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Free tax preparation Publication 575 - Main Content Table of Contents General InformationPension. Free tax preparation Annuity. Free tax preparation Qualified employee plan. Free tax preparation Qualified employee annuity. Free tax preparation Designated Roth account. Free tax preparation Tax-sheltered annuity plan. Free tax preparation Fixed-period annuities. Free tax preparation Annuities for a single life. Free tax preparation Joint and survivor annuities. Free tax preparation Variable annuities. Free tax preparation Disability pensions. Free tax preparation Variable Annuities Section 457 Deferred Compensation Plans Disability Pensions Insurance Premiums for Retired Public Safety Officers Railroad Retirement Benefits Withholding Tax and Estimated Tax Cost (Investment in the Contract)Foreign employment contributions while a nonresident alien. Free tax preparation Taxation of Periodic PaymentsPeriod of participation. Free tax preparation Fully Taxable Payments Partly Taxable Payments Taxation of Nonperiodic PaymentsFiguring the Taxable Amount Loans Treated as Distributions Transfers of Annuity Contracts Lump-Sum Distributions RolloversExceptions. Free tax preparation No tax withheld. Free tax preparation Partial rollovers. Free tax preparation Frozen deposits. Free tax preparation Reasonable period of time. Free tax preparation 20% Mandatory withholding. Free tax preparation How to report. Free tax preparation How to report. Free tax preparation Special rule for Roth IRAs and designated Roth accounts. Free tax preparation Special Additional TaxesTax on Early Distributions Tax on Excess Accumulation Survivors and BeneficiariesGuaranteed payments. Free tax preparation How To Get Tax HelpLow Income Taxpayer Clinics General Information Definitions. Free tax preparation   Some of the terms used in this publication are defined in the following paragraphs. Free tax preparation Pension. Free tax preparation   A pension is generally a series of definitely determinable payments made to you after you retire from work. Free tax preparation Pension payments are made regularly and are based on such factors as years of service and prior compensation. Free tax preparation Annuity. Free tax preparation   An annuity is a series of payments under a contract made at regular intervals over a period of more than one full year. Free tax preparation They can be either fixed (under which you receive a definite amount) or variable (not fixed). Free tax preparation You can buy the contract alone or with the help of your employer. Free tax preparation Qualified employee plan. Free tax preparation   A qualified employee plan is an employer's stock bonus, pension, or profit-sharing plan that is for the exclusive benefit of employees or their beneficiaries and that meets Internal Revenue Code requirements. Free tax preparation It qualifies for special tax benefits, such as tax deferral for employer contributions and capital gain treatment or the 10-year tax option for lump-sum distributions (if participants qualify). Free tax preparation To determine whether your plan is a qualified plan, check with your employer or the plan administrator. Free tax preparation Qualified employee annuity. Free tax preparation   A qualified employee annuity is a retirement annuity purchased by an employer for an employee under a plan that meets Internal Revenue Code requirements. Free tax preparation Designated Roth account. Free tax preparation   A designated Roth account is a separate account created under a qualified Roth contribution program to which participants may elect to have part or all of their elective deferrals to a 401(k), 403(b), or 457(b) plan designated as Roth contributions. Free tax preparation Elective deferrals that are designated as Roth contributions are included in your income. Free tax preparation However, qualified distributions (explained later) are not included in your income. Free tax preparation You should check with your plan administrator to determine if your plan will accept designated Roth contributions. Free tax preparation Tax-sheltered annuity plan. Free tax preparation   A tax-sheltered annuity plan (often referred to as a 403(b) plan or a tax-deferred annuity plan) is a retirement plan for employees of public schools and certain tax-exempt organizations. Free tax preparation Generally, a tax-sheltered annuity plan provides retirement benefits by purchasing annuity contracts for its participants. Free tax preparation Types of pensions and annuities. Free tax preparation   Pensions and annuities include the following types. Free tax preparation Fixed-period annuities. Free tax preparation   You receive definite amounts at regular intervals for a specified length of time. Free tax preparation Annuities for a single life. Free tax preparation   You receive definite amounts at regular intervals for life. Free tax preparation The payments end at death. Free tax preparation Joint and survivor annuities. Free tax preparation   The first annuitant receives a definite amount at regular intervals for life. Free tax preparation After he or she dies, a second annuitant receives a definite amount at regular intervals for life. Free tax preparation The amount paid to the second annuitant may or may not differ from the amount paid to the first annuitant. Free tax preparation Variable annuities. Free tax preparation   You receive payments that may vary in amount for a specified length of time or for life. Free tax preparation The amounts you receive may depend upon such variables as profits earned by the pension or annuity funds, cost-of-living indexes, or earnings from a mutual fund. Free tax preparation Disability pensions. Free tax preparation   You receive disability payments because you retired on disability and have not reached minimum retirement age. Free tax preparation More than one program. Free tax preparation   You may receive employee plan benefits from more than one program under a single trust or plan of your employer. Free tax preparation If you participate in more than one program, you may have to treat each as a separate pension or annuity contract, depending upon the facts in each case. Free tax preparation Also, you may be considered to have received more than one pension or annuity. Free tax preparation Your former employer or the plan administrator should be able to tell you if you have more than one contract. Free tax preparation Example. Free tax preparation Your employer set up a noncontributory profit-sharing plan for its employees. Free tax preparation The plan provides that the amount held in the account of each participant will be paid when that participant retires. Free tax preparation Your employer also set up a contributory defined benefit pension plan for its employees providing for the payment of a lifetime pension to each participant after retirement. Free tax preparation The amount of any distribution from the profit-sharing plan depends on the contributions (including allocated forfeitures) made for the participant and the earnings from those contributions. Free tax preparation Under the pension plan, however, a formula determines the amount of the pension benefits. Free tax preparation The amount of contributions is the amount necessary to provide that pension. Free tax preparation Each plan is a separate program and a separate contract. Free tax preparation If you get benefits from these plans, you must account for each separately, even though the benefits from both may be included in the same check. Free tax preparation Distributions from a designated Roth account are treated separately from other distributions from the plan. Free tax preparation Qualified domestic relations order (QDRO). Free tax preparation   A QDRO is a judgment, decree, or order relating to payment of child support, alimony, or marital property rights to a spouse, former spouse, child, or other dependent of a participant in a retirement plan. Free tax preparation The QDRO must contain certain specific information, such as the name and last known mailing address of the participant and each alternate payee, and the amount or percentage of the participant's benefits to be paid to each alternate payee. Free tax preparation A QDRO may not award an amount or form of benefit that is not available under the plan. Free tax preparation   A spouse or former spouse who receives part of the benefits from a retirement plan under a QDRO reports the payments received as if he or she were a plan participant. Free tax preparation The spouse or former spouse is allocated a share of the participant's cost (investment in the contract) equal to the cost times a fraction. Free tax preparation The numerator of the fraction is the present value of the benefits payable to the spouse or former spouse. Free tax preparation The denominator is the present value of all benefits payable to the participant. Free tax preparation   A distribution that is paid to a child or other dependent under a QDRO is taxed to the plan participant. Free tax preparation Variable Annuities The tax rules in this publication apply both to annuities that provide fixed payments and to annuities that provide payments that vary in amount based on investment results or other factors. Free tax preparation For example, they apply to commercial variable annuity contracts, whether bought by an employee retirement plan for its participants or bought directly from the issuer by an individual investor. Free tax preparation Under these contracts, the owner can generally allocate the purchase payments among several types of investment portfolios or mutual funds and the contract value is determined by the performance of those investments. Free tax preparation The earnings are not taxed until distributed