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Free Federal And Free State Tax Filing

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Free Federal And Free State Tax Filing

Free federal and free state tax filing 6. Free federal and free state tax filing   How To Figure Cost of Goods Sold Table of Contents Introduction Figuring Cost of Goods Sold on Schedule C, Lines 35 Through 42Line 35 Inventory at Beginning of Year Line 36 Purchases Less Cost of Items Withdrawn for Personal Use Line 37 Cost of Labor Line 38 Materials and Supplies Line 39 Other Costs Line 40 Add Lines 35 through 39 Line 41 Inventory at End of Year Line 42 Cost of Goods Sold Introduction If you make or buy goods to sell, you can deduct the cost of goods sold from your gross receipts on Schedule C. Free federal and free state tax filing However, to determine these costs, you must value your inventory at the beginning and end of each tax year. Free federal and free state tax filing This chapter applies to you if you are a manufacturer, wholesaler, or retailer or if you are engaged in any business that makes, buys, or sells goods to produce income. Free federal and free state tax filing This chapter does not apply to a personal service business, such as the business of a doctor, lawyer, carpenter, or painter. Free federal and free state tax filing However, if you work in a personal service business and also sell or charge for the materials and supplies normally used in your business, this chapter applies to you. Free federal and free state tax filing If you must account for an inventory in your business, you must generally use an accrual method of accounting for your purchases and sales. Free federal and free state tax filing For more information, see chapter 2. Free federal and free state tax filing Figuring Cost of Goods Sold on Schedule C, Lines 35 Through 42 Figure your cost of goods sold by filling out lines 35 through 42 of Schedule C. Free federal and free state tax filing These lines are reproduced below and are explained in the discussion that follows. Free federal and free state tax filing 35 Inventory at beginning of year. Free federal and free state tax filing If different from last year's closing inventory, attach explanation   36 Purchases less cost of items withdrawn for personal use   37 Cost of labor. Free federal and free state tax filing Do not include any amounts paid to yourself   38 Materials and supplies   39 Other costs   40 Add lines 35 through 39   41 Inventory at end of year   42 Cost of goods sold. Free federal and free state tax filing Subtract line 41 from line 40. Free federal and free state tax filing  Enter the result here and on line 4   Line 35 Inventory at Beginning of Year If you are a merchant, beginning inventory is the cost of merchandise on hand at the beginning of the year that you will sell to customers. Free federal and free state tax filing If you are a manufacturer or producer, it includes the total cost of raw materials, work in process, finished goods, and materials and supplies used in manufacturing the goods (see Inventories in chapter 2). Free federal and free state tax filing Opening inventory usually will be identical to the closing inventory of the year before. Free federal and free state tax filing You must explain any difference in a schedule attached to your return. Free federal and free state tax filing Donation of inventory. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you contribute inventory (property that you sell in the course of your business), the amount you can claim as a contribution deduction is the smaller of its fair market value on the day you contributed it or its basis. Free federal and free state tax filing The basis of donated inventory is any cost incurred for the inventory in an earlier year that you would otherwise include in your opening inventory for the year of the contribution. Free federal and free state tax filing You must remove the amount of your contribution deduction from your opening inventory. Free federal and free state tax filing It is not part of the cost of goods sold. Free federal and free state tax filing   If the cost of donated inventory is not included in your opening inventory, the inventory's basis is zero and you cannot claim a charitable contribution deduction. Free federal and free state tax filing Treat the inventory's cost as you would ordinarily treat it under your method of accounting. Free federal and free state tax filing For example, include the purchase price of inventory bought and donated in the same year in the cost of goods sold for that year. Free federal and free state tax filing   A special rule may apply to certain donations of food inventory. Free federal and free state tax filing See Publication 526, Charitable Contributions. Free federal and free state tax filing Example 1. Free federal and free state tax filing You are a calendar year taxpayer who uses an accrual method of accounting. Free federal and free state tax filing In 2013, you contributed property from inventory to a church. Free federal and free state tax filing It had a fair market value of $600. Free federal and free state tax filing The closing inventory at the end of 2012 properly included $400 of costs due to the acquisition of the property, and in 2012, you properly deducted $50 of administrative and other expenses attributable to the property as business expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing The charitable contribution allowed for 2013 is $400 ($600 − $200). Free federal and free state tax filing The $200 is the amount that would be ordinary income if you had sold the contributed inventory at fair market value on the date of the gift. Free federal and free state tax filing The cost of goods sold you use in determining gross income for 2013 must not include the $400. Free federal and free state tax filing You remove that amount from opening inventory for 2013. Free federal and free state tax filing Example 2. Free federal and free state tax filing If, in Example 1, you acquired the contributed property in 2013 at a cost of $400, you would include the $400 cost of the property in figuring the cost of goods sold for 2013 and deduct the $50 of administrative and other expenses attributable to the property for that year. Free federal and free state tax filing You would not be allowed any charitable contribution deduction for the contributed property. Free federal and free state tax filing Line 36 Purchases Less Cost of Items Withdrawn for Personal Use If you are a merchant, use the cost of all merchandise you bought for sale. Free federal and free state tax filing If you are a manufacturer or producer, this includes the cost of all raw materials or parts purchased for manufacture into a finished product. Free federal and free state tax filing Trade discounts. Free federal and free state tax filing   The differences between the stated prices of articles and the actual prices you pay for them are called trade discounts. Free federal and free state tax filing You must use the prices you pay (not the stated prices) in figuring your cost of purchases. Free federal and free state tax filing Do not show the discount amount separately as an item in gross income. Free federal and free state tax filing   An automobile dealer must record the cost of a car in inventory reduced by any manufacturer's rebate that represents a trade discount. Free federal and free state tax filing Cash discounts. Free federal and free state tax filing   Cash discounts are amounts your suppliers let you deduct from your purchase invoices for prompt payments. Free federal and free state tax filing There are two methods of accounting for cash discounts. Free federal and free state tax filing You can either credit them to a separate discount account or deduct them from total purchases for the year. Free federal and free state tax filing Whichever method you use, you must be consistent. Free federal and free state tax filing If you want to change your method of figuring inventory cost, you must file Form 3115, Application for Change in Accounting Method. Free federal and free state tax filing For more information, see Change in Accounting Method in chapter 2. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you credit cash discounts to a separate account, you must include this credit balance in your business income at the end of the tax year. Free federal and free state tax filing If you use this method, do not reduce your cost of goods sold by the cash discounts. Free federal and free state tax filing Purchase returns and allowances. Free federal and free state tax filing   You must deduct all returns and allowances from your total purchases during the year. Free federal and free state tax filing Merchandise withdrawn from sale. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you withdraw merchandise for your personal or family use, you must exclude this cost from the total amount of merchandise you bought for sale. Free federal and free state tax filing Do this by crediting the purchases or sales account with the cost of merchandise you withdraw for personal use. Free federal and free state tax filing You must also charge the amount to your drawing account. Free federal and free state tax filing   A drawing account is a separate account you should keep to record the business income you withdraw to pay for personal and family expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing As stated above, you also use it to record withdrawals of merchandise for personal or family use. Free federal and free state tax filing This account is also known as a “withdrawals account” or “personal account. Free federal and free state tax filing ” Line 37 Cost of Labor Labor costs are usually an element of cost of goods sold only in a manufacturing or mining business. Free federal and free state tax filing Small merchandisers (wholesalers, retailers, etc. Free federal and free state tax filing ) usually do not have labor costs that can properly be charged to cost of goods sold. Free federal and free state tax filing In a manufacturing business, labor costs properly allocable to the cost of goods sold include both the direct and indirect labor used in fabricating the raw material into a finished, saleable product. Free federal and free state tax filing Direct labor. Free federal and free state tax filing   Direct labor costs are the wages you pay to those employees who spend all their time working directly on the product being manufactured. Free federal and free state tax filing They also include a part of the wages you pay to employees who work directly on the product part time if you can determine that part of their wages. Free federal and free state tax filing Indirect labor. Free federal and free state tax filing   Indirect labor costs are the wages you pay to employees who perform a general factory function that does not have any immediate or direct connection with making the saleable product, but that is a necessary part of the manufacturing process. Free federal and free state tax filing Other labor. Free federal and free state tax filing   Other labor costs not properly chargeable to the cost of goods sold can be deducted as selling or administrative expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing Generally, the only kinds of labor costs properly chargeable to your cost of goods sold are the direct or indirect labor costs and certain other costs treated as overhead expenses properly charged to the manufacturing process, as discussed later under Line 39 Other Costs. Free federal and free state tax filing Line 38 Materials and Supplies Materials and supplies, such as hardware and chemicals, used in manufacturing goods are charged to cost of goods sold. Free federal and free state tax filing Those that are not used in the manufacturing process are treated as deferred charges. Free federal and free state tax filing You deduct them as a business expense when you use them. Free federal and free state tax filing Business expenses are discussed in chapter 8. Free federal and free state tax filing Line 39 Other Costs Examples of other costs incurred in a manufacturing or mining process that you charge to your cost of goods sold are as follows. Free federal and free state tax filing Containers. Free federal and free state tax filing   Containers and packages that are an integral part of the product manufactured are a part of your cost of goods sold. Free federal and free state tax filing If they are not an integral part of the manufactured product, their costs are shipping or selling expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing Freight-in. Free federal and free state tax filing   Freight-in, express-in, and cartage-in on raw materials, supplies you use in production, and merchandise you purchase for sale are all part of cost of goods sold. Free federal and free state tax filing Overhead expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing   Overhead expenses include expenses such as rent, heat, light, power, insurance, depreciation, taxes, maintenance, labor, and supervision. Free federal and free state tax filing The overhead expenses you have as direct and necessary expenses of the manufacturing operation are included in your cost of goods sold. Free federal and free state tax filing Line 40 Add Lines 35 through 39 The total of lines 35 through 39 equals the cost of the goods available for sale during the year. Free federal and free state tax filing Line 41 Inventory at End of Year Subtract the value of your closing inventory (including, as appropriate, the allocable parts of the cost of raw materials and supplies, direct labor, and overhead expenses) from line 40. Free federal and free state tax filing Inventory at the end of the year is also known as closing or ending inventory. Free federal and free state tax filing Your ending inventory will usually become the beginning inventory of your next tax year. Free federal and free state tax filing Line 42 Cost of Goods Sold When you subtract your closing inventory (inventory at the end of the year) from the cost of goods available for sale, the remainder is your cost of goods sold during the tax year. Free federal and free state tax filing Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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Land Mobile Radio (LMR) Subscriber Unit

***Government One-Time Registration***

Welcome to the Land Mobile Radio (LMR) Subscriber Unit web page. On this site, you will find information and guidance to help you fulfill LMR Project 25 Subscriber Unit Radio equipment requirements through the LMR subscriber unit contracts.

