporation for your own production costs. H&r block 2011 tax return To properly capitalize interest under these rules, you must be given the required information in an attachment to the Schedule K-1 you receive from the partnership or S corporation. H&r block 2011 tax return Additional information. H&r block 2011 tax return   The procedures for applying the uniform capitalization rules are beyond the scope of this publication. H&r block 2011 tax return For more information, see sections 1. H&r block 2011 tax return 263A-8 through 1. H&r block 2011 tax return 263A-15 of the regulations and Notice 88-99. H&r block 2011 tax return Notice 88-99 is in Cumulative Bulletin 1988-2. H&r block 2011 tax return When To Deduct Interest If the uniform capitalization rules, discussed under Capitalization of Interest, earlier, do not apply to you, deduct interest as follows. H&r block 2011 tax return Cash method. H&r block 2011 tax return   Under the cash method, you can generally deduct only the interest you actually paid during the tax year. H&r block 2011 tax return You cannot deduct a promissory note you gave as payment because it is a promise to pay and not an actual payment. H&r block 2011 tax return Prepaid interest. H&r block 2011 tax return   You generally cannot deduct any interest paid before the year it is due. H&r block 2011 tax return Interest paid in advance can be deducted only in the tax year in which it is due. H&r block 2011 tax return Discounted loan. H&r block 2011 tax return   If interest or a discount is subtracted from your loan proceeds, it is not a payment of interest and you cannot deduct it when you get the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return For more information, see Original issue discount (OID) under Interest You Can Deduct, earlier. H&r block 2011 tax return Refunds of interest. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you pay interest and then receive a refund in the same tax year of any part of the interest, reduce your interest deduction by the refund. H&r block 2011 tax return If you receive the refund in a later tax year, include the refund in your income to the extent the deduction for the interest reduced your tax. H&r block 2011 tax return Accrual method. H&r block 2011 tax return   Under an accrual method, you can deduct only interest that has accrued during the tax year. H&r block 2011 tax return Prepaid interest. H&r block 2011 tax return   See Prepaid interest, earlier. H&r block 2011 tax return Discounted loan. H&r block 2011 tax return   See Discounted loan, earlier. H&r block 2011 tax return Tax deficiency. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you contest a federal income tax deficiency, interest does not accrue until the tax year the final determination of liability is made. H&r block 2011 tax return If you do not contest the deficiency, then the interest accrues in the year the tax was asserted and agreed to by you. H&r block 2011 tax return   However, if you contest but pay the proposed tax deficiency and interest, and you do not designate the payment as a cash bond, then the interest is deductible in the year paid. H&r block 2011 tax return Related person. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you use an accrual method, you cannot deduct interest owed to a related person who uses the cash method until payment is made and the interest is includible in the gross income of that person. H&r block 2011 tax return The relationship is determined as of the end of the tax year for which the interest would otherwise be deductible. H&r block 2011 tax return See section 267 of the Internal Revenue Code for more information. H&r block 2011 tax return Below-Market Loans If you receive a below-market gift or demand loan and use the proceeds in your trade or business, you may be able to deduct the forgone interest. H&r block 2011 tax return See Treatment of gift and demand loans, later, in this discussion. H&r block 2011 tax return A below-market loan is a loan on which no interest is charged or on which interest is charged at a rate below the applicable federal rate. H&r block 2011 tax return A gift or demand loan that is a below-market loan generally is considered an arm's-length transaction in which you, the borrower, are considered as having received both the following. H&r block 2011 tax return A loan in exchange for a note that requires the payment of interest at the applicable federal rate. H&r block 2011 tax return An additional payment in an amount equal to the forgone interest. H&r block 2011 tax return The additional payment is treated as a gift, dividend, contribution to capital, payment of compensation, or other payment, depending on the substance of the transaction. H&r block 2011 tax return Forgone interest. H&r block 2011 tax return   For any period, forgone interest is The interest that would be payable for that period if interest accrued on the loan at the applicable federal rate and was payable annually on December 31, minus Any interest actually payable on the loan for the period. H&r block 2011 tax return Applicable federal rates are published by the IRS each month in the Internal Revenue Bulletin. H&r block 2011 tax return Internal Revenue Bulletins are available on the IRS web site at www. H&r block 2011 tax return irs. H&r block 2011 tax return gov/irb. H&r block 2011 tax return You can also contact an IRS office to get these rates. H&r block 2011 tax return Loans subject to the rules. H&r block 2011 tax return   The rules for below-market loans apply to the following. H&r block 2011 tax return Gift loans (below-market loans where the forgone interest is in the nature of a gift). H&r block 2011 tax return Compensation-related loans (below-market loans between an employer and an employee or between an independent contractor and a person for whom the contractor provides services). H&r block 2011 tax return Corporation-shareholder loans. H&r block 2011 tax return Tax avoidance loans (below-market loans where the avoidance of federal tax is one of the main purposes of the interest arrangement). H&r block 2011 tax return Loans to qualified continuing care facilities under a continuing care contract (made after October 11, 1985). H&r block 2011 tax return   Except as noted in (5) above, these rules apply to demand loans (loans payable in full at any time upon the lender's demand) outstanding after June 6, 1984, and to term loans (loans that are not demand loans) made after that date. H&r block 2011 tax return Treatment of gift and demand loans. