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Form 1040x 2012

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Form 1040x 2012

Form 1040x 2012 Publication 535 - Introductory Material Table of Contents IntroductionOrdering forms and publications. Form 1040x 2012 Tax questions. Form 1040x 2012 Future Developments What's New for 2013 What's New for 2014 Reminders Introduction This publication discusses common business expenses and explains what is and is not deductible. Form 1040x 2012 The general rules for deducting business expenses are discussed in the opening chapter. Form 1040x 2012 The chapters that follow cover specific expenses and list other publications and forms you may need. Form 1040x 2012 Comments and suggestions. Form 1040x 2012   We welcome your comments about this publication and your suggestions for future editions. Form 1040x 2012   You can send your comments to: Internal Revenue Service Tax Forms and Publications SE:W:CAR:MP:TFP 1111 Constitution Ave. Form 1040x 2012 NW, IR-6526 Washington, DC 20224   We respond to many letters by telephone. Form 1040x 2012 Therefore, it would be helpful if you would include your daytime phone number, including the area code, in your correspondence. Form 1040x 2012   You can send us comments from www. Form 1040x 2012 irs. Form 1040x 2012 gov/formspubs/. Form 1040x 2012 Click on “More Information” and then on “Give us feedback. Form 1040x 2012 ”   Although we cannot respond individually to each comment received, we do appreciate your feedback and will consider your comments as we revise our tax publications. Form 1040x 2012 Ordering forms and publications. Form 1040x 2012   Visit www. Form 1040x 2012 irs. Form 1040x 2012 gov/formspubs/ to download forms and publications, call 1-800-829-3676, or write to the address below and receive a response within 10 days after your request is received. Form 1040x 2012 Internal Revenue Service 1201 N. Form 1040x 2012 Mitsubishi Motorway Bloomington, IL 61705-6613 We cannot answer tax questions sent to either the “Comments and suggestions” or “Ordering forms and publications” address. Form 1040x 2012 Tax questions. Form 1040x 2012   If you have a tax-related question, please go to Help With Tax Questions on IRS. Form 1040x 2012 gov. Form 1040x 2012 If you've looked around our site and still didn't find the answer to your general tax question, please call our toll-free tax assistance line at 1-800-829-1040 for individual tax questions or 1-800-829-4933 for business tax questions. Form 1040x 2012 Future Developments For the latest information about developments related to Publication 535, such as legislation enacted after it was published, go to www. Form 1040x 2012 irs. Form 1040x 2012 gov/pub535. Form 1040x 2012 What's New for 2013 The following items highlight some changes in the tax law for 2013. Form 1040x 2012 Optional safe harbor method to determine the business use of a home deduction. Form 1040x 2012  Beginning in 2013, you can use the optional safe harbor method to determine the deduction for the business use of your home. Form 1040x 2012 For more information, see chapter 1. Form 1040x 2012 Standard mileage rate. Form 1040x 2012  Beginning in 2013, the standard mileage rate for the cost of operating your car, van, pickup, or panel truck for each mile of business use is 56. Form 1040x 2012 5 cents per mile. Form 1040x 2012 For more information, see chapter 11. Form 1040x 2012 Additional Medicare Tax. Form 1040x 2012  Beginning in 2013, a 0. Form 1040x 2012 9% Additional Medicare Tax applies to Medicare wages, railroad retirement (RRTA) compensation, and self-employment income that are more than: $125,000 if married filing separately, $250,000 if married filing jointly, or $200,000 if single, head of household, or qualifying widow(er) with dependent child. Form 1040x 2012 Medicare wages and self-employment income are combined to determine if your income exceeds the threshold. Form 1040x 2012 RRTA compensation should be separately compared to the threshold. Form 1040x 2012 For more information, see chapter 5 or visit www. Form 1040x 2012 irs. Form 1040x 2012 gov and enter the following words in the search box: Additional Medicare Tax. Form 1040x 2012 Retiree drug subsidy. Form 1040x 2012  Beginning in 2013, sponsors of certain qualified retiree prescription drug plans must account for the subsidy received by reducing the amount of qualified retiree prescription drug plans expense by the subsidy received (taking into account the taxpayer's accounting method). Form 1040x 2012 For more information, visit www. Form 1040x 2012 irs. Form 1040x 2012 gov and enter the following words in the search box: Retiree drug subsidy. Form 1040x 2012 What's New for 2014 The following item highlights a change in the tax law for 2014. Form 1040x 2012 Standard mileage