The Government requires effective, reliable, and secure wireless communications capabilities to successfully carry out a wide range of enforcement, protective, and security missions. LMR subscriber units are a primary tool for the Government to communicate in the field. LMR equipment and systems provide command, control, and communications capabilities not available on commercial wireless networks. While the Government relies on commercial wireless services for routine voice communications, private LMR networks provide a unique level of reliability and privacy required by enforcement, protective, and security missions.

The LMR subscriber unit contracts provide standards-based and standards-compliant LMR equipment to enable communications interoperability with similarly configured equipment. The TIA/EIA-102 suite of standards, also known as Project 25, provides the basis for the required LMR technical specifications. The TIA/EIA-102 standards, also known as the Project 25 Standards, specify radio equipment that allows for a smooth migration from analog operating in the 25 kHz bandwidth to 12.5 kHz digital operations. TIA/EIA-102 standards also provide for a “Common Air Interface” (CAI) across which radio equipment from multiple contractors will interoperate.

The LMR subscriber unit equipment contracts are for portable and mobile radios, portable repeaters and portable base stations, encryption key loaders and ancillary support accessories. The contracts provide standards-based equipment to capitalize on contractor and product diversity and to provide effective solutions for the Government.

LMR Overview

LMR Contractors - List of Contractors under the Land Mobile Radio Program and information regarding their contracts (CLINs, Modifications, DUNS number, contractor points of contact and links to contractor websites).

Government Point of Contact

Contract - the general terms and conditions of the LMR contracts. Individual modifications to the contracts can be found under the link to LMR Contractors.

LMR Authorized Users

Customer Information - Step by Step Guide and Ordering Guide to provide information on how to use our contracts.

Frequently Asked Questions

508 Requirements/Policy - The requirements for the Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1998 (25 U.S.C. paragraph 794 (d)) has been waived based on the National Security Intelligence Exception in the calss-action waiver of contracts for subscriber unit Land Mobile Radio (LMR) equipment.


Questions about the Procurement information on this site, please contact the webmaster.
Contact the Office of Procurement for other Procurement related questions.