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you receive a below-market gift loan or demand loan, you are treated as receiving an additional payment (as a gift, dividend, etc. H&r block 2011 tax return ) equal to the forgone interest on the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return You are then treated as transferring this amount back to the lender as interest. H&r block 2011 tax return These transfers are considered to occur annually, generally on December 31. H&r block 2011 tax return If you use the loan proceeds in your trade or business, you can deduct the forgone interest each year as a business interest expense. H&r block 2011 tax return The lender must report it as interest income. H&r block 2011 tax return Limit on forgone interest for gift loans of $100,000 or less. H&r block 2011 tax return   For gift loans between individuals, forgone interest treated as transferred back to the lender is limited to the borrower's net investment income for the year. H&r block 2011 tax return This limit applies if the outstanding loans between the lender and borrower total $100,000 or less. H&r block 2011 tax return If the borrower's net investment income is $1,000 or less, it is treated as zero. H&r block 2011 tax return This limit does not apply to a loan if the avoidance of any federal tax is one of the main purposes of the interest arrangement. H&r block 2011 tax return Treatment of term loans. H&r block 2011 tax return   If you receive a below-market term loan other than a gift or demand loan, you are treated as receiving an additional cash payment (as a dividend, etc. H&r block 2011 tax return ) on the date the loan is made. H&r block 2011 tax return This payment is equal to the loan amount minus the present value, at the applicable federal rate, of all payments due under the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return The same amount is treated as original issue discount on the loan. H&r block 2011 tax return See Original issue discount (OID) under Interest You Can Deduct, earlier. H&r block 2011 tax return Exceptions for loans of $10,000 or less. H&r block 2011 tax return   The rules for below-market loans do not apply to any day on which the total outstanding loans between the borrower and lender is $10,000 or less. H&r block 2011 tax return This exception applies only to the following. H&r block 2011 tax return Gift loans between individuals if the loan is not directly used to buy or carry income-producing assets. H&r block 2011 tax return Compensation-related loans or corporation-shareholder loans if the avoidance of any federal tax is not a principal purpose of the interest arrangement. H&r block 2011 tax return This exception does not apply to a term loan described in (2) above that was previously subject to the below-market loan rules. H&r block 2011 tax return Those rules will continue to apply even if the outstanding balance is reduced to $10,000 or less. H&r block 2011 tax return Exceptions for loans without significant tax effect. H&r block 2011 tax return   The following loans are specifically exempted from the rules for below-market loans because their interest arrangements do not have a significant effect on the federal tax liability of the borrower or the lender. H&r block 2011 tax return Loans made available by lenders to the general public on the same terms and conditions that are consistent with the lender's customary business practices. H&r block 2011 tax return Loans subsidized by a federal, state, or municipal government that are made available under a program of general application to the public. H&r block 2011 tax return Certain employee-relocation loans. H&r block 2011 tax return Certain loans to or from a foreign person, unless the interest income would be effectively connected with the conduct of a U. H&r block 2011 tax return S. H&r block 2011 tax return trade or business and not exempt from U. H&r block 2011 tax return S. H&r block 2011 tax return tax under an income tax treaty. H&r block 2011 tax return Any other loan if the taxpayer can show that the interest arrangement has no significant effect on the federal tax liability of the lender or the borrower. H&r block 2011 tax return Whether an interest arrangement has a significant effect on the federal tax liability of the lender or the borrower will be determined by all the facts and circumstances. H&r block 2011 tax return Consider all the following factors. H&r block 2011 tax return Whether items of income and deduction generated by the loan offset each other. H&r block 2011 tax return The amount of the items. H&r block 2011 tax return The cost of complying with the below-market loan provisions if they were to apply. H&r block 2011 tax return Any reasons, other than taxes, for structuring the transaction as a below-market loan. H&r block 2011 tax return Exception for loans to qualified continuing care facilities. H&r block 2011 tax return   The below-market interest rules do not apply to a loan owed by a qualified continuing care facility under a continuing care contract if the lender or lender's spouse is age 62 or older by the end of the calendar year. H&r block 2011 tax return A qualified continuing care facility is one or more facilities (excluding nursing homes) meeting the requirements listed below. H&r block 2011 tax return Designed to provide services under continuing care contracts (defined below). H&r block 2011 tax return Includes an independent living unit, and either an assisted living or nursing facility, or both. H&r block 2011 tax return Substantially all of the independent living unit residents are covered by continuing care contracts. H&r block 2011 tax return A continuing care contract is a written contract between an individual and a qualified continuing care facility that includes all of the following conditions. H&r block 2011 tax return The individual or individual's spouse must be entitled to use the facility for the rest of their life or lives. H&r block 2011 tax return The individual or individual's spouse will be provided with housing, as appropriate for the health of the individual or individual's spouse in an: independent living unit (which has additional available facilities outside the unit for the provision of meals and other personal care), and assisted living or nursing facility available in the continuing care facility. H&r block 2011 tax return The individual or individual's spouse will be provided with assisted living or nursing care available in the continuing care facility, as required for the health of the individual or the individual's spouse. H&r block 2011 tax return For more information, see section 7872(h) of the Internal Revenue Code. H&r block 2011 tax return Sale or exchange of property. H&r block 2011 tax return   Different rules generally apply to a loan connected with the sale or exchange of property. H&r block 2011 tax return If the loan does not provide adequate stated interest, part of the principal payment may be considered interest. H&r block 2011 tax return However, there are exceptions that may require you to apply the below-market interest rate rules to these loans. H&r block 2011 tax return See Unstated Interest and Original Issue Discount (OID) in Publication 537. H&r block 2011 tax return More information. H&r block 2011 tax return   For more information on below-market loans, see section 7872 of the Internal Revenue Code and section 1. H&r block 2011 tax return 7872-5 of the regulations. H&r block 2011 tax return Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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Going Green- Be a Green Consumer