rate. Form 1040x 2012  Beginning in 2014, the standard mileage rate for the cost of operating your car, van, pickup, or panel truck for each mile of business use is 56 cents per mile. Form 1040x 2012 Film and television productions costs. Form 1040x 2012  The election to expense film and television production costs does not apply to productions that begin in 2014. Form 1040x 2012 For more information, see chapter 7. Form 1040x 2012 Reminders The following reminders and other items may help you file your tax return. Form 1040x 2012 IRS e-file (Electronic Filing) You can file your tax returns electronically using an IRS e-file option. Form 1040x 2012 The benefits of IRS e-file include faster refunds, increased accuracy, and acknowledgment of IRS receipt of your return. Form 1040x 2012 You can use one of the following IRS e-file options. Form 1040x 2012 Use an authorized IRS e-file provider. Form 1040x 2012 Use a personal computer. Form 1040x 2012 Visit a Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) or Tax Counseling for the Elderly (TCE) site. Form 1040x 2012 For details on these fast filing methods, see your income tax package. Form 1040x 2012 Form 1099 MISC. Form 1040x 2012  File Form 1099-MISC, Miscellaneous Income, for each person to whom you have paid during the year in the course of your trade or business at least $600 in rents, services (including parts and materials), prizes and awards, other income payments, medical and health care payments, and crop insurance proceeds. Form 1040x 2012 See the Instructions for Form 1099-MISC for more information and additional reporting requirements. Form 1040x 2012 Photographs of missing children. Form 1040x 2012  The Internal Revenue Service is a proud partner with the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. Form 1040x 2012 Photographs of missing children selected by the Center may appear in this publication on pages that would otherwise be blank. Form 1040x 2012 You can help bring these children home by looking at the photographs and calling 1-800-THE-LOST (1-800-843-5678) (24-hours a day, 7 days a week) if you recognize a child. Form 1040x 2012 Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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The Form 1040x 2012

Form 1040x 2012 13. Form 1040x 2012   Basis of Property Table of Contents Introduction Useful Items - You may want to see: Cost BasisReal Property Adjusted BasisIncreases to Basis Decreases to Basis Basis Other Than CostProperty Received for Services Taxable Exchanges Involuntary Conversions Nontaxable Exchanges Property Transferred From a Spouse Property Received as a Gift Inherited Property Property Changed From Personal to Business or Rental Use Stocks and Bonds Introduction This chapter discusses how to figure your basis in property. Form 1040x 2012 It is divided into the following sections. Form 1040x 2012 Cost basis. Form 1040x 2012 Adjusted basis. Form 1040x 2012 Basis other than cost. Form 1040x 2012 Your basis is the amount of your investment in property for tax purposes. Form 1040x 2012 Use the basis to figure gain or loss on the sale, exchange, or other disposition of property. Form 1040x 2012 Also use it to figure deductions for depreciation, amortization, depletion, and casualty losses. Form 1040x 2012 If you use property for both business or investment purposes and for personal purposes, you must allocate the basis based on the use. Form 1040x 2012 Only the basis allocated to the business or investment use of the property can be depreciated. Form 1040x 2012 Your original basis in property is adjusted (increased or decreased) by certain events. Form 1040x 2012 For example, if you make improvements to the property, increase your basis. Form 1040x 2012 If you take deductions for depreciation or casualty losses, or claim certain credits, reduce your basis. Form 1040x 2012 Keep accurate records of all items that affect the basis of your property. Form 1040x 2012 For more information on keeping records, see chapter 1. Form 1040x 2012 Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 15-B Employer's Tax Guide to Fringe Benefits 525 Taxable and Nontaxable Income 535 Business Expenses 537 Installment Sales 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets 550 Investment Income and Expenses 551 Basis of Assets 946 How To Depreciate Property Cost Basis The basis of property you buy is usually its cost. Form 1040x 2012 The cost is the amount you pay in cash, debt obligations, other property, or services. Form 1040x 2012 Your cost also includes amounts you pay for the following items: Sales tax, Freight, Installation and testing, Excise taxes, Legal and accounting fees (when they must be capitalized), Revenue stamps, Recording fees, and Real estate taxes (if you assume liability for the seller). Form 1040x 2012 