either in a withdrawal or in annuity payments. Free tax preparation The taxable part of a distribution is treated as ordinary income. Free tax preparation Net investment income tax. Free tax preparation   Beginning in 2013, annuities under a nonqualified plan are included in calculating your net investment income for the net investment income tax (NIIT). Free tax preparation For information see the Instructions for Form 8960, Net Investment Income Tax — Individuals, Estates and Trusts. Free tax preparation For information on the tax treatment of a transfer or exchange of a variable annuity contract, see Transfers of Annuity Contracts under Taxation of Nonperiodic Payments, later. Free tax preparation Withdrawals. Free tax preparation   If you withdraw funds before your annuity starting date and your annuity is under a qualified retirement plan, a ratable part of the amount withdrawn is tax free. Free tax preparation The tax-free part is based on the ratio of your cost (investment in the contract) to your account balance under the plan. Free tax preparation   If your annuity is under a nonqualified plan (including a contract you bought directly from the issuer), the amount withdrawn is allocated first to earnings (the taxable part) and then to your cost (the tax-free part). Free tax preparation However, if you bought your annuity contract before August 14, 1982, a different allocation applies to the investment before that date and the earnings on that investment. Free tax preparation To the extent the amount withdrawn does not exceed that investment and earnings, it is allocated first to your cost (the tax-free part) and then to earnings (the taxable part). Free tax preparation   If you withdraw funds (other than as an annuity) on or after your annuity starting date, the entire amount withdrawn is generally taxable. Free tax preparation   The amount you receive in a full surrender of your annuity contract at any time is tax free to the extent of any cost that you have not previously recovered tax free. Free tax preparation The rest is taxable. Free tax preparation   For more information on the tax treatment of withdrawals, see Taxation of Nonperiodic Payments , later. Free tax preparation If you withdraw funds from your annuity before you reach age 59½, also see Tax on Early Distributions under Special Additional Taxes, later. Free tax preparation Annuity payments. Free tax preparation   If you receive annuity payments under a variable annuity plan or contract, you recover your cost tax free under either the Simplified Method or the General Rule, as explained under Taxation of Periodic Payments , later. Free tax preparation For a variable annuity paid under a qualified plan, you generally must use the Simplified Method. Free tax preparation For a variable annuity paid under a nonqualified plan (including a contract you bought directly from the issuer), you must use a special computation under the General Rule. Free tax preparation For more information, see Variable annuities in Publication 939 under Computation Under the General Rule. Free tax preparation Death benefits. Free tax preparation    If you receive a single-sum distribution from a variable annuity contract because of the death of the owner or annuitant, the distribution is generally taxable only to the extent it is more than the unrecovered cost of the contract. Free tax preparation If you choose to receive an annuity, the payments are subject to tax as described above. Free tax preparation If the contract provides a joint and survivor annuity and the primary annuitant had received annuity payments before death, you figure the tax-free part of annuity payments you receive as the survivor in the same way the primary annuitant did. Free tax preparation See Survivors and Beneficiaries , later. Free tax preparation Section 457 Deferred Compensation Plans If you work for a state or local government or for a tax-exempt organization, you may be able to participate in a section 457 deferred compensation plan. Free tax preparation If your plan is an eligible plan, you are not taxed currently on pay that is deferred under the plan or on any earnings from the plan's investment of the deferred pay. Free tax preparation You are generally taxed on amounts deferred in an eligible state or local government plan only when they are distributed from the plan. Free tax preparation You are taxed on amounts deferred in an eligible tax-exempt organization plan when they are distributed or otherwise made available to you. Free tax preparation Your 457(b) plan may have a designated Roth account option. Free tax preparation If so, you may be able to roll over amounts to the designated Roth account or make contributions. Free tax preparation Elective deferrals to a designated Roth account are included in your income. Free tax preparation Qualified distributions (explained later) are not included in your income. Free tax preparation See the Designated Roth accounts discussion under Taxation of Periodic Payments, later. Free tax preparation This publication covers the tax treatment of benefits under eligible section 457 plans, but it does not cover the treatment of deferrals. Free tax preparation For information on deferrals under section 457 plans, see Retirement Plan Contributions under Employee Compensation in Publication 525. Free tax preparation Is your plan eligible?   To find out if your plan is an eligible plan, check with your employer. Free tax preparation Plans that are not eligible section 457 plans include the following: Bona fide vacation leave, sick leave, compensatory time, severance pay, disability pay, or death benefit plans. Free tax preparation Nonelective deferred compensation plans for nonemployees (independent contractors). Free tax preparation Deferred compensation plans maintained by churches. Free tax preparation Length of service award plans for bona fide volunteer firefighters and emergency medical personnel. Free tax preparation An exception applies if the total amount paid to a volunteer exceeds $3,000 for any year of service. Free tax preparation Disability Pensions If you retired on disability, you generally must include in income any disability pension you receive under a plan that is paid for by your employer. Free tax preparation You must report your taxable disability payments as wages on line 7 of Form 1040 or Form 1040A or on line 8 of Form 1040NR until you reach minimum retirement age. Free tax preparation Minimum retirement age generally is the age at which you can first receive a pension or annuity if you are not disabled. Free tax preparation You may be entitled to a tax credit if you were permanently and totally disabled when you retired. Free tax preparation For information on this credit, see Publication 524. Free tax preparation Beginning on the day after you reach minimum retirement age, payments you receive are taxable as a pension or annuity. Free tax preparation Report the payments on Form 1040, lines 16a and 16b; Form 1040A, lines 12a and 12b; or on Form 1040NR, lines 17a and 17b. Free tax preparation Disability payments for injuries incurred as a direct result of a terrorist attack directed against the United States (or its allies) are not included in income. Free tax preparation For more information about payments to survivors of terrorist attacks, see Publication 3920, Tax Relief for Victims of Terrorist Attacks. Free tax preparation Insurance Premiums for Retired Public Safety Officers If you are an eligible retired public safety officer (law enforcement officer, firefighter, chaplain, or member of a rescue squad or ambulance crew), you can elect to exclude from income distributions made from your eligible retirement plan that are used to pay the premiums for accident or health insurance or long-term care insurance. Free tax preparation The premiums can be for coverage for you, your spouse, or dependents. Free tax preparation The distribution must be made directly from the plan to the insurance provider. Free tax preparation You can exclude from income the smaller of the amount of the insurance premiums or $3,000. Free tax preparation You can only make this election for amounts that would otherwise be included in your income. Free tax preparation The amount excluded from your income cannot be used to claim a medical expense deduction. Free tax preparation An eligible retirement plan is a governmental plan that is: a qualified trust, a section 403(a) plan, a section 403(b) annuity, or a section 457(b) plan. Free tax preparation If you make this election, reduce the otherwise taxable amount of your pension or annuity by the amount excluded. Free tax preparation The amount shown in box 2a of Form 1099-R does not reflect this exclusion. Free tax preparation Report your total distributions on Form 1040, line 16a; Form 1040A, line 12a; or Form 1040NR, line 17a. Free tax preparation Report the taxable amount on Form 1040, line 16b; Form 1040A, line 12b; or Form 1040NR, line 17b. Free tax preparation Enter “PSO” next to the appropriate line on which you report the taxable amount. Free tax preparation If you are retired on disability and reporting your disability pension on line 7 of Form 1040 or Form 1040A, or line 8 of Form 1040NR, include only the taxable amount on that line and enter “PSO” and the amount excluded on the dotted line next to the applicable line. Free tax preparation Railroad Retirement Benefits Benefits paid under the Railroad Retirement Act fall into two categories. Free tax preparation These categories are treated differently for income tax purposes. Free tax preparation The first category is the amount of tier 1 railroad retirement benefits that equals the social security benefit that a railroad employee or beneficiary would have been entitled to receive under the social