"Going Green" means practicing an environmentally friendly and ecologically responsible lifestyle as well as making decisions to help protect the environment and sustain natural resources. There are lots of reasons to consider going green—too much trash, greenhouse gases, air and water pollution, damage to the ozone layer, and saving money. For example, switching all the light bulbs in a home from conventional incandescent light bulbs to compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs could save about $40 over the life of the bulb. Other examples include:

  • Turning your thermostat down two degrees in winter and up two degrees in summer.
  • Making sure your walls and ceilings are well insulated.
  • Replacing bathroom and kitchen faucets with low-flow models.

Make Greener Product Choices

Buying only what you need is the first step to go green, but when you buy, looking for greener products and using products in ways that respect the environment can have a big impact — on the health of your family, pets and the planet. 

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a green products web portal to help you navigate the complex world of green products. You can use this portal to find links and information related to greener products from EPA and other sources.  

The EPA has a number of eco-labeling partnership programs to help you identify greener, safer, and more efficient products. The standards behind these labels are based on scientific expertise and use the best available data. Look for these EPA program labels when buying:

  • EnergyStar - for energy efficient electronics and appliances
  • WaterSense - water efficient products
  • Design for the Environment (DfE) - safer household cleaners and other products. DfE allows products that have been determined to be safer for human health and the environment and effective to carry the DfE label.
  • SmartWay Certified Vehicle - cleaner, more fuel efficient cars and trucks

By making greener product choices you are saving money on utilities and fuel, supporting companies that are driving change and most importantly — you are joining millions of people helping to protect public health and the environment.

You can also choose to buy organic or locally produced food and eco-friendly clothing. For more information about national standards covering organic food, contact the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Agricultural Marketing Service. There are no national standards for organic clothing, but some fabrics to consider include organic cotton, bark cloth, bamboo, and organic wool.

Beware: Verify Green Marketing Claims

The number of eco-label products,  claiming that they are "eco-friendly" or "all-natural", has increased due to a growing demand for "green products. While this is a positive trend, you may have concerns about "greenwashing" and uncertainty about which environmental standards and labels can be trusted. The Federal Trade Commission's Green Guides provide guidance for companies that make marketing claims regarding the environmental attributes of their products. Here are some tips to help you sort through eco-label marketing:

  • Look for specific (ex. "contains 75% post-consumer recycled materials") rather than vague statements about environmental impact.
  • Determine whether the green marketing claims apply to the packaging, the product, or both.
  • Beware of fake third-party certification. Visit Consumer Reports' website to find reliable environmental labels.