In addition, the basis of real estate and business assets may include other items. Form 1040x 2012 Loans with low or no interest. Form 1040x 2012    If you buy property on a time-payment plan that charges little or no interest, the basis of your property is your stated purchase price minus any amount considered to be unstated interest. Form 1040x 2012 You generally have unstated interest if your interest rate is less than the applicable federal rate. Form 1040x 2012   For more information, see Unstated Interest and Original Issue Discount (OID) in Publication 537. Form 1040x 2012 Real Property Real property, also called real estate, is land and generally anything built on, growing on, or attached to land. Form 1040x 2012 If you buy real property, certain fees and other expenses you pay are part of your cost basis in the property. Form 1040x 2012 Lump sum purchase. Form 1040x 2012   If you buy buildings and the land on which they stand for a lump sum, allocate the cost basis among the land and the buildings. Form 1040x 2012 Allocate the cost basis according to the respective fair market values (FMVs) of the land and buildings at the time of purchase. Form 1040x 2012 Figure the basis of each asset by multiplying the lump sum by a fraction. Form 1040x 2012 The numerator is the FMV of that asset and the denominator is the FMV of the whole property at the time of purchase. Form 1040x 2012    If you are not certain of the FMVs of the land and buildings, you can allocate the basis according to their assessed values for real estate tax purposes. Form 1040x 2012 Fair market value (FMV). Form 1040x 2012   FMV is the price at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither having to buy or sell, and both having reasonable knowledge of all the necessary facts. Form 1040x 2012 Sales of similar property on or about the same date may be helpful in figuring the FMV of the property. Form 1040x 2012 Assumption of mortgage. Form 1040x 2012   If you buy property and assume (or buy the property subject to) an existing mortgage on the property, your basis includes the amount you pay for the property plus the amount to be paid on the mortgage. Form 1040x 2012 Settlement costs. Form 1040x 2012   Your basis includes the settlement fees and closing costs you paid for buying the property. Form 1040x 2012 (A fee for buying property is a cost that must be paid even if you buy the property for cash. Form 1040x 2012 ) Do not include fees and costs for getting a loan on the property in your basis. Form 1040x 2012   The following are some of the settlement fees or closing costs you can include in the basis of your property. Form 1040x 2012 Abstract fees (abstract of title fees). Form 1040x 2012 Charges for installing utility services. Form 1040x 2012 Legal fees (including fees for the title search and preparation of the sales contract and deed). Form 1040x 2012 Recording fees. Form 1040x 2012 Survey fees. Form 1040x 2012 Transfer taxes. Form 1040x 2012 Owner's title insurance. Form 1040x 2012 Any amounts the seller owes that you agree to pay, such as back taxes or interest, recording or mortgage fees, charges for improvements or repairs, and sales commissions. Form 1040x 2012   Settlement costs do not include amounts placed in escrow for the future payment of items such as taxes and insurance. Form 1040x 2012   The following are some of the settlement fees and closing costs you cannot include in the basis of property. Form 1040x 2012 Casualty insurance premiums. Form 1040x 2012 Rent for occupancy of the property before closing. Form 1040x 2012 Charges for utilities or other services related to occupancy of the property before closing. Form 1040x 2012 Charges connected with getting a loan, such as points (discount points, loan origination fees), mortgage insurance premiums, loan assumption fees, cost of a credit report, and fees for an appraisal required by a lender. Form 1040x 2012 Fees for refinancing a mortgage. Form 1040x 2012 Real estate taxes. Form 1040x 2012   If you pay real estate taxes the seller owed on real property you bought, and the seller did not reimburse you, treat those taxes as part of your basis. Form 1040x 2012 You cannot deduct them as an expense. Form 1040x 2012    If you reimburse the seller for taxes the seller paid for you, you can usually deduct that amount as an expense in the year of purchase. Form 1040x 2012 Do not include that amount in the basis of your property. Form 1040x 2012 If you did not reimburse the seller, you must reduce your basis by the amount of those taxes. Form 1040x 2012 Points. Form 1040x 2012   If you pay points to get a loan (including a mortgage, second mortgage, line of credit, or a home equity loan), do not add the points to the basis of the related property. Form 1040x 2012 Generally, you deduct the points over the