security system. Free tax preparation This part of the tier 1 benefit is the social security equivalent benefit (SSEB) and you treat it for tax purposes like social security benefits. Free tax preparation If you received, repaid, or had tax withheld from the SSEB portion of tier 1 benefits during 2013, you will receive Form RRB-1099, Payments by the Railroad Retirement Board (or Form RRB-1042S, Statement for Nonresident Alien Recipients of Payments by the Railroad Retirement Board, if you are a nonresident alien) from the U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation Railroad Retirement Board (RRB). Free tax preparation For more information about the tax treatment of the SSEB portion of tier 1 benefits and Forms RRB-1099 and RRB-1042S, see Publication 915. Free tax preparation The second category contains the rest of the tier 1 railroad retirement benefits, called the non-social security equivalent benefit (NSSEB). Free tax preparation It also contains any tier 2 benefit, vested dual benefit (VDB), and supplemental annuity benefit. Free tax preparation Treat this category of benefits, shown on Form RRB-1099-R, as an amount received from a qualified employee plan. Free tax preparation This allows for the tax-free (nontaxable) recovery of employee contributions from the tier 2 benefits and the NSSEB part of the tier 1 benefits. Free tax preparation (The NSSEB and tier 2 benefits, less certain repayments, are combined into one amount called the Contributory Amount Paid on Form RRB-1099-R. Free tax preparation ) Vested dual benefits and supplemental annuity benefits are non-contributory pensions and are fully taxable. Free tax preparation See Taxation of Periodic Payments , later, for information on how to report your benefits and how to recover the employee contributions tax free. Free tax preparation Form RRB-1099-R is used for U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation citizens, resident aliens, and nonresident aliens. Free tax preparation Nonresident aliens. Free tax preparation   A nonresident alien is an individual who is not a citizen or a resident alien of the United States. Free tax preparation Nonresident aliens are subject to mandatory U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation tax withholding unless exempt under a tax treaty between the United States and their country of legal residency. Free tax preparation A tax treaty exemption may reduce or eliminate tax withholding from railroad retirement benefits. Free tax preparation See Tax withholding next for more information. Free tax preparation   If you are a nonresident alien and your tax withholding rate changed or your country of legal residence changed during the year, you may receive more than one Form RRB-1042S or Form RRB-1099-R. Free tax preparation To determine your total benefits paid or repaid and total tax withheld for the year, you should add the amounts shown on all forms you received for that year. Free tax preparation For information on filing requirements for aliens, see Publication 519, U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation Tax Guide for Aliens. Free tax preparation For information on tax treaties between the United States and other countries that may reduce or eliminate U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation tax on your benefits, see Publication 901, U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation Tax Treaties. Free tax preparation Tax withholding. Free tax preparation   To request or change your income tax withholding from SSEB payments, U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation citizens should contact the IRS for Form W-4V, Voluntary Withholding Request, and file it with the RRB. Free tax preparation To elect, revoke, or change your income tax withholding from NSSEB, tier 2, VDB, and supplemental annuity payments received, use Form RRB W-4P, Withholding Certificate for Railroad Retirement Payments. Free tax preparation If you are a nonresident alien or a U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation citizen living abroad, you should provide Form RRB-1001, Nonresident Questionnaire, to the RRB to furnish citizenship and residency information and to claim any treaty exemption from U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation tax withholding. Free tax preparation Nonresident U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation citizens cannot elect to be exempt from withholding on payments delivered outside of the U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation Help from the RRB. Free tax preparation   To request an RRB form or to get help with questions about an RRB benefit, you should contact your nearest RRB field office if you reside in the United States (call 1-877-772-5772 for the nearest field office) or U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation consulate/Embassy if you reside outside the United States. Free tax preparation You can visit the RRB on the Internet at www. Free tax preparation rrb. Free tax preparation gov. Free tax preparation Form RRB-1099-R. Free tax preparation   The following discussion explains the items shown on Form RRB-1099-R. Free tax preparation The amounts shown on this form are before any deduction for: Federal income tax withholding, Medicare premiums, Legal process garnishment payments, Recovery of a prior year overpayment of an NSSEB, tier 2 benefit, VDB, or supplemental annuity benefit, or Recovery of Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act benefits received while awaiting payment of your railroad retirement annuity. Free tax preparation   The amounts shown on this form are after any offset for: Social Security benefits, Age reduction, Public Service pensions or public disability benefits, Dual railroad retirement entitlement under another RRB claim number, Work deductions, Legal process partition deductions, Actuarial adjustment, Annuity waiver, or Recovery of a current-year overpayment of NSSEB, tier 2, VDB, or supplemental annuity benefits. Free tax preparation   The amounts shown on Form RRB-1099-R do not reflect any special rules, such as capital gain treatment or the special 10-year tax option for lump-sum payments, or tax-free rollovers. Free tax preparation To determine if any of these rules apply to your benefits, see the discussions about them later. Free tax preparation   Generally, amounts shown on your Form RRB-1099-R are considered a normal distribution. Free tax preparation Use distribution code “7” if you are asked for a distribution code. Free tax preparation Distribution codes are not shown on Form RRB-1099-R. Free tax preparation   There are three copies of this form. Free tax preparation Copy B is to be included with your income tax return if federal income tax is withheld. Free tax preparation Copy C is for your own records. Free tax preparation Copy 2 is filed with your state, city, or local income tax return, when required. Free tax preparation See the illustrated Copy B (Form RRB-1099-R) above. Free tax preparation       Each beneficiary will receive his or her own Form RRB-1099-R. Free tax preparation If you receive benefits on more than one railroad retirement record, you may get more than one Form RRB-1099-R. Free tax preparation So that you get your form timely, make sure the RRB always has your current mailing address. Free tax preparation Please click here for the text description of the image. Free tax preparation Form RRB-1099-R Box 1—Claim Number and Payee Code. Free tax preparation   Your claim number is a six- or nine-digit number preceded by an alphabetical prefix. Free tax preparation This is the number under which the RRB paid your benefits. Free tax preparation Your payee code follows your claim number and is the last number in this box. Free tax preparation It is used by the RRB to identify you under your claim number. Free tax preparation In all your correspondence with the RRB, be sure to use the claim number and payee code shown in this box. Free tax preparation Box 2—Recipient's Identification Number. Free tax preparation   This is the recipient's U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation taxpayer identification number. Free tax preparation It is the social security number (SSN), individual taxpayer identification number (ITIN), or employer identification number (EIN), if known, for the person or estate listed as the recipient. Free tax preparation If you are a resident or nonresident alien who must furnish a taxpayer identification number to the IRS and are not eligible to obtain an SSN, use Form W-7, Application for IRS Individual Taxpayer Identification Number, to apply for an ITIN. Free tax preparation The Instructions for Form W-7 explain how and when to apply. Free tax preparation Box 3—Employee Contributions. Free tax preparation   This is the amount of taxes withheld from the railroad employee's earnings that exceeds the amount of taxes that would have been withheld had the earnings been covered under the social security system. Free tax preparation This amount is the employee's cost that you use to figure the tax-free part of the NSSEB and tier 2 benefit you received (the amount shown in box 4). Free tax preparation (For information on how to figure the tax-free part, see Partly Taxable Payments under Taxation of Periodic Payments, later. Free tax preparation ) The amount shown is the total employee contribution amount, not reduced by any amounts that the RRB calculated as previously recovered. Free tax preparation It is the latest amount reported for 2013 and may have increased or decreased from a previous Form RRB-1099-R. Free tax preparation If this amount has changed, the change is retroactive. Free tax preparation You may need to refigure the tax-free part of your NSSEB/tier 2 benefit