For more information about environmental advertising, contact the FTC.

Reusing and Recycling

Along with buying greener products, you can make a big impact by using the products you buy in ways that respect the environment by: using fewer products and following instructions for product use; conserving energy, water, and materials; recycling items made of materials such as glass, metal, plastic, or paper or disposing of products properly. 

Many utility companies now offer curbside recycling programs that provide U.S. households with a responsible and convenient way to recycle materials. To locate information on recycling services and efforts in your area, call the Earth 911 toll free hotline, 1-800-CLEANUP (253-2687). 

It is easy to safely dispose of many products. Others, such as car batteries, cell phones, televisions, paints, oils, and solvents, require special handling. You can responsibly dispose of these products through your local household hazardous wasters (HHW) collection facility or at your local government's annual HHW collection day. Some items may be given to charitable organizations or even dropped off at electronics retailers. Contact the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help you make the right decisions about the best way to dispose of waste.

The H&r Block 2011 Tax Return

H&r block 2011 tax return Index A Actual knowledge Innocent spouse relief, Actual Knowledge or Reason To Know Separation of liability relief, Actual Knowledge Assistance (see Tax help) B Burden of proof, separation of liability, Burden of proof. H&r block 2011 tax return C Comments on publication, Comments and suggestions. H&r block 2011 tax return Community property law, relief from liability arising from, Community Property Laws Community property laws, Community Property Laws D Decedent, Form 8857 filed by or on behalf of a decedent. H&r block 2011 tax return Domestic violence (separation of liability), Exception for spousal abuse or domestic violence. H&r block 2011 tax return E Equitable relief Conditions for getting, Conditions for Getting Equitable Relief Factors for determining whether to grant, Factors for Determining Whether To Grant Equitable Relief Refunds, Refunds Under Equitable Relief Erroneous items, Erroneous Items Executors (see Decedent) F Flowcharts, Flowcharts Form 8857 Filled-in example, Filled-in Form 8857 For decedent, Form 8857 filed by or on behalf of a decedent. H&r block 2011 tax return Tax Court review, Tax Court Review of Request When to file, When to file Form 8857. H&r block 2011 tax return Free tax services, How To Get Tax Help H Help (see Tax help) How to request relief, How To Request Relief I Indications of unfairness Innocent spouse relief, Indications of Unfairness for Innocent Spouse Relief Injured spouse relief, Publication 971 - Additional Material Innocent spouse relief, Innocent Spouse Relief J Joint and several liability, Publication 971 - Additional Material L Limitations on Relief, Limitations on Relief M More information (see Tax help) N No joint return filed, Relief for Married Persons Who Did Not File Joint Returns P Partial relief, innocent spouse relief, Partial relief when a portion of erroneous item is unknown. H&r block 2011 tax return Publications (see Tax help) Q Questions & Answers, Publication 971 - Additional Material R Reason to know, Actual Knowledge or Reason To Know Refunds, Refunds Limit on amount of refund, Limit on Amount of Refund Proof required, Proof Required Under equitable relief, Refunds Under Equitable Relief S Separation of liability relief, Separation of Liability Relief Spousal abuse, The IRS Must Contact Your Spouse or Former Spouse, Exception for spousal abuse or domestic violence. H&r block 2011 tax return Spousal notification, The IRS Must Contact Your Spouse or Former Spouse, Publication 971 - Additional Material Suggestions for publication, Comments and suggestions. H&r block 2011 tax return T Tax Court review, Tax Court Review of Request Tax help, How To Get Tax Help Taxpayer Advocate, Taxpayer Advocate Service. H&r block 2011 tax return TEFRA partnership proceedings, Exception for agreements relating to TEFRA partnership proceedings. H&r block 2011 tax return Transferee liability, Transferee liability not affected by innocent spouse relief provisions. H&r block 2011 tax return Transfers of property to avoid tax, Transfers of Property To Avoid Tax TTY/TDD information, How To Get Tax Help U Underpaid tax, Equitable Relief Understated tax, Understated Tax United States Tax Court, Tax Court Review of Request W When to file Form 8857, When to file Form 8857. H&r block 2011 tax return Prev  Up     Home   More Online Publications