term of the loan. Form 1040x 2012 For more information on how to deduct points, see chapter 23. Form 1040x 2012 Points on home mortgage. Form 1040x 2012   Special rules may apply to points you and the seller pay when you get a mortgage to buy your main home. Form 1040x 2012 If certain requirements are met, you can deduct the points in full for the year in which they are paid. Form 1040x 2012 Reduce the basis of your home by any seller-paid points. Form 1040x 2012 Adjusted Basis Before figuring gain or loss on a sale, exchange, or other disposition of property or figuring allowable depreciation, depletion, or amortization, you must usually make certain adjustments (increases and decreases) to the cost basis or basis other than cost (discussed later) of the property. Form 1040x 2012 The result is the adjusted basis. Form 1040x 2012 Increases to Basis Increase the basis of any property by all items properly added to a capital account. Form 1040x 2012 Examples of items that increase basis are shown in Table 13-1. Form 1040x 2012 These include the items discussed below. Form 1040x 2012 Improvements. Form 1040x 2012   Add to your basis in property the cost of improvements having a useful life of more than 1 year, that increase the value of the property, lengthen its life, or adapt it to a different use. Form 1040x 2012 For example, improvements include putting a recreation room in your unfinished basement, adding another bathroom or bedroom, putting up a fence, putting in new plumbing or wiring, installing a new roof, or paving your driveway. Form 1040x 2012 Assessments for local improvements. Form 1040x 2012   Add to the basis of property assessments for improvements such as streets and sidewalks if they increase the value of the property assessed. Form 1040x 2012 Do not deduct them as taxes. Form 1040x 2012 However, you can deduct as taxes assessments for maintenance or repairs, or for meeting interest charges related to the improvements. Form 1040x 2012 Example. Form 1040x 2012 Your city changes the street in front of your store into an enclosed pedestrian mall and assesses you and other affected property owners for the cost of the conversion. Form 1040x 2012 Add the assessment to your property's basis. Form 1040x 2012 In this example, the assessment is a depreciable asset. Form 1040x 2012 Decreases to Basis Decrease the basis of any property by all items that represent a return of capital for the period during which you held the property. Form 1040x 2012 Examples of items that decrease basis are shown in Table 13-1. Form 1040x 2012 These include the items discussed below. Form 1040x 2012 Table 13-1. Form 1040x 2012 Examples of Adjustments to Basis Increases to Basis Decreases to Basis • Capital improvements: • Exclusion from income of   Putting an addition on your home subsidies for energy conservation   Replacing an entire roof measures   Paving your driveway     Installing central air conditioning • Casualty or theft loss deductions   Rewiring your home and insurance reimbursements       • Assessments for local improvements:     Water connections     Extending utility service lines to the property • Postponed gain from the sale of a home   Sidewalks • Alternative motor vehicle credit  (Form 8910)   Roads       • Alternative fuel vehicle refueling     property credit (Form 8911)           • Residential energy credits (Form 5695)       • Casualty losses: • Depreciation and section 179 deduction   Restoring damaged property     • Nontaxable corporate distributions • Legal fees:     Cost of defending and perfecting a title • Certain canceled debt excluded from   Fees for getting a reduction of an assessment income     • Zoning costs • Easements           • Adoption tax benefits Casualty and theft losses. Form 1040x 2012   If you have a casualty or theft loss, decrease the basis in your property by any insurance proceeds or other reimbursement and by any deductible loss not covered by insurance. Form 1040x 2012    You must increase your basis in the property by the amount you spend on repairs that restore the property to its pre-casualty condition. Form 1040x 2012   For more information on casualty and theft losses, see chapter 25. Form 1040x 2012 Depreciation and section 179 deduction. Form 1040x 2012   Decrease the basis of your qualifying business property by any section 179 deduction you take and the depreciation you deducted, or could have deducted (including any special depreciation allowance), on your tax returns under the method of depreciation you selected. Form 1040x 2012   For more information about depreciation and the section 179 deduction, see Publication 946 and the Instructions for Form 4562. Form 1040x 2012 Example. Form 1040x 2012 You owned a duplex used as rental property that cost you $40,000, of which $35,000 was allocated to the building