for 2013 and prior tax years. Free tax preparation If this box is blank, it means that the amount of your NSSEB and tier 2 payments shown in box 4 is fully taxable. Free tax preparation    If you had a previous annuity entitlement that ended and you are figuring the tax-free part of your NSSEB/tier 2 benefit for your current annuity entitlement, you should contact the RRB for confirmation of your correct employee contribution amount. Free tax preparation Box 4—Contributory Amount Paid. Free tax preparation   This is the gross amount of the NSSEB and tier 2 benefit you received in 2013, less any 2013 benefits you repaid in 2013. Free tax preparation (Any benefits you repaid in 2013 for an earlier year or for an unknown year are shown in box 8. Free tax preparation ) This amount is the total contributory pension paid in 2013. Free tax preparation It may be partly taxable and partly tax free or fully taxable. Free tax preparation If you determine you are eligible to compute a tax-free part as explained later in Partly Taxable Payments under Taxation of Periodic Payments, use the latest reported employee contribution amount shown in box 3 as the cost. Free tax preparation Box 5—Vested Dual Benefit. Free tax preparation   This is the gross amount of vested dual benefit (VDB) payments paid in 2013, less any 2013 VDB payments you repaid in 2013. Free tax preparation It is fully taxable. Free tax preparation VDB payments you repaid in 2013 for an earlier year or for an unknown year are shown in box 8. Free tax preparation Note. Free tax preparation The amounts shown in boxes 4 and 5 may represent payments for 2013 and/or other years after 1983. Free tax preparation Box 6—Supplemental Annuity. Free tax preparation   This is the gross amount of supplemental annuity benefits paid in 2013, less any 2013 supplemental annuity benefits you repaid in 2013. Free tax preparation It is fully taxable. Free tax preparation Supplemental annuity benefits you repaid in 2013 for an earlier year or for an unknown year are shown in box 8. Free tax preparation Box 7—Total Gross Paid. Free tax preparation   This is the sum of boxes 4, 5, and 6. Free tax preparation The amount represents the total pension paid in 2013. Free tax preparation Include this amount on Form 1040, line 16a; Form 1040A, line 12a; or Form 1040NR, line 17a. Free tax preparation Box 8—Repayments. Free tax preparation   This amount represents any NSSEB, tier 2 benefit, VDB, and supplemental annuity benefit you repaid to the RRB in 2013 for years before 2013 or for unknown years. Free tax preparation The amount shown in this box has not been deducted from the amounts shown in boxes 4, 5, and 6. Free tax preparation It only includes repayments of benefits that were taxable to you. Free tax preparation This means it only includes repayments in 2013 of NSSEB benefits paid after 1985, tier 2 and VDB benefits paid after 1983, and supplemental annuity benefits paid in any year. Free tax preparation If you included the benefits in your income in the year you received them, you may be able to deduct the repaid amount. Free tax preparation For more information about repayments, see Repayment of benefits received in an earlier year , later. Free tax preparation    You may have repaid an overpayment of benefits by returning a payment, by making a payment, or by having an amount withheld from your railroad retirement annuity payment. Free tax preparation Box 9—Federal Income Tax Withheld. Free tax preparation   This is the total federal income tax withheld from your NSSEB, tier 2 benefit, VDB, and supplemental annuity benefit. Free tax preparation Include this on your income tax return as tax withheld. Free tax preparation If you are a nonresident alien and your tax withholding rate and/or country of legal residence changed during 2013, you will receive more than one Form RRB-1099-R for 2013. Free tax preparation Determine the total amount of U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation federal income tax withheld from your 2013 RRB NSSEB, tier 2, VDB, and supplemental annuity payments by adding the amounts in box 9 of all original 2013 Forms RRB-1099-R, or the latest corrected or duplicate Forms RRB-1099-R you receive. Free tax preparation Box 10—Rate of Tax. Free tax preparation   If you are taxed as a U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation citizen or resident alien, this box does not apply to you. Free tax preparation If you are a nonresident alien, an entry in this box indicates the rate at which tax was withheld on the NSSEB, tier 2, VDB, and supplemental annuity payments that were paid to you in 2013. Free tax preparation If you are a nonresident alien whose tax was withheld at more than one rate during 2013, you will receive a separate Form RRB-1099-R for each rate change during 2013. Free tax preparation Box 11—Country. Free tax preparation   If you are taxed as a U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation citizen or resident alien, this box does not apply to you. Free tax preparation If you are a nonresident alien, an entry in this box indicates the country of which you were a resident for tax purposes at the time you received railroad retirement payments in 2013. Free tax preparation If you are a nonresident alien who was a resident of more than one country during 2013, you will receive a separate Form RRB-1099-R for each country of residence during 2013. Free tax preparation Box 12—Medicare Premium Total. Free tax preparation   This is for information purposes only. Free tax preparation The amount shown in this box represents the total amount of Part B Medicare premiums deducted from your railroad retirement annuity payments in 2013. Free tax preparation Medicare premium refunds are not included in the Medicare total. Free tax preparation The Medicare total is normally shown on Form RRB-1099 (if you are a citizen or resident alien of the United States) or Form RRB-1042S (if you are a nonresident alien). Free tax preparation However, if Form RRB-1099 or Form RRB-1042S is not required for 2013, then this total will be shown on Form RRB-1099-R. Free tax preparation If your Medicare premiums were deducted from your social security benefits, paid by a third party, refunded to you, and/or you paid the premiums by direct billing, your Medicare total will not be shown in this box. Free tax preparation Repayment of benefits received in an earlier year. Free tax preparation   If you had to repay any railroad retirement benefits that you had included in your income in an earlier year because at that time you thought you had an unrestricted right to it, you can deduct the amount you repaid in the year in which you repaid it. Free tax preparation   If you repaid $3,000 or less in 2013, deduct it on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 23. Free tax preparation The 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit applies to this deduction. Free tax preparation You cannot take this deduction if you file Form 1040A. Free tax preparation    If you repaid more than $3,000 in 2013, you can either take a deduction for the amount repaid on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 28 or you can take a credit against your tax. Free tax preparation For more information, see Repayments in Publication 525. Free tax preparation Withholding Tax and Estimated Tax Your retirement plan distributions are subject to federal income tax withholding. Free tax preparation However, you can choose not to have tax withheld on payments you receive unless they are eligible rollover distributions. Free tax preparation (These are distributions, described later under Rollovers, that are eligible for rollover treatment but are not paid directly to another qualified retirement plan or to a traditional IRA. Free tax preparation ) If you choose not to have tax withheld or if you do not have enough tax withheld, you may have to make estimated tax payments. Free tax preparation See Estimated tax , later. Free tax preparation The withholding rules apply to the taxable part of payments you receive from: An employer pension, annuity, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan, Any other deferred compensation plan, A traditional individual retirement arrangement (IRA), or A commercial annuity. Free tax preparation For this purpose, a commercial annuity means an annuity, endowment, or life insurance contract issued by an insurance company. Free tax preparation There will be no withholding on any part of a distribution where it is reasonable to believe that it will not be includible in gross income. Free tax preparation Choosing no withholding. Free tax preparation   You can choose not to have income tax withheld from retirement plan payments unless they are eligible rollover distributions. Free tax preparation You can make this choice on Form W-4P for periodic and nonperiodic payments. Free tax preparation This choice generally remains in effect until you revoke it. Free tax preparation   The payer will ignore your choice not to have tax withheld if: You do not give the payer your social security number (in the required manner), or The IRS notifies the payer, before the payment is made, that you gave an incorrect social security number. Free tax preparation   To choose not to have tax withheld, a U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation citizen or resident alien must give the payer a home address in the United States or its possessions. Free tax preparation Without that address, the payer must withhold tax. Free tax preparation For example, the payer has to withhold tax if the recipient has provided a U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation address for a nominee, trustee, or agent to whom the benefits are delivered, but has not provided his or her own