Page Last Reviewed or Updated: 22-Apr-2013

The Free Federal And Free State Tax Filing

Free federal and free state tax filing 26. Free federal and free state tax filing   Car Expenses and Other Employee Business Expenses Table of Contents What's New Introduction Useful Items - You may want to see: Travel ExpensesTraveling Away From Home Tax Home Temporary Assignment or Job What Travel Expenses Are Deductible? Travel in the United States Travel Outside the United States Conventions Entertainment Expenses50% Limit What Entertainment Expenses Are Deductible? What Entertainment Expenses Are Not Deductible? Gift Expenses Transportation ExpensesArmed Forces reservists. Free federal and free state tax filing Parking fees. Free federal and free state tax filing Advertising display on car. Free federal and free state tax filing Car pools. Free federal and free state tax filing Hauling tools or instruments. Free federal and free state tax filing Union members' trips from a union hall. Free federal and free state tax filing Car Expenses RecordkeepingHow To Prove Expenses How Long To Keep Records and Receipts How To ReportGifts. Free federal and free state tax filing Statutory employees. Free federal and free state tax filing Reimbursements Completing Forms 2106 and 2106-EZ Special Rules What's New Standard mileage rate. Free federal and free state tax filing  For 2013, the standard mileage rate for the cost of operating your car for business use is 56½ cents per mile. Free federal and free state tax filing Car expenses and use of the standard mileage rate are explained under Transportation Expenses , later. Free federal and free state tax filing Depreciation limits on cars, trucks, and vans. Free federal and free state tax filing  For 2013, the first-year limit on the total section 179 deduction, special depreciation allowance, and depreciation deduction for cars remains at $11,160 ($3,160 if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance). Free federal and free state tax filing For trucks and vans the first-year limit remains at $11,360 ($3,360 if you elect not to claim the special depreciation allowance). Free federal and free state tax filing For more information, see Depreciation limits in Publication 463. Free federal and free state tax filing Introduction You may be able to deduct the ordinary and necessary business-related expenses you have for: Travel, Entertainment, Gifts, or Transportation. Free federal and free state tax filing An ordinary expense is one that is common and accepted in your trade or business. Free federal and free state tax filing A necessary expense is one that is helpful and appropriate for your business. Free federal and free state tax filing An expense does not have to be required to be considered necessary. Free federal and free state tax filing This chapter explains the following. Free federal and free state tax filing What expenses are deductible. Free federal and free state tax filing How to report your expenses on your return. Free federal and free state tax filing What records you need to prove your expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing How to treat any expense reimbursements you may receive. Free federal and free state tax filing Who does not need to use this chapter. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you are an employee, you will not need to read this chapter if all of the following are true. Free federal and free state tax filing You fully accounted to your employer for your work-related expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing You received full reimbursement for your expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing Your employer required you to return any excess reimbursement and you did so. Free federal and free state tax filing There is no amount shown with a code “L” in box 12 of your Form W-2, Wage and Tax Statement. Free federal and free state tax filing If you meet all of these conditions, there is no need to show the expenses or the reimbursements on your return. Free federal and free state tax filing See Reimbursements , later, if you would like more information on reimbursements and accounting to your employer. Free federal and free state tax filing    If you meet these conditions and your employer included reimbursements on your Form W-2 in error, ask your employer for a corrected Form W-2. Free federal and free state tax filing Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 463 Travel, Entertainment, Gift, and Car Expenses 535 Business Expenses Form (and Instructions) Schedule A (Form 1040) Itemized Deductions Schedule C (Form 1040) Profit or Loss From Business Schedule C-EZ (Form 1040) Net Profit From Business Schedule F (Form 1040) Profit or Loss From Farming Form 2106 Employee Business Expenses Form 2106-EZ Unreimbursed Employee Business Expenses Travel Expenses If you temporarily travel away from your tax home, you can use this section to determine if you have deductible travel expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing This section discusses: Traveling away from home, Tax home, Temporary assignment or job, and What travel expenses are deductible. Free federal and free state tax filing It also discusses the standard meal allowance, rules for travel inside and outside the United States, and deductible convention expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing Travel expenses defined. Free federal and free state tax filing   For tax purposes, travel expenses are the ordinary and necessary expenses (defined earlier) of traveling away from home for your business, profession, or job. Free federal and free state tax filing   You will find examples of deductible travel expenses in Table 26-1 . Free federal and free state tax filing Traveling Away From Home You are traveling away from home if: Your duties require you to be away from the general area of your tax home (defined later) substantially longer than an ordinary day's work, and You need to sleep or rest to meet the demands of your work while away from home. Free federal and free state tax filing This rest requirement is not satisfied by merely napping in your car. Free federal and free state tax filing You do not have to be away from your tax home for a whole day or from dusk to dawn as long as your relief from duty is long enough to get necessary sleep or rest. Free federal and free state tax filing Example 1. Free federal and free state tax filing You are a railroad conductor. Free federal and free state tax filing You leave your home terminal on a regularly scheduled round-trip run between two cities and return home 16 hours later. Free federal and free state tax filing During the run, you have 6 hours off at your turnaround point where you eat two meals and rent a hotel room to get necessary sleep before starting the return trip. Free federal and free state tax filing You are considered to be away from home. Free federal and free state tax filing Example 2. Free federal and free state tax filing You are a truck driver. Free federal and free state tax filing You leave your terminal and return to it later the same day. Free federal and free state tax filing You get an hour off at your turnaround point to eat. Free federal and free state tax filing Because you are not off to get necessary sleep and the brief time off is not an adequate rest period, you are not traveling away from home. Free federal and free state tax filing Members of the Armed Forces. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you are a member of the U. Free federal and free state tax filing S. Free federal and free state tax filing Armed Forces on a permanent duty assignment overseas, you are not traveling away from home. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot deduct your expenses for meals and lodging. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot deduct these expenses even if you have to maintain a home in the United States for your family members who are not allowed to accompany you overseas. Free federal and free state tax filing If you are transferred from one permanent duty station to another, you may have deductible moving expenses, which are explained in Publication 521, Moving Expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing    A naval officer assigned to permanent duty aboard a ship that has regular eating and living facilities has a tax home aboard ship for travel expense purposes. Free federal and free state tax filing Tax Home To determine whether you are traveling away from home, you must first determine the location of your tax home. Free federal and free state tax filing Generally, your tax home is your regular place of business or post of duty, regardless of where you maintain your family home. Free federal and free state tax filing It includes the entire city or general area in which your business or work is located. Free federal and free state tax filing If you have more than one regular place of business, your tax home is your main place of business. Free federal and free state tax filing See Main place of business or work , later. Free federal and free state tax filing If you do not have a regular or a main place of business because of the nature of your work, then your tax home may be the place where you regularly live. Free federal and free state tax filing See No main place of business or work , later. Free federal and free state tax filing If you do not have a regular or a main place of business or post of duty and there is no place where you regularly live, you are considered an itinerant (a transient) and your tax home is wherever you work. Free federal and free state tax filing As an itinerant, you cannot claim a travel expense deduction because you are never considered to be traveling away from home. Free federal and free state tax filing Main place of business or work. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you have more than one place of business or work, consider the following when determining which one is your main place of business or work. Free federal and free state tax filing The total time you ordinarily spend in each place. Free federal and free state tax filing The level of your business activity in each place. Free federal and free state tax filing Whether your income from each place is significant or insignificant. Free federal and free state tax filing Example. Free federal and free state tax filing You live in Cincinnati where you have a seasonal job for 8 months each year and earn $40,000. Free federal and free state tax filing You work the other 4 months in Miami, also at a seasonal job, and earn $15,000. Free federal and free state tax filing Cincinnati is your main place of work because you spend most of your time there and earn most of your income there. Free federal and free state tax filing No main place of business or work. Free federal and free state tax filing   You may have a tax home even if you do not have a regular or main place of business or work. Free federal and free state tax filing Your tax home may be the home where you regularly live. Free federal and free state tax filing Factors used to determine tax home. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you do not have a regular or main place of business or work, use the following three factors to determine where your tax home is. Free federal and free state tax filing You perform part of your business in the area of your main home and use that home for lodging while doing business in the area. Free federal and free state tax filing You have living expenses at your main home that you duplicate because your business requires you to be away from that home. Free federal and free state tax filing You have not abandoned the area in which both your historical place of lodging and your claimed main home are located; you have a member or members of your family living at your main home; or you often use that home for lodging. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you satisfy all three factors, your tax home is the home where you regularly live. Free federal and free state tax filing If you satisfy only two factors, you may have a tax home depending on all the facts and circumstances. Free federal and free state tax filing If you satisfy only one factor, you are an itinerant; your tax home is wherever you work and you cannot deduct travel expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing Example. Free federal and free state tax filing You are single and live in Boston in an apartment you rent. Free federal and free state tax filing You have worked for your employer in Boston for a number of years. Free federal and free state tax filing Your employer enrolls you in a 12-month executive training program. Free federal and free state tax filing You do not expect to return to work in Boston after you complete your training. Free federal and free state tax filing During your training, you do not do any work in Boston. Free federal and free state tax filing Instead, you receive classroom and on-the-job training throughout the United States. Free federal and free state tax filing You keep your apartment in Boston and return to it frequently. Free federal and free state tax filing You use your apartment to conduct your personal business. Free federal and free state tax filing You also keep up your community contacts in Boston. Free federal and free state tax filing When you complete your training, you are transferred to Los Angeles. Free federal and free state tax filing You do not satisfy factor (1) because you did not work in Boston. Free federal and free state tax filing You satisfy factor (2) because you had duplicate living expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing You also satisfy factor (3) because you did not abandon your apartment in Boston as your main home, you kept your community contacts, and you frequently returned to live in your apartment. Free federal and free state tax filing Therefore, you have a tax home in Boston. Free federal and free state tax filing Tax home different from family home. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you (and your family) do not live at your tax home (defined earlier), you cannot deduct the cost of traveling between your tax home and your family home. Free federal and free state tax filing You also cannot deduct the cost of meals and lodging while at your tax home. Free federal and free state tax filing See Example 1 . Free federal and free state tax filing   If you are working temporarily in the same city where you and your family live, you may be considered as traveling away from home. Free federal and free state tax filing See Example 2 . Free federal and free state tax filing Example 1. Free federal and free state tax filing You are a truck driver and you and your family live in Tucson. Free federal and free state tax filing You are employed by a trucking firm that has its terminal in Phoenix. Free federal and free state tax filing At the end of your long runs, you return to your home terminal in Phoenix and spend one night there before returning home. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot deduct any expenses you have for meals and lodging in Phoenix or the cost of traveling from Phoenix to Tucson. Free federal and free state tax filing This is because Phoenix is your tax home. Free federal and free state tax filing Example 2. Free federal and free state tax filing Your family home is in Pittsburgh, where you work 12 weeks a year. Free federal and free state tax filing The rest of the year you work for the same employer in Baltimore. Free federal and free state tax filing In Baltimore, you eat in restaurants and sleep in a rooming house. Free federal and free state tax filing Your salary is the same whether you are in Pittsburgh or Baltimore. Free federal and free state tax filing Because you spend most of your working time and earn most of your salary in Baltimore, that city is your tax home. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot deduct any expenses you have for meals and lodging there. Free federal and free state tax filing However, when you return to work in Pittsburgh, you are away from your tax home even though you stay at your family home. Free federal and free state tax filing You can deduct the cost of your round trip between Baltimore and Pittsburgh. Free federal and free state tax filing You can also deduct your part of your family's living expenses for meals and lodging while you are living and working in Pittsburgh. Free federal and free state tax filing Temporary Assignment or Job You may regularly work at your tax home and also work at another location. Free federal and free state tax filing It may not be practical to return to your tax home from this other location at the end of each work day. Free federal and free state tax filing Temporary assignment vs. Free federal and free state tax filing indefinite assignment. Free federal and free state tax filing   If your assignment or job away from your main place of work is temporary, your tax home does not change. Free federal and free state tax filing You are considered to be away from home for the whole period you are away from your main place of work. Free federal and free state tax filing You can deduct your travel expenses if they otherwise qualify for deduction. Free federal and free state tax filing Generally, a temporary assignment in a single location is one that is realistically expected to last (and does in fact last) for 1 year or less. Free federal and free state tax filing   However, if your assignment or job is indefinite, the location of the assignment or job becomes your new tax home and you cannot deduct your travel expenses while there. Free federal and free state tax filing An assignment or job in a single location is considered indefinite if it is realistically expected to last for more than 1 year, whether or not it actually lasts for more than 1 year. Free federal and free state tax filing   If your assignment is indefinite, you must include in your income any amounts you receive from your employer for living expenses, even if they are called travel allowances and you account to your employer for them. Free federal and free state tax filing You may be able to deduct the cost of relocating to your new tax home as a moving expense. Free federal and free state tax filing See Publication 521 for more information. Free federal and free state tax filing Exception for federal crime investigations or prosecutions. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you are a federal employee participating in a federal crime investigation or prosecution, you are not subject to the 1-year rule. Free federal and free state tax filing This means you may be able to deduct travel expenses even if you are away from your tax home for more than 1 year, provided you meet the other requirements for deductibility. Free federal and free state tax filing   For you to qualify, the Attorney General (or his or her designee) must certify that you are traveling: For the federal government, In a temporary duty status, and To investigate or prosecute, or provide support services for the investigation or prosecution of a federal crime. Free federal and free state tax filing Determining temporary or indefinite. Free federal and free state tax filing   You must determine whether your assignment is temporary or indefinite when you start work. Free federal and free state tax filing If you expect an assignment or job to last for 1 year or less, it is temporary unless there are facts and circumstances that indicate otherwise. Free federal and free state tax filing An assignment or job that is initially temporary may become indefinite due to changed circumstances. Free federal and free state tax filing A series of assignments to the same location, all for short periods but that together cover a long period, may be considered an indefinite assignment. Free federal and free state tax filing Going home on days off. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you go back to your tax home from a temporary assignment on your days off, you are not considered away from home while you are in your hometown. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot deduct the cost of your meals and lodging there. Free federal and free state tax filing However, you can deduct your travel expenses, including meals and lodging, while traveling between your temporary place of work and your tax home. Free federal and free state tax filing You can claim these expenses up to the amount it would have cost you to stay at your temporary place of work. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you keep your hotel room during your visit home, you can deduct the cost of your hotel room. Free federal and free state tax filing In addition, you can deduct your expenses of returning home up to the amount you would have spent for meals had you stayed at your temporary place of work. Free federal and free state tax filing Probationary work period. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you take a job that requires you to move, with the understanding that you will keep the job if your work is satisfactory during a probationary period, the job is indefinite. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot deduct any of your expenses for meals and lodging during the probationary period. Free federal and free state tax filing What Travel Expenses Are Deductible? Once you have determined that you are traveling away from your tax home, you can determine what travel expenses are deductible. Free federal and free state tax filing You can deduct ordinary and necessary expenses you have when you travel away from home on business. Free federal and free state tax filing The type of expense you can deduct depends on the facts and your circumstances. Free federal and free state tax filing Table 26-1 summarizes travel expenses you may be able to deduct. Free federal and free state tax filing You may have other deductible travel expenses that are not covered there, depending on the facts and your circumstances. Free federal and free state tax filing When you travel away from home on business, you should keep records of all the expenses you have and any advances you receive from your employer. Free federal and free state tax filing You can use a log, diary, notebook, or any other written record to keep track of your expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing The types of expenses you need to record, along with supporting documentation, are described in Table 26-2 , later. Free federal and free state tax filing Separating costs. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you have one expense that includes the costs of meals, entertainment, and other services (such as lodging or transportation), you must allocate that expense between the cost of meals and entertainment and the cost of other services. Free federal and free state tax filing You must have a reasonable basis for making this allocation. Free federal and free state tax filing For example, you must allocate your expenses if a hotel includes one or more meals in its room charge. Free federal and free state tax filing Travel expenses for another individual. Free federal and free state tax filing   If a spouse, dependent, or other individual goes with you (or your employee) on a business trip or to a business convention, you generally cannot deduct his or her travel expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing Employee. Free federal and free state tax filing   You can deduct the travel expenses of someone who goes with you if that person: Is your employee, Has a bona fide business purpose for the travel, and Would otherwise be allowed to deduct the travel expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing Business associate. Free federal and free state tax filing   If a business associate travels with you and meets the conditions in (2) and (3) above, you can deduct the travel expenses you have for that person. Free federal and free state tax filing A business associate is someone with whom you could reasonably expect to engage or deal in the active conduct of your business. Free federal and free state tax filing A business associate can be a current or prospective (likely to become) customer, client, supplier, employee, agent, partner, or professional advisor. Free federal and free state tax filing Bona fide business purpose. Free federal and free state tax filing   A bona fide business purpose exists if you can prove a real business purpose for the individual's presence. Free federal and free state tax filing Incidental services, such as typing notes or assisting in entertaining customers, are not enough to make the expenses deductible. Free federal and free state tax filing Example. Free federal and free state tax filing Jerry drives to Chicago on business and takes his wife, Linda, with him. Free federal and free state tax filing Linda is not Jerry's employee. Free federal and free state tax filing Linda occasionally types notes, performs similar services, and accompanies Jerry to luncheons and dinners. Free federal and free state tax filing The performance of these services does not establish that her presence on the trip is necessary to the conduct of Jerry's business. Free federal and free state tax filing Her expenses are not deductible. Free federal and free state tax filing Jerry pays $199 a day for a double room. Free federal and free state tax filing A single room costs $149 a day. Free federal and free state tax filing He can deduct the total cost of driving his car to and from Chicago, but only $149 a day for his hotel room. Free federal and free state tax filing If he uses public transportation, he can deduct only his fare. Free federal and free state tax filing Table 26-1. Free federal and free state tax filing Travel Expenses You Can Deduct This chart summarizes expenses you can deduct when you travel away from home for business purposes. Free federal and free state tax filing IF you have expenses for. Free federal and free state tax filing . Free federal and free state tax filing . Free federal and free state tax filing THEN you can deduct the cost of. Free federal and free state tax filing . Free federal and free state tax filing . Free federal and free state tax filing transportation travel by airplane, train, bus, or car between your home and your business destination. Free federal and free state tax filing If you were provided with a ticket or you are riding free as a result of a frequent traveler or similar program, your cost is zero. Free federal and free state tax filing If you travel by ship, see Luxury Water Travel and Cruise ships (under Conventions) in Publication 463 for additional rules and limits. Free federal and free state tax filing taxi, commuter bus, and airport limousine fares for these and other types of transportation that take you between: The airport or station and your hotel, and The hotel and the work location of your customers or clients, your business meeting place, or your temporary work location. Free federal and free state tax filing baggage and shipping sending baggage and sample or display material between your regular and temporary work locations. Free federal and free state tax filing car operating and maintaining your car when traveling away from home on business. Free federal and free state tax filing You can deduct actual expenses or the standard mileage rate as well as business-related tolls and parking. Free federal and free state tax filing If you rent a car while away from home on business, you can deduct only the business-use portion of the expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing lodging and meals your lodging and meals if your business trip is overnight or long enough that you need to stop for sleep or rest to properly perform your duties. Free federal and free state tax filing Meals include amounts spent for food, beverages, taxes, and related tips. Free federal and free state tax filing See Meals and Incidental Expenses for additional rules and limits. Free federal and free state tax filing cleaning dry cleaning and laundry. Free federal and free state tax filing telephone business calls while on your business trip. Free federal and free state tax filing This includes business communication by fax machine or other communication devices. Free federal and free state tax filing tips tips you pay for any expenses in this chart. Free federal and free state tax filing other other similar ordinary and necessary expenses related to your business travel. Free federal and free state tax filing These expenses might include transportation to or from a business meal, public stenographer's fees, computer rental fees, and operating and maintaining a house trailer. Free federal and free state tax filing Meals and Incidental Expenses You can deduct the cost of meals in either of the following situations. Free federal and free state tax filing It is necessary for you to stop for substantial sleep or rest to properly perform your duties while traveling away from home on business. Free federal and free state tax filing The meal is business-related entertainment. Free federal and free state tax filing Business-related entertainment is discussed under Entertainment Expenses , later. Free federal and free state tax filing The following discussion deals only with meals (and incidental expenses) that are not business-related entertainment. Free federal and free state tax filing Lavish or extravagant. Free federal and free state tax filing   You cannot deduct expenses for meals that are lavish or extravagant. Free federal and free state tax filing An expense is not considered lavish or extravagant if it is reasonable based on the facts and circumstances. Free federal and free state tax filing Expenses will not be disallowed merely because they are more than a fixed dollar amount or take place at deluxe restaurants, hotels, nightclubs, or resorts. Free federal and free state tax filing 50% limit on meals. Free federal and free state tax filing   You can figure your meal expenses using either of the following methods. Free federal and free state tax filing Actual cost. Free federal and free state tax filing The standard meal allowance. Free federal and free state tax filing Both of these methods are explained below. Free federal and free state tax filing But, regardless of the method you use, you generally can deduct only 50% of the unreimbursed cost of your meals. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you are reimbursed for the cost of your meals, how you apply the 50% limit depends on whether your employer's reimbursement plan was accountable or nonaccountable. Free federal and free state tax filing If you are not reimbursed, the 50% limit applies whether the unreimbursed meal expense is for business travel or business entertainment. Free federal and free state tax filing The 50% limit is explained later under Entertainment Expenses . Free federal and free state tax filing Accountable and nonaccountable plans are discussed later under Reimbursements . Free federal and free state tax filing Actual cost. Free federal and free state tax filing   You can use the actual cost of your meals to figure the amount of your expense before reimbursement and application of the 50% deduction limit. Free federal and free state tax filing If you use this method, you must keep records of your actual cost. Free federal and free state tax filing Standard meal allowance. Free federal and free state tax filing   Generally, you can use the “standard meal allowance” method as an alternative to the actual cost method. Free federal and free state tax filing It allows you to use a set amount for your daily meals and incidental expenses (M&IE), instead of keeping records of your actual costs. Free federal and free state tax filing The set amount varies depending on where and when you travel. Free federal and free state tax filing In this chapter, “standard meal allowance” refers to the federal rate for M&IE, discussed later under Amount of standard meal allowance . Free federal and free state tax filing If you use the standard meal allowance, you still must keep records to prove the time, place, and business purpose of your travel. Free federal and free state tax filing See Recordkeeping , later. Free federal and free state tax filing Incidental expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing   The term “incidental expenses” means fees and tips given to porters, baggage carriers, hotel staff, and staff on ships. Free federal and free state tax filing Incidental expenses do not include expenses for laundry, cleaning and pressing of clothing, lodging taxes, costs of telegrams or telephone calls, transportation between places of lodging or business and places where meals are taken, or the mailing cost of filing travel vouchers and paying employer-sponsored charge card billings. Free federal and free state tax filing Incidental expenses only method. Free federal and free state tax filing   You can use an optional method (instead of actual cost) for deducting incidental expenses only. Free federal and free state tax filing The amount of the deduction is $5 a day. Free federal and free state tax filing You can use this method only if you did not pay or incur any meal expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot use this method on any day that you use the standard meal allowance. Free federal and free state tax filing    Federal employees should refer to the Federal Travel Regulations at  www. Free federal and free state tax filing gsa. Free federal and free state tax filing gov. Free federal and free state tax filing Find “What GSA Offers” and click on “Regulations: FMR, FTR, & FAR” for Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) for changes affecting claims for reimbursement. Free federal and free state tax filing 50% limit may apply. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you use the standard meal allowance method for meal expenses and you are not reimbursed or you are reimbursed under a nonaccountable plan, you can generally deduct only 50% of the standard meal allowance. Free federal and free state tax filing If you are reimbursed under an accountable plan and you are deducting amounts that are more than your reimbursements, you can deduct only 50% of the excess amount. Free federal and free state tax filing The 50% limit is explained later under Entertainment Expenses . Free federal and free state tax filing Accountable and nonaccountable plans are discussed later under Reimbursements . Free federal and free state tax filing There is no optional standard lodging amount similar to the standard meal allowance. Free federal and free state tax filing Your allowable lodging expense deduction is your actual cost. Free federal and free state tax filing Who can use the standard meal allowance. Free federal and free state tax filing   You can use the standard meal allowance whether you are an employee or self-employed, and whether or not you are reimbursed for your traveling expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing   Use of the standard meal allowance for other travel. Free federal and free state tax filing    You can use the standard meal allowance to figure your meal expenses when you travel in connection with investment and other income-producing property. Free federal and free state tax filing You can also use it to figure your meal expenses when you travel for qualifying educational purposes. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot use the standard meal allowance to figure the cost of your meals when you travel for medical or charitable purposes. Free federal and free state tax filing Amount of standard meal allowance. Free federal and free state tax filing   The standard meal allowance is the federal M&IE rate. Free federal and free state tax filing For travel in 2013, the daily rate for most small localities in the United States is $46. Free federal and free state tax filing   Most major cities and many other localities in the United States are designated as high-cost areas, qualifying for higher standard meal allowances. Free federal and free state tax filing You can find this information (organized by state) on the Internet at www. Free federal and free state tax filing gsa. Free federal and free state tax filing gov. Free federal and free state tax filing Click on “Per Diem Rates,” then select “2013” for the period January 1, 2013 – September 30, 2013, and select “2014” for the period October 1, 2013 – December 31, 2013. Free federal and free state tax filing However, you can apply the rates in effect before October 1, 2013, for expenses of all travel within the United States for 2013 instead of the updated rates. Free federal and free state tax filing You must consistently use either the rates for the first 9 months for all of 2013 or the updated rates for the period of October 1, 2013, through December 31, 2013. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you travel to more than one location in one day, use the rate in effect for the area where you stop for sleep or rest. Free federal and free state tax filing If you work in the transportation industry, however, see Special rate for transportation workers , later. Free federal and free state tax filing Standard meal allowance for areas outside the continental United States. Free federal and free state tax filing    The standard meal allowance rates above do not apply to travel in Alaska, Hawaii, or any other location outside the continental United States. Free federal and free state tax filing The Department of Defense establishes per diem rates for Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, Midway, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. Free federal and free state tax filing S. Free federal and free state tax filing Virgin Islands, Wake Island, and other non-foreign areas outside the continental United States. Free federal and free state tax filing The Department of State establishes per diem rates for all other foreign areas. Free federal and free state tax filing    You can access per diem rates for non-foreign areas outside the continental United States at: www. Free federal and free state tax filing defensetravel. Free federal and free state tax filing dod. Free federal and free state tax filing mil/site/perdiemCalc. Free federal and free state tax filing cfm. Free federal and free state tax filing You can access all other foreign per diem rates at www. Free federal and free state tax filing state. Free federal and free state tax filing gov/travel/. Free federal and free state tax filing Click on “Travel Per Diem Allowances for Foreign Areas” under “Foreign Per Diem Rates,” to obtain the latest foreign per diem rates. Free federal and free state tax filing Special rate for transportation workers. Free federal and free state tax filing   You can use a special standard meal allowance if you work in the transportation industry. Free federal and free state tax filing You are in the transportation industry if your work: Directly involves moving people or goods by airplane, barge, bus, ship, train, or truck, and Regularly requires you to travel away from home and, during any single trip, usually involves travel to areas eligible for different standard meal allowance rates. Free federal and free state tax filing If this applies to you, you can claim a standard daily meal allowance of $59 ($65 for travel outside the continental United States). Free federal and free state tax filing   Using the special rate for transportation workers eliminates the need for you to determine the standard meal allowance for every area where you stop for sleep or rest. Free federal and free state tax filing If you choose to use the special rate for any trip, you must use the special rate (and not use the regular standard meal allowance rates) for all trips you take that year. Free federal and free state tax filing Travel for days you depart and return. Free federal and free state tax filing   For both the day you depart for and the day you return from a business trip, you must prorate the standard meal allowance (figure a reduced amount for each day). Free federal and free state tax filing You can do so by one of two methods. Free federal and free state tax filing Method 1: You can claim 3/4 of the standard meal allowance. Free federal and free state tax filing Method 2: You can prorate using any method that you consistently apply and that is in accordance with reasonable business practice. Free federal and free state tax filing Example. Free federal and free state tax filing Jen is employed in New Orleans as a convention planner. Free federal and free state tax filing In March, her employer sent her on a 3-day trip to Washington, DC, to attend a planning seminar. Free federal and free state tax filing She left her home in New Orleans at 10 a. Free federal and free state tax filing m. Free federal and free state tax filing on Wednesday and arrived in Washington, DC, at 5:30 p. Free federal and free state tax filing m. Free federal and free state tax filing After spending two nights there, she flew back to New Orleans on Friday and arrived back home at 8:00 p. Free federal and free state tax filing m. Free federal and free state tax filing Jen's employer gave her a flat amount to cover her expenses and included it with her wages. Free federal and free state tax filing Under Method 1, Jen can claim 2½ days of the standard meal allowance for Washington, DC: 3/4 of the daily rate for Wednesday and Friday (the days she departed and returned), and the full daily rate for Thursday. Free federal and free state tax filing Under Method 2, Jen could also use any method that she applies consistently and that is in accordance with reasonable business practice. Free federal and free state tax filing For example, she could claim 3 days of the standard meal allowance even though a federal employee would have to use Method 1 and be limited to only 2½ days. Free federal and free state tax filing Travel in the United States The following discussion applies to travel in the United States. Free federal and free state tax filing For this purpose, the United States includes only the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Free federal and free state tax filing The treatment of your travel expenses depends on how much of your trip was business related and on how much of your trip occurred within the United States. Free federal and free state tax filing See Part of Trip Outside the United States , later. Free federal and free state tax filing Trip Primarily for Business You can deduct all your travel expenses if your trip was entirely business related. Free federal and free state tax filing If your trip was primarily for business and, while at your business destination, you extended your stay for a vacation, made a personal side trip, or had other personal activities, you can deduct your business-related travel expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing These expenses include the travel costs of getting to and from your business destination and any business-related expenses at your business destination. Free federal and free state tax filing Example. Free federal and free state tax filing You work in Atlanta and take a business trip to New Orleans in May. Free federal and free state tax filing On your way home, you stop in Mobile to visit your parents. Free federal and free state tax filing You spend $1,996 for the 9 days you are away from home for travel, meals, lodging, and other travel expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing If you had not stopped in Mobile, you would have been gone only 6 days, and your total cost would have been $1,696. Free federal and free state tax filing You can deduct $1,696 for your trip, including the cost of round-trip transportation to and from New Orleans. Free federal and free state tax filing The deduction for your meals is subject to the 50% limit on meals mentioned earlier. Free federal and free state tax filing Trip Primarily for Personal Reasons If your trip was primarily for personal reasons, such as a vacation, the entire cost of the trip is a nondeductible personal expense. Free federal and free state tax filing However, you can deduct any expenses you have while at your destination that are directly related to your business. Free federal and free state tax filing A trip to a resort or on a cruise ship may be a vacation even if the promoter advertises that it is primarily for business. Free federal and free state tax filing The scheduling of incidental business activities during a trip, such as viewing videotapes or attending lectures dealing with general subjects, will not change what is really a vacation into a business trip. Free federal and free state tax filing Part of Trip Outside the United States If part of your trip is outside the United States, use the rules described later under Travel Outside the United States for that part of the trip. Free federal and free state tax filing For the part of your trip that is inside the United States, use the rules for travel in the United States. Free federal and free state tax filing Travel outside the United States does not include travel from one point in the United States to another point in the United States. Free federal and free state tax filing The following discussion can help you determine whether your trip was entirely within the United States. Free federal and free state tax filing Public transportation. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you travel by public transportation, any place in the United States where that vehicle makes a scheduled stop is a point in the United States. Free federal and free state tax filing Once the vehicle leaves the last scheduled stop in the United States on its way to a point outside the United States, you apply the rules under Travel Outside the United States . Free federal and free state tax filing Example. Free federal and free state tax filing You fly from New York to Puerto Rico with a scheduled stop in Miami. Free federal and free state tax filing You return to New York nonstop. Free federal and free state tax filing The flight from New York to Miami is in the United States, so only the flight from Miami to Puerto Rico is outside the United States. Free federal and free state tax filing Because there are no scheduled stops between Puerto Rico and New York, all of the return trip is outside the United States. Free federal and free state tax filing Private car. Free federal and free state tax filing   Travel by private car in the United States is travel between points in the United States, even when you are on your way to a destination outside the United States. Free federal and free state tax filing Example. Free federal and free state tax filing You travel by car from Denver to Mexico City and return. Free federal and free state tax filing Your travel from Denver to the border and from the border back to Denver is travel in the United States, and the rules in this section apply. Free federal and free state tax filing The rules under Travel Outside the United States apply to your trip from the border to Mexico City and back to the border. Free federal and free state tax filing Travel Outside the United States If any part of your business travel is outside the United States, some of your deductions for the cost of getting to and from your destination may be limited. Free federal and free state tax filing For this purpose, the United States includes only the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Free federal and free state tax filing How much of your travel expenses you can deduct depends in part upon how much of your trip outside the United States was business related. Free federal and free state tax filing See chapter 1 of Publication 463 for information on luxury water travel. Free federal and free state tax filing Travel Entirely for Business or Considered Entirely for Business You can deduct all your travel expenses of getting to and from your business destination if your trip is entirely for business or considered entirely for business. Free federal and free state tax filing Travel entirely for business. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you travel outside the United States and you spend the entire time on business activities, you can deduct all of your travel expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing Travel considered entirely for business. Free federal and free state tax filing   Even if you did not spend your entire time on business activities, your trip is considered entirely for business if you meet at least one of the following four exceptions. Free federal and free state tax filing Exception 1 - No substantial control. Free federal and free state tax filing   Your trip is considered entirely for business if you did not have substantial control over arranging the trip. Free federal and free state tax filing The fact that you control the timing of your trip does not, by itself, mean that you have substantial control over arranging your trip. Free federal and free state tax filing   You do not have substantial control over your trip if you: Are an employee who was reimbursed or paid a travel expense allowance, Are not related to your employer, and Are not a managing executive. Free federal and free state tax filing    “Related to your employer” is defined later in this chapter under Per Diem and Car Allowances . Free federal and free state tax filing   A “managing executive” is an employee who has the authority and responsibility, without being subject to the veto of another, to decide on the need for the business travel. Free federal and free state tax filing    A self-employed person generally has substantial control over arranging business trips. Free federal and free state tax filing Exception 2 - Outside United States no more than a week. Free federal and free state tax filing   Your trip is considered entirely for business if you were outside the United States for a week or less, combining business and nonbusiness activities. Free federal and free state tax filing One week means 7 consecutive days. Free federal and free state tax filing In counting the days, do not count the day you leave the United States, but do count the day you return to the United States. Free federal and free state tax filing Exception 3 - Less than 25% of time on personal activities. Free federal and free state tax filing   Your trip is considered entirely for business if: You were outside the United States for more than a week, and You spent less than 25% of the total time you were outside the United States on nonbusiness activities. Free federal and free state tax filing For this purpose, count both the day your trip began and the day it ended. Free federal and free state tax filing Exception 4 - Vacation not a major consideration. Free federal and free state tax filing   Your trip is considered entirely for business if you can establish that a personal vacation was not a major consideration, even if you have substantial control over arranging the trip. Free federal and free state tax filing Travel Primarily for Business If you travel outside the United States primarily for business but spend some of your time on nonbusiness activities, you generally cannot deduct all of your travel expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing You can only deduct the business portion of your cost of getting to and from your destination. Free federal and free state tax filing You must allocate the costs between your business and nonbusiness activities to determine your deductible amount. Free federal and free state tax filing These travel allocation rules are discussed in chapter 1 of Publication 463. Free federal and free state tax filing You do not have to allocate your travel expense deduction if you meet one of the four exceptions listed earlier under Travel considered entirely for business. Free federal and free state tax filing In those cases, you can deduct the total cost of getting to and from your destination. Free federal and free state tax filing Travel Primarily for Personal Reasons If you travel outside the United States primarily for vacation or for investment purposes, the entire cost of the trip is a nondeductible personal expense. Free federal and free state tax filing If you spend some time attending brief professional seminars or a continuing education program, you can deduct your registration fees and other expenses you have that are directly related to your business. Free federal and free state tax filing Conventions You can deduct your travel expenses when you attend a convention if you can show that your attendance benefits your trade or business. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot deduct the travel expenses for your family. Free federal and free state tax filing If the convention is for investment, political, social, or other purposes unrelated to your trade or business, you cannot deduct the expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing Your appointment or election as a delegate does not, in itself, determine whether you can deduct travel expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing You can deduct your travel expenses only if your attendance is connected to your own trade or business. Free federal and free state tax filing Convention agenda. Free federal and free state tax filing   The convention agenda or program generally shows the purpose of the convention. Free federal and free state tax filing You can show your attendance at the convention benefits your trade or business by comparing the agenda with the official duties and responsibilities of your position. Free federal and free state tax filing The agenda does not have to deal specifically with your official duties and responsibilities; it will be enough if the agenda is so related to your position that it shows your attendance was for business purposes. Free federal and free state tax filing Conventions held outside the North American area. Free federal and free state tax filing    See chapter 1 of Publication 463 for information on conventions held outside the North American area. Free federal and free state tax filing Entertainment Expenses You may be able to deduct business-related entertainment expenses you have for entertaining a client, customer, or employee. Free federal and free state tax filing You can deduct entertainment expenses only if they are both ordinary and necessary (defined earlier in the Introduction ) and meet one of the following tests. Free federal and free state tax filing Directly-related test. Free federal and free state tax filing Associated test. Free federal and free state tax filing Both of these tests are explained in chapter 2 of Publication 463. Free federal and free state tax filing The amount you can deduct for entertainment expenses may be limited. Free federal and free state tax filing Generally, you can deduct only 50% of your unreimbursed entertainment expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing This limit is discussed next. Free federal and free state tax filing 50% Limit In general, you can deduct only 50% of your business-related meal and entertainment expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing (If you are subject to the Department of Transportation's “hours of service” limits, you can deduct 80% of your business-related meal and entertainment expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing See Individuals subject to “hours of service” limits , later. Free federal and free state tax filing ) The 50% limit applies to employees or their employers, and to self-employed persons (including independent contractors) or their clients, depending on whether the expenses are reimbursed. Free federal and free state tax filing Figure 26-A summarizes the general rules explained in this section. Free federal and free state tax filing The 50% limit applies to business meals or entertainment expenses you have while: Traveling away from home (whether eating alone or with others) on business, Entertaining customers at your place of business, a restaurant, or other location, or Attending a business convention or reception, business meeting, or business luncheon at a club. Free federal and free state tax filing Included expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing   Expenses subject to the 50% limit include: Taxes and tips relating to a business meal or entertainment activity, Cover charges for admission to a nightclub, Rent paid for a room in which you hold a dinner or cocktail party, and Amounts paid for parking at a sports arena. Free federal and free state tax filing However, the cost of transportation to and from a business meal or a business-related entertainment activity is not subject to the 50% limit. Free federal and free state tax filing Application of 50% limit. Free federal and free state tax filing   The 50% limit on meal and entertainment expenses applies if the expense is otherwise deductible and is not covered by one of the exceptions discussed later in this section. Free federal and free state tax filing   The 50% limit also applies to certain meal and entertainment expenses that are not business related. Free federal and free state tax filing It applies to meal and entertainment expenses incurred for the production of income, including rental or royalty income. Free federal and free state tax filing It also applies to the cost of meals included in deductible educational expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing When to apply the 50% limit. Free federal and free state tax filing   You apply the 50% limit after determining the amount that would otherwise qualify for a deduction. Free federal and free state tax filing You first have to determine the amount of meal and entertainment expenses that would be deductible under the other rules discussed in this chapter. Free federal and free state tax filing Example 1. Free federal and free state tax filing You spend $200 for a business-related meal. Free federal and free state tax filing If $110 of that amount is not allowable because it is lavish and extravagant, the remaining $90 is subject to the 50% limit. Free federal and free state tax filing Your deduction cannot be more than $45 (. Free federal and free state tax filing 50 × $90). Free federal and free state tax filing Example 2. Free federal and free state tax filing You purchase two tickets to a concert and give them to a client. Free federal and free state tax filing You purchased the tickets through a ticket agent. Free federal and free state tax filing You paid $200 for the two tickets, which had a face value of $80 each ($160 total). Free federal and free state tax filing Your deduction cannot be more than $80 (. Free federal and free state tax filing 50 × $160). Free federal and free state tax filing Exceptions to the 50% Limit Generally, business-related meal and entertainment expenses are subject to the 50% limit. Free federal and free state tax filing Figure 26-A can help you determine if the 50% limit applies to you. Free federal and free state tax filing Your meal or entertainment expense is not subject to the 50% limit if the expense meets one of the following exceptions. Free federal and free state tax filing Employee's reimbursed expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you are an employee, you are not subject to the 50% limit on expenses for which your employer reimburses you under an accountable plan. Free federal and free state tax filing Accountable plans are discussed later under Reimbursements . Free federal and free state tax filing Individuals subject to “hours of service” limits. Free federal and free state tax filing   You can deduct a higher percentage of your meal expenses while traveling away from your tax home if the meals take place during or incident to any period subject to the Department of Transportation's “hours of service” limits. Free federal and free state tax filing The percentage is 80%. Free federal and free state tax filing   Individuals subject to the Department of Transportation's “hours of service” limits include the following persons. Free federal and free state tax filing Certain air transportation workers (such as pilots, crew, dispatchers, mechanics, and control tower operators) who are under Federal Aviation Administration regulations. Free federal and free state tax filing Interstate truck operators and bus drivers who are under Department of Transportation regulations. Free federal and free state tax filing Certain railroad employees (such as engineers, conductors, train crews, dispatchers, and control operations personnel) who are under Federal Railroad Administration regulations. Free federal and free state tax filing Certain merchant mariners who are under Coast Guard regulations. Free federal and free state tax filing Other exceptions. Free federal and free state tax filing   There are also exceptions for the self-employed, advertising expenses, selling meals or entertainment, and charitable sports events. Free federal and free state tax filing These are discussed in Publication 463. Free federal and free state tax filing Figure 26-A. Free federal and free state tax filing Does the 50% Limit Apply to Your Expenses? There are exceptions to these rules. Free federal and free state tax filing See Exceptions to the 50% Limit . Free federal and free state tax filing Please click here for the text description of the image. Free federal and free state tax filing Entertainment expenses: 50% limit What Entertainment Expenses Are Deductible? This section explains different types of entertainment expenses you may be able to deduct. Free federal and free state tax filing Entertainment. Free federal and free state tax filing    Entertainment includes any activity generally considered to provide entertainment, amusement, or recreation. Free federal and free state tax filing Examples include entertaining guests at nightclubs; at social, athletic, and sporting clubs; at theaters; at sporting events; or on hunting, fishing, vacation, and similar trips. Free federal and free state tax filing A meal as a form of entertainment. Free federal and free state tax filing   Entertainment includes the cost of a meal you provide to a customer or client, whether the meal is a part of other entertainment or by itself. Free federal and free state tax filing A meal expense includes the cost of food, beverages, taxes, and tips for the meal. Free federal and free state tax filing To deduct an entertainment-related meal, you or your employee must be present when the food or beverages are provided. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot claim the cost of your meal both as an entertainment expense and as a travel expense. Free federal and free state tax filing Separating costs. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you have one expense that includes the costs of entertainment and other services (such as lodging or transportation), you must allocate that expense between the cost of entertainment and the cost of other services. Free federal and free state tax filing You must have a reasonable basis for making this allocation. Free federal and free state tax filing For example, you must allocate your expenses if a hotel includes entertainment in its lounge on the same bill with your room charge. Free federal and free state tax filing Taking turns paying for meals or entertainment. Free federal and free state tax filing   If a group of business acquaintances take turns picking up each others' meal or entertainment checks without regard to whether any business purposes are served, no member of the group can deduct any part of the expense. Free federal and free state tax filing Lavish or extravagant expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing   You cannot deduct expenses for entertainment that are lavish or extravagant. Free federal and free state tax filing An expense is not considered lavish or extravagant if it is reasonable considering the facts and circumstances. Free federal and free state tax filing Expenses will not be disallowed just because they are more than a fixed dollar amount or take place at deluxe restaurants, hotels, nightclubs, or resorts. Free federal and free state tax filing Trade association meetings. Free federal and free state tax filing    You can deduct entertainment expenses that are directly related to, and necessary for, attending business meetings or conventions of certain exempt organizations if the expenses of your attendance are related to your active trade or business. Free federal and free state tax filing These organizations include business leagues, chambers of commerce, real estate boards, trade associations, and professional associations. Free federal and free state tax filing Entertainment tickets. Free federal and free state tax filing   Generally, you cannot deduct more than the face value of an entertainment ticket, even if you paid a higher price. Free federal and free state tax filing For example, you cannot deduct service fees you pay to ticket agencies or brokers or any amount over the face value of the tickets you pay to scalpers. Free federal and free state tax filing What Entertainment Expenses Are Not Deductible? This section explains different types of entertainment expenses you generally may not be able to deduct. Free federal and free state tax filing Club dues and membership fees. Free federal and free state tax filing   You cannot deduct dues (including initiation fees) for membership in any club organized for: Business, Pleasure, Recreation, or Other social purpose. Free federal and free state tax filing This rule applies to any membership organization if one of its principal purposes is either: To conduct entertainment activities for members or their guests, or To provide members or their guests with access to entertainment facilities. Free federal and free state tax filing   The purposes and activities of a club, not its name, will determine whether or not you can deduct the dues. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot deduct dues paid to: Country clubs, Golf and athletic clubs, Airline clubs, Hotel clubs, and Clubs operated to provide meals under circumstances generally considered to be conducive to business discussions. Free federal and free state tax filing Entertainment facilities. Free federal and free state tax filing   Generally, you cannot deduct any expense for the use of an entertainment facility. Free federal and free state tax filing This includes expenses for depreciation and operating costs such as rent, utilities, maintenance, and protection. Free federal and free state tax filing   An entertainment facility is any property you own, rent, or use for entertainment. Free federal and free state tax filing Examples include a yacht, hunting lodge, fishing camp, swimming pool, tennis court, bowling alley, car, airplane, apartment, hotel suite, or home in a vacation resort. Free federal and free state tax filing Out-of-pocket expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing   You can deduct out-of-pocket expenses, such as for food and beverages, catering, gas, and fishing bait, that you provided during entertainment at a facility. Free federal and free state tax filing These are not expenses for the use of an entertainment facility. Free federal and free state tax filing However, these expenses are subject to the directly-related and associated tests and to the 50% Limit discussed earlier. Free federal and free state tax filing Additional information. Free federal and free state tax filing   For more information on entertainment expenses, including discussions of the directly-related and associated tests, see chapter 2 of Publication 463. Free federal and free state tax filing Gift Expenses If you give gifts in the course of your trade or business, you can deduct all or part of the cost. Free federal and free state tax filing This section explains the limits and rules for deducting the costs of gifts. Free federal and free state tax filing $25 limit. Free federal and free state tax filing   You can deduct no more than $25 for business gifts you give directly or indirectly to each person during your tax year. Free federal and free state tax filing A gift to a company that is intended for the eventual personal use or benefit of a particular person or a limited class of people will be considered an indirect gift to that particular person or to the individuals within that class of people who receive the gift. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you give a gift to a member of a customer's family, the gift is generally considered to be an indirect gift to the customer. Free federal and free state tax filing This rule does not apply if you have a bona fide, independent business connection with that family member and the gift is not intended for the customer's eventual use or benefit. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you and your spouse both give gifts, both of you are treated as one taxpayer. Free federal and free state tax filing It does not matter whether you have separate businesses, are separately employed, or whether each of you has an independent connection with the recipient. Free federal and free state tax filing If a partnership gives gifts, the partnership and the partners are treated as one taxpayer. Free federal and free state tax filing Incidental costs. Free federal and free state tax filing   Incidental costs, such as engraving on jewelry, or packaging, insuring, and mailing, are generally not included in determining the cost of a gift for purposes of the $25 limit. Free federal and free state tax filing   A cost is incidental only if it does not add substantial value to the gift. Free federal and free state tax filing For example, the cost of customary gift wrapping is an incidental cost. Free federal and free state tax filing However, the purchase of an ornamental basket for packaging fruit is not an incidental cost if the value of the basket is substantial compared to the value of the fruit. Free federal and free state tax filing Exceptions. Free federal and free state tax filing   The following items are not considered gifts for purposes of the $25 limit. Free federal and free state tax filing An item that costs $4 or less and: Has your name clearly and permanently imprinted on the gift, and Is one of a number of identical items you widely distribute. Free federal and free state tax filing Examples include pens, desk sets, and plastic bags and cases. Free federal and free state tax filing Signs, display racks, or other promotional material to be used on the business premises of the recipient. Free federal and free state tax filing Gift or entertainment. Free federal and free state tax filing   Any item that might be considered either a gift or entertainment generally will be considered entertainment. Free federal and free state tax filing However, if you give a customer packaged food or beverages you intend the customer to use at a later date, treat it as a gift. Free federal and free state tax filing    If you give a customer tickets to a theater performance or sporting event and you do not go with the customer to the performance or event, you have a choice. Free federal and free state tax filing You can treat the cost of the tickets as either a gift expense or an entertainment expense, whichever is to your advantage. Free federal and free state tax filing    If you go with the customer to the event, you must treat the cost of the tickets as an entertainment expense. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot choose, in this case, to treat the cost of the tickets as a gift expense. Free federal and free state tax filing Transportation Expenses This section discusses expenses you can deduct for business transportation when you are not traveling away from home as defined earlier under Travel Expenses . Free federal and free state tax filing These expenses include the cost of transportation by air, rail, bus, taxi, etc. Free federal and free state tax filing , and the cost of driving and maintaining your car. Free federal and free state tax filing Transportation expenses include the ordinary and necessary costs of all of the following. Free federal and free state tax filing Getting from one workplace to another in the course of your business or profession when you are traveling within the area of your tax home. Free federal and free state tax filing (Tax home is defined earlier under Travel Expenses . Free federal and free state tax filing ) Visiting clients or customers. Free federal and free state tax filing Going to a business meeting away from your regular workplace. Free federal and free state tax filing Getting from your home to a temporary workplace when you have one or more regular places of work. Free federal and free state tax filing These temporary workplaces can be either within the area of your tax home or outside that area. Free federal and free state tax filing Transportation expenses do not include expenses you have while traveling away from home overnight. Free federal and free state tax filing Those expenses are travel expenses, discussed earlier. Free federal and free state tax filing However, if you use your car while traveling away from home overnight, use the rules in this section to figure your car expense deduction. Free federal and free state tax filing See Car Expenses , later. Free federal and free state tax filing Illustration of transportation expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing    Figure 26-B illustrates the rules for when you can deduct transportation expenses when you have a regular or main job away from your home. Free federal and free state tax filing You may want to refer to it when deciding whether you can deduct your transportation expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing Daily transportation expenses you incur while traveling from home to one or more regular places of business are generally nondeductible commuting expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing However, there are many exceptions for deducting transportation expenses, like whether your work location is temporary (inside or outside the metropolitan area), traveling for same trade or business, or if you have a home office. Free federal and free state tax filing Temporary work location. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you have one or more regular work locations away from your home and you commute to a temporary work location in the same trade or business, you can deduct the expenses of the daily round-trip transportation between your home and the temporary location, regardless of distance. Free federal and free state tax filing   If your employment at a work location is realistically expected to last (and does in fact last) for 1 year or less, the employment is temporary unless there are facts and circumstances that would indicate otherwise. Free federal and free state tax filing   If your employment at a work location is realistically expected to last for more than 1 year or if there is no realistic expectation that the employment will last for 1 year or less, the employment is not temporary, regardless of whether it actually lasts for more than 1 year. Free federal and free state tax filing   If employment at a work location initially is realistically expected to last for 1 year or less, but at some later date the employment is realistically expected to last more than 1 year, that employment will be treated as temporary (unless there are facts and circumstances that would indicate otherwise) until your expectation changes. Free federal and free state tax filing It will not be treated as temporary after the date you determine it will last more than 1 year. Free federal and free state tax filing   If the temporary work location is beyond the general area of your regular place of work and you stay overnight, you are traveling away from home. Free federal and free state tax filing You may have deductible travel expenses as discussed earlier in this chapter. Free federal and free state tax filing No regular place of work. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you have no regular place of work but ordinarily work in the metropolitan area where you live, you can deduct daily transportation costs between home and a temporary work site outside that metropolitan area. Free federal and free state tax filing   Generally, a metropolitan area includes the area within the city limits and the suburbs that are considered part of that metropolitan area. Free federal and free state tax filing   You cannot deduct daily transportation costs between your home and temporary work sites within your metropolitan area. Free federal and free state tax filing These are nondeductible commuting expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing Two places of work. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you work at two places in one day, whether or not for the same employer, you can deduct the expense of getting from one workplace to the other. Free federal and free state tax filing However, if for some personal reason you do not go directly from one location to the other, you cannot deduct more than the amount it would have cost you to go directly from the first location to the second. Free federal and free state tax filing   Transportation expenses you have in going between home and a part-time job on a day off from your main job are commuting expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot deduct them. Free federal and free state tax filing Armed Forces reservists. Free federal and free state tax filing   A meeting of an Armed Forces reserve unit is a second place of business if the meeting is held on a day on which you work at your regular job. Free federal and free state tax filing You can deduct the expense of getting from one workplace to the other as just discussed under Two places of work , earlier. Free federal and free state tax filing   You usually cannot deduct the expense if the reserve meeting is held on a day on which you do not work at your regular job. Free federal and free state tax filing In this case, your transportation generally is a nondeductible commuting expense. Free federal and free state tax filing However, you can deduct your transportation expenses if the location of the meeting is temporary and you have one or more regular places of work. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you ordinarily work in a particular metropolitan area but not at any specific location and the reserve meeting is held at a temporary location outside that metropolitan area, you can deduct your transportation expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you travel away from home overnight to attend a guard or reserve meeting, you can deduct your travel expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing These expenses are discussed earlier under Travel Expenses . Free federal and free state tax filing   If you travel more than 100 miles away from home in connection with your performance of services as a member of the reserves, you may be able to deduct some of your reserve-related travel costs as an adjustment to income rather than as an itemized deduction. Free federal and free state tax filing See Armed Forces reservists traveling more than 100 miles from home under Special Rules, later. Free federal and free state tax filing Commuting expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing   You cannot deduct the costs of taking a bus, trolley, subway, or taxi, or of driving a car between your home and your main or regular place of work. Free federal and free state tax filing These costs are personal commuting expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot deduct commuting expenses no matter how far your home is from your regular place of work. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot deduct commuting expenses even if you work during the commuting trip. Free federal and free state tax filing Example. Free federal and free state tax filing You sometimes use your cell phone to make business calls while commuting to and from work. Free federal and free state tax filing Sometimes business associates ride with you to and from work, and you have a business discussion in the car. Free federal and free state tax filing These activities do not change the trip from personal to business. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot deduct your commuting expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing Parking fees. Free federal and free state tax filing   Fees you pay to park your car at your place of business are nondeductible commuting expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing You can, however, deduct business-related parking fees when visiting a customer or client. Free federal and free state tax filing Advertising display on car. Free federal and free state tax filing   Putting display material that advertises your business on your car does not change the use of your car from personal use to business use. Free federal and free state tax filing If you use this car for commuting or other personal uses, you still cannot deduct your expenses for those uses. Free federal and free state tax filing Car pools. Free federal and free state tax filing   You cannot deduct the cost of using your car in a nonprofit car pool. Free federal and free state tax filing Do not include payments you receive from the passengers in your income. Free federal and free state tax filing These payments are considered reimbursements of your expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing However, if you operate a car pool for a profit, you must include payments from passengers in your income. Free federal and free state tax filing You can then deduct your car expenses (using the rules in this chapter). Free federal and free state tax filing Hauling tools or instruments. Free federal and free state tax filing   Hauling tools or instruments in your car while commuting to and from work does not make your car expenses deductible. Free federal and free state tax filing However, you can deduct any additional costs you have for hauling tools or instruments (such as for renting a trailer you tow with your car). Free federal and free state tax filing Union members' trips from a union hall. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you get your work assignments at a union hall and then go to your place of work, the costs of getting from the union hall to your place of work are nondeductible commuting expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing Although you need the union to get your work assignments, you are employed where you work, not where the union hall is located. Free federal and free state tax filing Office in the home. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you have an office in your home that qualifies as a principal place of business, you can deduct your daily transportation costs between your home and another work location in the same trade or business. Free federal and free state tax filing (See chapter 28 for information on determining if your home office qualifies as a principal place of business. Free federal and free state tax filing ) Figure 26-B. Free federal and free state tax filing When Are Transportation Expenses Deductible? Most employees and self-employed persons can use this chart. Free federal and free state tax filing (Do not use this chart if your home is your principal place of business. Free federal and free state tax filing See Office in the home . Free federal and free state tax filing ) Please click here for the text description of the image. Free federal and free state tax filing Figure 26-B. Free federal and free state tax filing Local Transportation Examples of deductible transportation. Free federal and free state tax filing   The following examples show when you can deduct transportation expenses based on the location of your work and your home. Free federal and free state tax filing Example 1. Free federal and free state tax filing You regularly work in an office in the city where you live. Free federal and free state tax filing Your employer sends you to a 1-week training session at a different office in the same city. Free federal and free state tax filing You travel directly from your home to the training location and return each day. Free federal and free state tax filing You can deduct the cost of your daily round-trip transportation between your home and the training location. Free federal and free state tax filing Example 2. Free federal and free state tax filing Your principal place of business is in your home. Free federal and free state tax filing You can deduct the cost of round-trip transportation between your qualifying home office and your client's or customer's place of business. Free federal and free state tax filing Example 3. Free federal and free state tax filing You have no regular office, and you do not have an office in your home. Free federal and free state tax filing In this case, the location of your first business contact inside the metropolitan area is considered your office. Free federal and free state tax filing Transportation expenses between your home and this first contact are nondeductible commuting expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing Transportation expenses between your last business contact and your home are also nondeductible commuting expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing While you cannot deduct the costs of these first and last trips, you can deduct the costs of going from one client or customer to another. Free federal and free state tax filing With no regular or home office, the costs of travel between two or more business contacts in a metropolitan area are deductible while the costs of travel between the home to (and from) business contacts are not deductible. Free federal and free state tax filing Car Expenses If you use your car for business purposes, you may be able to deduct car expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing You generally can use one of the two following methods to figure your deductible expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing Standard mileage rate. Free federal and free state tax filing Actual car expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing If you use actual car expenses to figure your deduction for a car you lease, there are rules that affect the amount of your lease payments you can deduct. Free federal and free state tax filing See Leasing a car under Actual Car Expenses, later. Free federal and free state tax filing In this chapter, “car” includes a van, pickup, or panel truck. Free federal and free state tax filing Rural mail carriers. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you are a rural mail carrier, you may be able to treat the amount of qualified reimbursement you received as the amount of your allowable expense. Free federal and free state tax filing Because the qualified reimbursement is treated as paid under an accountable plan, your employer should not include the amount of reimbursement in your income. Free federal and free state tax filing   If your vehicle expenses are more than the amount of your reimbursement, you can deduct the unreimbursed expenses as an itemized deduction on Schedule A (Form 1040). Free federal and free state tax filing You must complete Form 2106 and attach it to your Form 1040. Free federal and free state tax filing   A “qualified reimbursement” is the reimbursement you receive that meets both of the following conditions. Free federal and free state tax filing It is given as an equipment maintenance allowance (EMA) to employees of the U. Free federal and free state tax filing S. Free federal and free state tax filing Postal Service. Free federal and free state tax filing It is at the rate contained in the 1991 collective bargaining agreement. Free federal and free state tax filing Any later agreement cannot increase the qualified reimbursement amount by more than the rate of inflation. Free federal and free state tax filing See your employer for information on your reimbursement. Free federal and free state tax filing If you are a rural mail carrier and received a qualified reimbursement, you cannot use the standard mileage rate. Free federal and free state tax filing Standard Mileage Rate You may be able to use the standard mileage rate to figure the deductible costs of operating your car for business purposes. Free federal and free state tax filing For 2013, the standard mileage rate for business use is 56½ cents per mile. Free federal and free state tax filing If you use the standard mileage rate for a year, you cannot deduct your actual car expenses for that year, but see Parking fees and tolls, later. Free federal and free state tax filing You generally can use the standard mileage rate whether or not you are reimbursed and whether or not any reimbursement is more or less than the amount figured using the standard mileage rate. Free federal and free state tax filing See Reimbursements under How To Report, later. Free federal and free state tax filing Choosing the standard mileage rate. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you want to use the standard mileage rate for a car you own, you must choose to use it in the first year the car is available for use in your business. Free federal and free state tax filing Then in later years, you can choose to use either the standard mileage rate or actual expenses. Free federal and free state tax filing   If you want to use the standard mileage rate for a car you lease, you must use it for the entire lease period. Free federal and free state tax filing   You must make the choice to use the standard mileage rate by the due date (including extensions) of your return. Free federal and free state tax filing You cannot revoke the choice. Free federal and free state tax filing However, in a later year, you can switch from the standard mileage rate to the actual expenses method. Free federal and free state tax filing If you change to the actual expenses method in a later year, but before your car is fully depreciated, you have to estimate the remaining useful life of the car and use straight line depreciation. Free federal and free state tax filing Example. Free federal and free state tax filing Larry is an employee who occasionally uses his own car for business purposes. Free federal and free state tax filing He purchased the car in 2011, but he did not claim any unreimburse