and $5,000 to the land. Form 1040x 2012 You added an improvement to the duplex that cost $10,000. Form 1040x 2012 In February last year, the duplex was damaged by fire. Form 1040x 2012 Up to that time, you had been allowed depreciation of $23,000. Form 1040x 2012 You sold some salvaged material for $1,300 and collected $19,700 from your insurance company. Form 1040x 2012 You deducted a casualty loss of $1,000 on your income tax return for last year. Form 1040x 2012 You spent $19,000 of the insurance proceeds for restoration of the duplex, which was completed this year. Form 1040x 2012 You must use the duplex's adjusted basis after the restoration to determine depreciation for the rest of the property's recovery period. Form 1040x 2012 Figure the adjusted basis of the duplex as follows: Original cost of duplex $35,000 Addition to duplex 10,000 Total cost of duplex $45,000 Minus: Depreciation 23,000 Adjusted basis before casualty $22,000 Minus: Insurance proceeds $19,700     Deducted casualty loss 1,000     Salvage proceeds 1,300 22,000 Adjusted basis after casualty $-0- Add: Cost of restoring duplex 19,000 Adjusted basis after restoration $19,000 Note. Form 1040x 2012 Your basis in the land is its original cost of $5,000. Form 1040x 2012 Easements. Form 1040x 2012   The amount you receive for granting an easement is generally considered to be proceeds from the sale of an interest in real property. Form 1040x 2012 It reduces the basis of the affected part of the property. Form 1040x 2012 If the amount received is more than the basis of the part of the property affected by the easement, reduce your basis in that part to zero and treat the excess as a recognized gain. Form 1040x 2012   If the gain is on a capital asset, see chapter 16 for information about how to report it. Form 1040x 2012 If the gain is on property used in a trade or business, see Publication 544 for information about how to report it. Form 1040x 2012 Exclusion of subsidies for energy conservation measures. Form 1040x 2012   You can exclude from gross income any subsidy you received from a public utility company for the purchase or installation of an energy conservation measure for a dwelling unit. Form 1040x 2012 Reduce the basis of the property for which you received the subsidy by the excluded amount. Form 1040x 2012 For more information about this subsidy, see chapter 12. Form 1040x 2012 Postponed gain from sale of home. Form 1040x 2012    If you postponed gain from the sale of your main home under rules in effect before May 7, 1997, you must reduce the basis of the home you acquired as a replacement by the amount of the postponed gain. Form 1040x 2012 For more information on the rules for the sale of a home, see chapter 15. Form 1040x 2012 Basis Other Than Cost There are many times when you cannot use cost as basis. Form 1040x 2012 In these cases, the fair market value or the adjusted basis of the property can be used. Form 1040x 2012 Fair market value (FMV) and adjusted basis were discussed earlier. Form 1040x 2012 Property Received for Services If you receive property for your services, include the FMV of the property in income. Form 1040x 2012 The amount you include in income becomes your basis. Form 1040x 2012 If the services were performed for a price agreed on beforehand, it will be accepted as the FMV of the property if there is no evidence to the contrary. Form 1040x 2012 Restricted property. Form 1040x 2012   If you receive property for your services and the property is subject to certain restrictions, your basis in the property is its FMV when it becomes substantially vested. Form 1040x 2012 However, this rule does not apply if you make an election to include in income the FMV of the property at the time it is transferred to you, less any amount you paid for it. Form 1040x 2012 Property is substantially vested when it is transferable or when it is not subject to a substantial risk of forfeiture (you do not have a good chance of losing it). Form 1040x 2012 For more information, see Restricted Property in Publication 525. Form 1040x 2012 Bargain purchases. Form 1040x 2012   A bargain purchase is a purchase of an item for less than its FMV. Form 1040x 2012 If, as compensation for services, you buy goods or other property at less than FMV, include the difference between the purchase price and the property's FMV in your income. Form 1040x 2012 Your basis in the property is its FMV (your purchase price plus the amount you include in income). Form 1040x 2012   If the difference between your purchase price and the FMV is a qualified employee discount, do not include the difference in income. Form 1040x 2012 However, your basis in the property is still its FMV. Form 1040x 2012 See Employee Discounts in Publication 15-B. Form 1040x 2012 Taxable Exchanges A taxable exchange is one