U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation home address. Free tax preparation   If you do not give the payer a home address in the United States or its possessions, you can choose not to have tax withheld only if you certify to the payer that you are not a U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation citizen, a U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation resident alien, or someone who left the country to avoid tax. Free tax preparation But if you so certify, you may be subject to the 30% flat rate withholding that applies to nonresident aliens. Free tax preparation This 30% rate will not apply if you are exempt or subject to a reduced rate by treaty. Free tax preparation For details, get Publication 519. Free tax preparation Periodic payments. Free tax preparation   Unless you choose no withholding, your annuity or similar periodic payments (other than eligible rollover distributions) will be treated like wages for withholding purposes. Free tax preparation Periodic payments are amounts paid at regular intervals (such as weekly, monthly, or yearly) for a period of time greater than one year (such as for 15 years or for life). Free tax preparation You should give the payer a completed withholding certificate (Form W-4P or a similar form provided by the payer). Free tax preparation If you do not, tax will be withheld as if you were married and claiming three withholding allowances. Free tax preparation   Tax will be withheld as if you were single and were claiming no withholding allowances if: You do not give the payer your social security number (in the required manner), or The IRS notifies the payer (before any payment is made) that you gave an incorrect social security number. Free tax preparation   You must file a new withholding certificate to change the amount of withholding. Free tax preparation Nonperiodic distributions. Free tax preparation    Unless you choose no withholding, the withholding rate for a nonperiodic distribution (a payment other than a periodic payment) that is not an eligible rollover distribution is 10% of the distribution. Free tax preparation You can also ask the payer to withhold an additional amount using Form W-4P. Free tax preparation The part of any loan treated as a distribution (except an offset amount to repay the loan), explained later, is subject to withholding under this rule. Free tax preparation Eligible rollover distribution. Free tax preparation    If you receive an eligible rollover distribution, 20% of it generally will be withheld for income tax. Free tax preparation You cannot choose not to have tax withheld from an eligible rollover distribution. Free tax preparation However, tax will not be withheld if you have the plan administrator pay the eligible rollover distribution directly to another qualified plan or an IRA in a direct rollover. Free tax preparation For more information about eligible rollover distributions, see Rollovers , later. Free tax preparation Estimated tax. Free tax preparation   Your estimated tax is the total of your expected income tax, self-employment tax, and certain other taxes for the year, minus your expected credits and withheld tax. Free tax preparation Generally, you must make estimated tax payments for 2014 if you expect to owe at least $1,000 in tax (after subtracting your withholding and credits) and you expect your withholding and credits to be less than the smaller of: 90% of the tax to be shown on your 2014 return, or 100% of the tax shown on your 2013 return. Free tax preparation If your adjusted gross income for 2013 was more than $150,000 ($75,000 if your filing status for 2014 is married filing separately), substitute 110% for 100% in (2) above. Free tax preparation For more information, get Publication 505, Tax Withholding and Estimated Tax. Free tax preparation In figuring your withholding or estimated tax, remember that a part of your monthly social security or equivalent tier 1 railroad retirement benefits may be taxable. Free tax preparation See Publication 915. Free tax preparation You can choose to have income tax withheld from those benefits. Free tax preparation Use Form W-4V to make this choice. Free tax preparation Cost (Investment in the Contract) Distributions from your pension or annuity plan may include amounts treated as a recovery of your cost (investment in the contract). Free tax preparation If any part of a distribution is treated as a recovery of your cost under the rules explained in this publication, that part is tax free. Free tax preparation Therefore, the first step in figuring how much of a distribution is taxable is to determine the cost of your pension or annuity. Free tax preparation In general, your cost is your net investment in the contract as of the annuity starting date (or the date of the distribution, if earlier). Free tax preparation To find this amount, you must first figure the total premiums, contributions, or other amounts you paid. Free tax preparation This includes the amounts your employer contributed that were taxable to you when paid. Free tax preparation (However, see Foreign employment contributions , later. Free tax preparation ) It does not include amounts withheld from your pay on a tax-deferred basis (money that was taken out of your gross pay before taxes were deducted). Free tax preparation It also does not include amounts you contributed for health and accident benefits (including any additional premiums paid for double indemnity or disability benefits). Free tax preparation From this total cost you must subtract the following amounts. Free tax preparation Any refunded premiums, rebates, dividends, or unrepaid loans that were not included in your income and that you received by the later of the annuity starting date or the date on which you received your first payment. Free tax preparation Any other tax-free amounts you received under the contract or plan by the later of the dates in (1). Free tax preparation If you must use the Simplified Method for your annuity payments, the tax-free part of any single-sum payment received in connection with the start of the annuity payments, regardless of when you received it. Free tax preparation (See Simplified Method , later, for information on its required use. Free tax preparation ) If you use the General Rule for your annuity payments, the value of the refund feature in your annuity contract. Free tax preparation (See General Rule , later, for information on its use. Free tax preparation ) Your annuity contract has a refund feature if the annuity payments are for your life (or the lives of you and your survivor) and payments in the nature of a refund of the annuity's cost will be made to your beneficiary or estate if all annuitants die before a stated amount or a stated number of payments are made. Free tax preparation For more information, see Publication 939. Free tax preparation The tax treatment of the items described in (1) through (3) is discussed later under Taxation of Nonperiodic Payments . Free tax preparation Form 1099-R. Free tax preparation If you began receiving periodic payments of a life annuity in 2013, the payer should show your total contributions to the plan in box 9b of your 2013 Form 1099-R. Free tax preparation Annuity starting date defined. Free tax preparation   Your annuity starting date is the later of the first day of the first period for which you received a payment or the date the plan's obligations became fixed. Free tax preparation Example. Free tax preparation On January 1, you completed all your payments required under an annuity contract providing for monthly payments starting on August 1 for the period beginning July 1. Free tax preparation The annuity starting date is July 1. Free tax preparation This is the date you use in figuring the cost of the contract and selecting the appropriate number from Table 1 for line 3 of the Simplified Method Worksheet. Free tax preparation Designated Roth accounts. Free tax preparation   Your cost in these accounts is your designated Roth contributions that were included in your income as wages subject to applicable withholding requirements. Free tax preparation Your cost will also include any in-plan Roth rollovers you included in income. Free tax preparation Foreign employment contributions. Free tax preparation   If you worked abroad, your cost may include contributions by your employer to the retirement plan, but only if those contributions would be excludible from your gross income had they been paid directly to you as compensation. Free tax preparation The contributions that apply are: Contributions before 1963 by your employer, Contributions after 1962 by your employer if the contributions would be excludible from your gross income (not including the foreign earned income exclusion) had they been paid directly to you, or Contributions after 1996 by your employer if you performed the services of a foreign missionary (a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church or a lay person) but only if the contributions would be excludible from your gross income had they been paid directly to you. Free tax preparation Foreign employment contributions while a nonresident alien. Free tax preparation   In determining your cost, special rules apply if you are a U. Free tax preparation S. Free tax preparation citizen or resident alien who received distributions in 2013 from a plan to which contributions were made while you were a nonresident alien. Free tax preparation Your contributions and your employer's contributions are not included in your cost if the contribution: Was made based on compensation which was for services performed outside the United States while you were a nonresident alien, and Was not subject to income tax under the laws of the United States or