in which the gain is taxable or the loss is deductible. Form 1040x 2012 A taxable gain or deductible loss also is known as a recognized gain or loss. Form 1040x 2012 If you receive property in exchange for other property in a taxable exchange, the basis of the property you receive is usually its FMV at the time of the exchange. Form 1040x 2012 Involuntary Conversions If you receive replacement property as a result of an involuntary conversion, such as a casualty, theft, or condemnation, figure the basis of the replacement property using the basis of the converted property. Form 1040x 2012 Similar or related property. Form 1040x 2012   If you receive replacement property similar or related in service or use to the converted property, the replacement property's basis is the same as the converted property's basis on the date of the conversion, with the following adjustments. Form 1040x 2012 Decrease the basis by the following. Form 1040x 2012 Any loss you recognize on the involuntary conversion. Form 1040x 2012 Any money you receive that you do not spend on similar property. Form 1040x 2012 Increase the basis by the following. Form 1040x 2012 Any gain you recognize on the involuntary conversion. Form 1040x 2012 Any cost of acquiring the replacement property. Form 1040x 2012 Money or property not similar or related. Form 1040x 2012    If you receive money or property not similar or related in service or use to the converted property, and you buy replacement property similar or related in service or use to the converted property, the basis of the replacement property is its cost decreased by the gain not recognized on the conversion. Form 1040x 2012 Example. Form 1040x 2012 The state condemned your property. Form 1040x 2012 The adjusted basis of the property was $26,000 and the state paid you $31,000 for it. Form 1040x 2012 You realized a gain of $5,000 ($31,000 − $26,000). Form 1040x 2012 You bought replacement property similar in use to the converted property for $29,000. Form 1040x 2012 You recognize a gain of $2,000 ($31,000 − $29,000), the unspent part of the payment from the state. Form 1040x 2012 Your unrecognized gain is $3,000, the difference between the $5,000 realized gain and the $2,000 recognized gain. Form 1040x 2012 The basis of the replacement property is figured as follows: Cost of replacement property $29,000 Minus: Gain not recognized 3,000 Basis of replacement property $26,000 Allocating the basis. Form 1040x 2012   If you buy more than one piece of replacement property, allocate your basis among the properties based on their respective costs. Form 1040x 2012 Basis for depreciation. Form 1040x 2012   Special rules apply in determining and depreciating the basis of MACRS property acquired in an involuntary conversion. Form 1040x 2012 For information, see What Is the Basis of Your Depreciable Property? in chapter 1 of Publication 946. Form 1040x 2012 Nontaxable Exchanges A nontaxable exchange is an exchange in which you are not taxed on any gain and you cannot deduct any loss. Form 1040x 2012 If you receive property in a nontaxable exchange, its basis is generally the same as the basis of the property you transferred. Form 1040x 2012 See Nontaxable Trades in chapter 14. Form 1040x 2012 Like-Kind Exchanges The exchange of property for the same kind of property is the most common type of nontaxable exchange. Form 1040x 2012 To qualify as a like-kind exchange, the property traded and the property received must be both of the following. Form 1040x 2012 Qualifying property. Form 1040x 2012 Like-kind property. Form 1040x 2012 The basis of the property you receive is generally the same as the adjusted basis of the property you gave up. Form 1040x 2012 If you trade property in a like-kind exchange and also pay money, the basis of the property received is the adjusted basis of the property you gave up increased by the money you paid. Form 1040x 2012 Qualifying property. Form 1040x 2012   In a like-kind exchange, you must hold for investment or for productive use in your trade or business both the property you give up and the property you receive. Form 1040x 2012 Like-kind property. Form 1040x 2012   There must be an exchange of like-kind property. Form 1040x 2012 Like-kind properties are properties of the same nature or character, even if they differ in grade or quality. Form 1040x 2012 The exchange of real estate for real estate and personal property for similar personal property are exchanges of like-kind property. Form 1040x 2012 Example. Form 1040x 2012 You trade in an old truck used in your business with an adjusted basis of $1,700 for a new one costing $6,800. Form 1040x 2012 The dealer allows you $2,000 on the old truck, and you pay $4,800. Form 1040x 2012 This is a like-kind exchange. Form 1040x 2012 The basis of the new truck is $6,500 (the adjusted basis of the old one, $1,700, plus the amount you paid, $4,800). Form 1040x 2012 If you sell your old truck to a third party for $2,000 instead of trading it in and then buy a new one from the dealer, you have a taxable gain of $300 on the sale (the $2,000 sale price minus the $1,700 adjusted basis). Form 1040x 2012 The basis of the new truck is the price you pay the dealer. Form 1040x 2012 Partially nontaxable exchanges. Form 1040x 2012   A partially nontaxable exchange is an exchange in which you receive unlike property or money in addition to like-kind property. Form 1040x 2012 The basis of the property you receive is the same as the adjusted basis of the property you gave up, with the following adjustments. Form 1040x 2012 Decrease the basis by the following amounts. Form 1040x 2012 Any money you receive. Form 1040x 2012 Any loss you recognize on the exchange. Form 1040x 2012 Increase the basis by the following amounts. Form 1040x 2012 Any additional costs you incur. Form 1040x 2012 Any gain you recognize on the exchange. Form 1040x 2012 If the other party to the exchange assumes your liabilities, treat the debt assumption as money you received in the exchange. Form 1040x 2012 Allocation of basis. Form 1040x 2012   If you receive like-kind and unlike properties in the exchange, allocate the basis first to the unlike property, other than money, up to its FMV on the date of the exchange. Form 1040x 2012 The rest is the basis of the like-kind property. Form 1040x 2012 More information. Form 1040x 2012   See Like-Kind Exchanges in chapter 1 of Publication 544 for more information. Form 1040x 2012 Basis for depreciation. Form 1040x 2012   Special rules apply in determining and depreciating the basis of MACRS property acquired in a like-kind exchange. Form 1040x 2012 For information, see What Is the Basis of Your Depreciable Property? in chapter 1 of Publication 946. Form 1040x 2012 Property Transferred From a Spouse The basis of property transferred to you or transferred in trust for your benefit by your spouse is the same as your spouse's adjusted basis. Form 1040x 2012 The same rule applies to a transfer by your former spouse that is incident to divorce. Form 1040x 2012 However, for property transferred in trust, adjust your basis for any gain recognized by your spouse or former spouse if the liabilities assumed, plus the liabilities to which the property is subject, are more than the adjusted basis of the property transferred. Form 1040x 2012 If the property transferred to you is a series E, series EE, or series I U. Form 1040x 2012 S. Form 1040x 2012 savings bond, the transferor must include in income the interest accrued to the date of transfer. Form 1040x 2012 Your basis in the bond immediately after the transfer is equal to the transferor's basis increased by the interest income includible in the transferor's income. Form 1040x 2012 For more information on these bonds, see chapter 7. Form 1040x 2012 At the time of the transfer, the transferor must give you the records needed to determine the adjusted basis and holding period of the property as of the date of the transfer. Form 1040x 2012 For more information about the transfer of property from a spouse, see chapter 14. Form 1040x 2012 Property Received as a Gift To figure the basis of property you receive as a gift, you must know its adjusted basis to the donor just before it was given to you, its FMV at the time it was given to you, and any gift tax paid on it. Form 1040x 2012 FMV less than donor's adjusted basis. Form 1040x 2012   If the FMV of the property at the time of the gift is less than the donor's adjusted basis, your basis depends on whether you have a gain or a loss when you dispose of the property. Form 1040x 2012 Your basis for figuring gain is the same as the donor's adjusted basis plus or minus any required adjustments to basis while you held the property. Form 1040x 2012 Your basis for figuring loss is its FMV when you received the gift plus or minus any required adjustments to basis while you held the property. Form 1040x 2012 See Adjusted Basis , earlier. Form 1040x 2012 Example. Form 1040x 2012 You received an acre of land as a gift. Form 1040x 2012 At the time of the gift, the land had an FMV of $8,000. Form 1040x 2012 The donor's adjusted basis was $10,000. Form 1040x 2012 After you received the property, no events occurred to increase or decrease your basis. Form 1040x 2012 If you later sell the property for $12,000, you will have a $2,000 gain because you must use the donor's adjusted basis at the time of the gift ($10,000) as your basis to figure gain. Form 1040x 2012 If you sell the property for $7,000, you will have a $1,000 loss because you must use the FMV at the time of the gift ($8,000) as your basis to figure loss. Form 1040x 2012 If the sales price