any foreign country, but only if the contribution would have been subject to income tax if paid as cash compensation when the services were performed. Free tax preparation Taxation of Periodic Payments This section explains how the periodic payments you receive from a pension or annuity plan are taxed. Free tax preparation Periodic payments are amounts paid at regular intervals (such as weekly, monthly, or yearly) for a period of time greater than one year (such as for 15 years or for life). Free tax preparation These payments are also known as amounts received as an annuity. Free tax preparation If you receive an amount from your plan that is not a periodic payment, see Taxation of Nonperiodic Payments , later. Free tax preparation In general, you can recover the cost of your pension or annuity tax free over the period you are to receive the payments. Free tax preparation The amount of each payment that is more than the part that represents your cost is taxable (however, see Insurance Premiums for Retired Public Safety Officers , earlier). Free tax preparation Designated Roth accounts. Free tax preparation   If you receive a qualified distribution from a designated Roth account, the distribution is not included in your gross income. Free tax preparation This applies to both your cost in the account and income earned on that account. Free tax preparation A qualified distribution is generally a distribution that is: Made after a 5-tax-year period of participation, and Made on or after the date you reach age 59½, made to a beneficiary or your estate on or after your death, or attributable to your being disabled. Free tax preparation   If the distribution is not a qualified distribution, the rules discussed in this section apply. Free tax preparation The designated Roth account is treated as a separate contract. Free tax preparation Period of participation. Free tax preparation   The 5-tax-year period of participation is the 5-tax-year period beginning with the first tax year for which the participant made a designated Roth contribution to the plan. Free tax preparation Therefore, for designated Roth contributions made for 2013, the first year for which a qualified distribution can be made is 2018. Free tax preparation   However, if a direct rollover is made to the plan from a designated Roth account under another plan, the 5-tax-year period for the recipient plan begins with the first tax year for which the participant first had designated Roth contributions made to the other plan. Free tax preparation   Your 401(k), 403(b), or 457(b) plan may permit you to roll over amounts from those plans to a designated Roth account within the same plan. Free tax preparation This is known as an in-plan Roth rollover. Free tax preparation For more details, see In-plan Roth rollovers , later. Free tax preparation Fully Taxable Payments The pension or annuity payments that you receive are fully taxable if you have no cost in the contract because any of the following situations applies to you (however, see Insurance Premiums for Retired Public Safety Officers , earlier). Free tax preparation You did not pay anything or are not considered to have paid anything for your pension or annuity. Free tax preparation Amounts withheld from your pay on a tax-deferred basis are not considered part of the cost of the pension or annuity payment. Free tax preparation Your employer did not withhold contributions from your salary. Free tax preparation You got back all of your contributions tax free in prior years (however, see Exclusion not limited to cost under Partly Taxable Payments, later). Free tax preparation Report the total amount you got on Form 1040, line 16b; Form 1040A, line 12b; or on Form 1040NR, line 17b. Free tax preparation You should make no entry on Form 1040, line 16a; Form 1040A, line 12a; or Form 1040NR, line 17a. Free tax preparation Deductible voluntary employee contributions. Free tax preparation   Distributions you receive that are based on your accumulated deductible voluntary employee contributions are generally fully taxable in the year distributed to you. Free tax preparation Accumulated deductible voluntary employee contributions include net earnings on the contributions. Free tax preparation If distributed as part of a lump sum, they do not qualify for the 10-year tax option or capital gain treatment, explained later. Free tax preparation Partly Taxable Payments If you have a cost to recover from your pension or annuity plan (see Cost (Investment in the Contract) , earlier), you can exclude part of each annuity payment from income as a recovery of your cost. Free tax preparation This tax-free part of the payment is figured when your annuity starts and remains the same each year, even if the amount of the payment changes. Free tax preparation The rest of each payment is taxable (however, see Insurance Premiums for Retired Public Safety Officers , earlier). Free tax preparation You figure the tax-free part of the payment using one of the following methods. Free tax preparation Simplified Method. Free tax preparation You generally must use this method if your annuity is paid under a qualified plan (a qualified employee plan, a qualified employee annuity, or a tax-sheltered annuity plan or contract). Free tax preparation You cannot use this method if your annuity is paid under a nonqualified plan. Free tax preparation General Rule. Free tax preparation You must use this method if your annuity is paid under a nonqualified plan. Free tax preparation You generally cannot use this method if your annuity is paid under a qualified plan. Free tax preparation You determine which method to use when you first begin receiving your annuity, and you continue using it each year that you recover part of your cost. Free tax preparation If you had more than one partly taxable pension or annuity, figure the tax-free part and the taxable part of each separately. Free tax preparation Qualified plan annuity starting before November 19, 1996. Free tax preparation   If your annuity is paid under a qualified plan and your annuity starting date (defined earlier under Cost (Investment in the Contract) ) is after July 1, 1986, and before November 19, 1996, you could have chosen to use either the Simplified Method or the General Rule. Free tax preparation If your annuity starting date is before July 2, 1986, you use the General Rule unless your annuity qualified for the Three-Year Rule. Free tax preparation If you used the Three-Year Rule (which was repealed for annuities starting after July 1, 1986), your annuity payments are generally now fully taxable. Free tax preparation Exclusion limit. Free tax preparation   Your annuity starting date determines the total amount of annuity payments that you can exclude from income over the years. Free tax preparation Once your annuity starting date is determined, it does not change. Free tax preparation If you calculate the taxable portion of your annuity payments using the simplified method worksheet, the annuity starting date determines the recovery period for your cost. Free tax preparation That recovery period begins on your annuity starting date and is not affected by the date you first complete the worksheet. Free tax preparation Exclusion limited to cost. Free tax preparation   If your annuity starting date is after 1986, the total amount of annuity income that you can exclude over the years as a recovery of the cost cannot exceed your total cost. Free tax preparation Any unrecovered cost at your (or the last annuitant's) death is allowed as a miscellaneous itemized deduction on the final return of the decedent. Free tax preparation This deduction is not subject to the 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit. Free tax preparation Example 1. Free tax preparation Your annuity starting date is after 1986, and you exclude $100 a month ($1,200 a year) under the Simplified Method. Free tax preparation The total cost of your annuity is $12,000. Free tax preparation Your exclusion ends when you have recovered your cost tax free, that is, after 10 years (120 months). Free tax preparation After that, your annuity payments are generally fully taxable. Free tax preparation Example 2. Free tax preparation The facts are the same as in Example 1, except you die (with no surviving annuitant) after the eighth year of retirement. Free tax preparation You have recovered tax free only $9,600 (8 × $1,200) of your cost. Free tax preparation An itemized deduction for your unrecovered cost of $2,400 ($12,000 – $9,600) can be taken on your final return. Free tax preparation Exclusion not limited to cost. Free tax preparation   If your annuity starting date is before 1987, you can continue to take your monthly exclusion for as long as you receive your annuity. Free tax preparation If you chose a joint and survivor annuity, your survivor can continue to take the survivor's exclusion figured as of the annuity starting date. Free tax preparation The total exclusion may be more than your cost. Free tax preparation Simplified Method Under the Simplified Method, you figure the tax-free part of each annuity payment by dividing your cost by the total number of anticipated monthly payments. Free tax preparation For an annuity that is payable for the lives of the annuitants, this number is based on the annuitants' ages on the annuity starting date and is determined from a table. Free tax preparation For any other annuity, this number is the number of monthly annuity payments under the contract. Free tax preparation Who must use the Simplified Method. Free tax preparation   You must use the Simplified Method if your annuity starting date is after November 18, 1996, and you meet both of the following conditions. Free tax preparation You receive your pension or annuity payments from any of the following plans. Free tax preparation A qualified employee plan. Free tax preparation A qualified employee annuity. Free tax preparation A tax-sheltered annuity plan (403(b) plan). Free tax preparation On your annuity starting date, at least one of the following conditions applies to you. Free tax preparation You are under age 75. Free tax preparation You are entitled to less than 5 years of guaranteed payments. Free tax preparation Guaranteed payments. Free tax preparation   Your annuity contract provides guaranteed payments if a minimum number of payments or a minimum amount (for example, the amount of your investment) is payable even if you and any survivor annuitant do not live to receive the minimum. Free tax preparation If the minimum amount is less than the total amount of the payments you are to receive, barring death, during the first 5 years after payments begin (figured by ignoring any payment increases), you are entitled to less than 5 years of guaranteed payments. Free tax preparation Annuity starting before November 19, 1996. Free tax preparation   If your annuity starting date is after July 1, 1986, and before November 19, 1996, and you chose to use the Simplified Method, you must continue to use it each year that you recover part of your cost. Free tax preparation You could have chosen to use the Simplified Method if your annuity is payable for your life (or the lives of you and your survivor annuitant) and you met both of the conditions listed earlier under Who must use the Simplified Method . Free tax preparation Who cannot use the Simplified Method. Free tax preparation   You cannot use the Simplified Method if you receive your pension or annuity from a nonqualified plan or otherwise do not meet the conditions described in the preceding discussion. Free tax preparation See General Rule , later. Free tax preparation How to use the Simplified Method. Free tax preparation    Complete Worksheet A in the back of this publication to figure your taxable annuity for 2013. Free tax preparation Be sure to keep the completed worksheet; it will help you figure your taxable annuity next year. Free tax preparation   To complete line 3 of the worksheet, you must determine the total number of expected monthly payments for your annuity. Free tax preparation How you do this depends on whether the annuity is for a single life, multiple lives, or a fixed period. Free tax preparation For this purpose, treat an annuity that is payable over the life of an annuitant as payable for that annuitant's life even if the annuity has a fixed-period feature or also provides a temporary annuity payable to the annuitant's child under age 25. Free tax preparation    You do not need to complete line 3 of the worksheet or make the computation on line 4 if you received annuity payments last year and used last year's worksheet to figure your taxable annuity. Free tax preparation Instead, enter the amount from line 4 of last year's worksheet on line 4 of this year's worksheet. Free tax preparation Single-life annuity. Free tax preparation   If your annuity is payable for your life alone, use Table 1 at the bottom of the worksheet to determine the total number of expected monthly payments. Free tax preparation Enter on line 3 the number shown for your age on your annuity starting date. Free tax preparation This number will differ depending on whether your annuity starting date is before November 19, 1996, or after November 18, 1996. Free tax preparation Multiple-lives annuity. Free tax preparation   If your annuity is payable for the lives of more than one annuitant, use Table 2 at the bottom of the worksheet to determine the total number of expected monthly payments. Free tax preparation Enter on line 3 the number shown for the annuitants' combined ages on the annuity starting date. Free tax preparation For an annuity payable to you as the primary annuitant and to more than one survivor annuitant, combine your age and the age of the youngest survivor annuitant. Free tax preparation For an annuity that has no primary annuitant and is payable to you and others as survivor annuitants, combine the ages of the oldest and youngest annuitants. Free tax preparation Do not treat as a survivor annuitant anyone whose entitlement to payments depends on an event other than the primary annuitant's death. Free tax preparation   However, if your annuity starting date is before 1998, do not use Table 2 and do not combine the annuitants' ages. Free tax preparation Instead, you must use Table 1 at the bottom of the worksheet and enter on line 3 the number shown for the primary annuitant's age on the annuity starting date. Free tax preparation This number will differ depending on whether your annuity starting date is before November 19, 1996, or after November 18, 1996. Free tax preparation Fixed-period annuity. Free tax preparation   If your annuity does not depend in whole or in part on anyone's life expectancy, the total number of expected monthly payments to enter on line 3 of the worksheet is the number of monthly annuity payments under the contract. Free tax preparation Line 6. Free tax preparation   The amount on line 6 should include all amounts that could have been recovered in prior years. Free tax preparation If you did not recover an amount in a prior year, you may be able to amend your returns for the affected years. Free tax preparation Example. Free tax preparation Bill Smith, age 65, began receiving retirement benefits in 2013 under a joint and survivor annuity. Free tax preparation Bill's annuity starting date is January 1, 2013. Free tax preparation The benefits are to be paid for the joint lives of Bill and his wife, Kathy, age 65. Free tax preparation Bill had contributed $31,000 to a qualified plan and had received no distributions before the annuity starting date. Free tax preparation Bill is to receive a retirement benefit of $1,200 a month, and Kathy is to receive a monthly survivor benefit of $600 upon Bill's death. Free tax preparation Bill must use the Simplified Method to figure his taxable annuity because his payments are from a qualified plan and he is under age 75. Free tax preparation Because his annuity is payable over the lives of more than one annuitant, he uses his and Kathy's combined ages and Table 2 at the bottom of Worksheet A in completing line 3 of the worksheet. Free tax preparation His completed worksheet is shown later. Free tax preparation Bill's tax-free monthly amount is $100 ($31,000 ÷ 310) as shown on line 4 of the worksheet. Free tax preparation Upon Bill's death, if Bill has not recovered the full $31,000 investment, Kathy will also exclude $100 from her $600 monthly payment. Free tax preparation The full amount of any annuity payments received after 310 payments are paid must be included in gross income. Free tax preparation If Bill and Kathy die before 310 payments are made, a miscellaneous itemized deduction will be allowed for the unrecovered cost on the final income tax return of the last to die. Free tax preparation This deduction is not subject to the 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit. Free tax preparation Worksheet A. Free tax preparation Simplified Method Worksheet for Bill Smith 1. Free tax preparation Enter the total pension or annuity payments received this year. Free tax preparation Also, add this amount to the total for Form 1040, line 16a; Form 1040A, line 12a; or Form 1040NR, line 17a 1. Free tax preparation $14,400 2. Free tax preparation Enter your cost in the plan (contract) at the annuity starting date plus any death benefit exclusion. Free tax preparation * See Cost (Investment in the Contract) , earlier 2. Free tax preparation 31,000   Note. Free tax preparation If your annuity starting date was before this year and you completed this worksheet last year, skip line 3 and enter the amount from line 4 of last year's worksheet on line 4 below (even if the amount of your pension or annuity has changed). Free tax preparation Otherwise, go to line 3. Free tax preparation     3. Free tax preparation Enter the appropriate number from Table 1 below. Free tax preparation But if your annuity starting date was after 1997 and the payments are for your life and that of your beneficiary, enter the appropriate number from Table 2 below 3. Free tax preparation 310 4. Free tax preparation Divide line 2 by the number on line 3 4. Free tax preparation 100 5. Free tax preparation Multiply line 4 by the number of months for which this year's payments were made. Free tax preparation If your annuity starting date was before 1987, enter this amount on line 8 below and skip lines 6, 7, 10, and 11. Free tax preparation Otherwise, go to line 6 5. Free tax preparation 1,200 6. Free tax preparation Enter any amount previously recovered tax free in years after 1986. Free tax preparation This is the amount shown on line 10 of your worksheet for last year 6. Free tax preparation -0- 7. Free tax preparation Subtract line 6 from line 2 7. Free tax preparation 31,000 8. Free tax preparation Enter the smaller of line 5 or line 7 8. Free tax preparation 1,200 9. Free tax preparation Taxable amount for year. Free tax preparation Subtract line 8 from line 1. Free tax preparation Enter the result, but not less than zero. Free tax preparation Also, add this amount to the total for Form 1040, line 16b; Form 1040A, line 12b; or Form 1040NR, line 17b. Free tax preparation Note: If your Form 1099-R shows a larger taxable amount, use the amount figured on this line instead. Free tax preparation If you are a retired public safety officer, see Insurance Premiums for Retired Public Safety Officers , earlier, before entering an amount on your tax return 9. Free tax preparation $13,200 10. Free tax preparation Was your annuity starting date before 1987? □ Yes. Free tax preparation STOP. Free tax preparation Do not complete the rest of this worksheet. Free tax preparation  ☑ No. Free tax preparation Add lines 6 and 8. Free tax preparation This is the amount you have recovered tax free through 2013. Free tax preparation You will need this number if you need to fill out this worksheet next year 10. Free tax preparation 1,200 11. Free tax preparation Balance of cost to be recovered. Free tax preparation Subtract line 10 from line 2. Free tax preparation If zero, you will not have to complete this worksheet next year. Free tax preparation The payments you receive next year will generally be fully taxable 11. Free tax preparation $29,800         * A death benefit exclusion (up to $5,000) applied to certain benefits received by employees who died before August 21, 1996. Free tax preparation           Table 1 for Line 3 Above       AND your annuity starting date was—     IF the age at annuity starting date was. Free tax preparation . Free tax preparation . Free tax preparation BEFORE November 19, 1996, enter on line 3. Free tax preparation . Free tax preparation . Free tax preparation AFTER November 18, 1996, enter on line 3. Free tax preparation . Free tax preparation . Free tax preparation     55 or under 300 360     56-60 260 310     61-65 240 260     66-70 170 210     71 or older 120 160     Table 2 for Line 3 Above     IF the combined ages at  annuity starting date were. Free tax preparation . Free tax preparation . Free tax preparation THEN enter on line 3. Free tax preparation . Free tax preparation . Free tax preparation     110 or under   410     111-120   360     121-130   310     131-140   260     141 or older   210   Multiple annuitants. Free tax preparation   If you and one or more other annuitants receive payments at the same time, you exclude from each annuity payment a pro rata share of the monthly tax-free amount. Free tax preparation Figure your share by taking the following steps. Free tax preparation Complete your worksheet through line 4 to figure the monthly tax-free amount. Free tax preparation Divide the amount of your monthly payment by the total amount of the monthly payments to all annuitants. Free tax preparation Multiply the amount on line 4 of your worksheet by the amount figured in (2) above. Free tax preparation The result is your share of the monthly tax-free amount. Free tax preparation   Replace the amount on line 4 of the worksheet with the result in (3) above. Free tax preparation Enter that amount on line 4 of your worksheet each year. Free tax preparation General Rule Under the General Rule, you determine the tax-free part of each annuity payment based on the ratio of the cost of the contract to the total expected return. Free tax preparation Expected return is the total amount you and other eligible annuitants can expect to receive under the contract. Free tax preparation To figure it, you must use life expectancy (actuarial) tables prescribed by the IRS. Free tax preparation Who must use the General Rule. Free tax preparation   You must use the General Rule if you receive pension or annuity payments from: A nonqualified plan (such as a private annuity, a purchased commercial annuity, or a nonqualified employee plan), or A qualified plan if you are age 75 or older on your annuity starting date and your annuity payments are guaranteed for at least 5 years. Free tax preparation Annuity starting before November 19, 1996. Free tax preparation   If your annuity starting date is after July 1, 1986, and before November 19, 1996, you had to use the General Rule for either circumstance just described. Free tax preparation You also had to use it for any fixed-period annuity. Free tax preparation If you did not have to use the General Rule, you could have chosen to use it. Free tax preparation If your annuity starting date is before July 2, 1986, you had to use the General Rule unless you could use the Three-Year Rule. Free tax preparation   If you had to use the General Rule (or chose to use it), you must continue to use it each year that you recover your cost. Free tax preparation Who cannot use the General Rule. Free tax preparation   You cannot use the General Rule if you receive your pension or annuity from a qualified plan and none of the circumstances described in the preceding discussions apply to you. Free tax preparation See Simplified Method , earlier. Free tax preparation More information. Free tax preparation   For complete information on using the General Rule, including the actuarial tables you need, see Publication 939. Free tax preparation Taxation of Nonperiodic Payments This section of the publication explains how any nonperiodic distributions you receive under a pension or annuity plan are taxed. Free tax preparation Nonperiodic distributions are also known as amounts not received as an annuity. Free tax preparation They include all payments other than periodic payments and corrective distributions. Free tax preparation For example, the following items are treated as nonperiodic distributions. Free tax preparation Cash withdrawals. Free tax preparation Distributions of current earnings (dividends) on your investment. Free tax preparation However, do not include these distributions in your income to the extent the insurer keeps them to pay premiums or other consideration for the contract. Free tax preparation Certain loans. Free tax preparation See Loans Treated as Distributions , later. Free tax preparation The value of annuity contracts transferred without full and adequate consideration. Free tax preparation See Transfers of Annuity Contracts , later. Free tax preparation Corrective distributions of excess plan contributions. Free tax preparation   Generally, if the contributions made for you during the year to certain retirement plans exceed certain limits, the excess is taxable to you. Free tax preparation To correct an excess, your plan may distribute it to you (along with any income earned on the excess). Free tax preparation Although the plan reports the corrective distributions on Form 1099-R, the distribution is not treated as a nonperiodic distribution from the plan. Free tax preparation It is not subject to the allocation rules explained in the following discussion, it cannot be rolled over into another plan, and it is not subject to the additional tax on early distributions. Free tax preparation    If your retirement plan made a corrective distribution of excess amounts (excess deferrals, excess contributions, or excess annual additions), your Form 1099-R should have the code “8,” “B,” “P,” or “E” in box 7. Free tax preparation   For information on plan contribution limits and how to report corrective distributions of excess contributions, see Retirement Plan Contributions under Employee Compensation in Publication 525. Free tax preparation Figuring the Taxable Amount How you figure the taxable amount of a nonperiodic distribution depends on whether it is made before the annuity starting date, or on or after the annuity starting date. Free tax preparation If it is made before the annuity starting date, its tax treatment also depends on whether it is made under a qualified or nonqualified plan. Free tax preparation If it is made under a nonqualified plan, its tax treatment depends on whether it fully discharges the contract, is received under certain life insurance or endowment contracts, or is allocable to an investment you made before August 14, 1982. Free tax preparation You may be able to roll over the taxable amount of a nonperiodic distribution from a qualified retirement plan into another qualified retirement plan or a traditional IRA tax free. Free tax preparation See Rollovers, later. Free tax preparation If you do not make a tax-free rollover and the distribution qualifies as a lump-sum distribution, you may be able to elect an optional method of figuring the tax on the taxable amount. Free tax preparation See Lump-Sum Distributions, later. Free tax preparation Annuity starting date. Free tax preparation   The annuity starting date is either the first day of the first period for which you receive an annuity payment under the contract or the date on which the obligation under the contract becomes fixed, whichever is later. Free tax preparation Distributions of employer securities. Free tax preparation    If you receive a distribution of employer securities from a qualified retirement plan, you may be able to defer the tax on the net unrealized appreciation (NUA) in the securities. Free tax preparation The NUA is the net increase in the securities' value while they were in the trust. Free tax preparation This tax deferral applies to distributions of the employer corporation's stocks, bonds, registered debentures, and debentures with interest coupons attached. Free tax preparation   If the distribution is a lump-sum distribution, tax is deferred on all of the NUA unless you choose to include it in your income for the year of the distribution. Free tax preparation    A lump-sum distribution for this purpose is the distribution or payment of a plan participant's entire balance (within a single tax year) from all of the employer's qualified plans of one kind (pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plans), but only if paid: Because of the plan participant's death, After the participant reaches age 59½, Because the participant, if an employee, separates from service, or After the participant, if a self-employed individual, becomes totally and permanently disabled. Free tax preparation    If you choose to include NUA in your income for the year of the distribution and the participant was born before January 2, 1936, you may be able to figure the tax on the NUA using the optional methods described und
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