is between $8,000 and $10,000, you have neither gain nor loss. Form 1040x 2012 Business property. Form 1040x 2012   If you hold the gift as business property, your basis for figuring any depreciation, depletion, or amortization deductions is the same as the donor's adjusted basis plus or minus any required adjustments to basis while you hold the property. Form 1040x 2012 FMV equal to or greater than donor's adjusted basis. Form 1040x 2012   If the FMV of the property is equal to or greater than the donor's adjusted basis, your basis is the donor's adjusted basis at the time you received the gift. Form 1040x 2012 Increase your basis by all or part of any gift tax paid, depending on the date of the gift, explained later. Form 1040x 2012   Also, for figuring gain or loss from a sale or other disposition or for figuring depreciation, depletion, or amortization deductions on business property, you must increase or decrease your basis (the donor's adjusted basis) by any required adjustments to basis while you held the property. Form 1040x 2012 See Adjusted Basis , earlier. Form 1040x 2012   If you received a gift during the tax year, increase your basis in the gift (the donor's adjusted basis) by the part of the gift tax paid on it due to the net increase in value of the gift. Form 1040x 2012 Figure the increase by multiplying the gift tax paid by a fraction. Form 1040x 2012 The numerator of the fraction is the net increase in value of the gift and the denominator is the amount of the gift. Form 1040x 2012   The net increase in value of the gift is the FMV of the gift minus the donor's adjusted basis. Form 1040x 2012 The amount of the gift is its value for gift tax purposes after reduction by any annual exclusion and marital or charitable deduction that applies to the gift. Form 1040x 2012 Example. Form 1040x 2012 In 2013, you received a gift of property from your mother that had an FMV of $50,000. Form 1040x 2012 Her adjusted basis was $20,000. Form 1040x 2012 The amount of the gift for gift tax purposes was $36,000 ($50,000 minus the $14,000 annual exclusion). Form 1040x 2012 She paid a gift tax of $7,320 on the property. Form 1040x 2012 Your basis is $26,076, figured as follows: Fair market value $50,000 Minus: Adjusted basis −20,000 Net increase in value $30,000     Gift tax paid $7,320 Multiplied by ($30,000 ÷ $36,000) × . Form 1040x 2012 83 Gift tax due to net increase in value $6,076 Adjusted basis of property to your mother +20,000 Your basis in the property $26,076 Note. Form 1040x 2012 If you received a gift before 1977, your basis in the gift (the donor's adjusted basis) includes any gift tax paid on it. Form 1040x 2012 However, your basis cannot exceed the FMV of the gift at the time it was given to you. Form 1040x 2012 Inherited Property Your basis in property you inherited from a decedent, who died before January 1, 2010, or after December 31, 2010, is generally one of the following: The FMV of the property at the date of the decedent's death. Form 1040x 2012 The FMV on the alternate valuation date if the personal representative for the estate elects to use alternate valuation. Form 1040x 2012 The value under the special-use valuation method for real property used in farming or a closely held business if elected for estate tax purposes. Form 1040x 2012 The decedent's adjusted basis in land to the extent of the value excluded from the decedent's taxable estate as a qualified conservation easement. Form 1040x 2012 If a federal estate tax return does not have to be filed, your basis in the inherited property is its appraised value at the date of death for state inheritance or transmission taxes. Form 1040x 2012 For more information, see the instructions to Form 706, United States Estate (and Generation-Skipping Transfer) Tax Return. Form 1040x 2012 Property inherited from a decedent who died in 2010. Form 1040x 2012   If you inherited property from a decedent who died in 2010, special rules may apply. Form 1040x 2012 For more information, see Publication 4895, Tax Treatment of Property Acquired From a Decedent Dying in 2010. Form 1040x 2012 Community property. Form 1040x 2012   In community property states (Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wisconsin), husband and wife are each usually considered to own half the community property. Form 1040x 2012 When either spouse dies, the total value of the community property, even the part belonging to the surviving spouse, generally becomes the basis of the entire property. Form 1040x 2012 For this rule to apply, at least half the value of the community property interest must be includible in the decedent's gross estate, whether or not the estate must file a return. Form 1040x 2012 Example. Form 1040x 2012 You and your spouse owned community property that had a basis of $80,000. Form 1040x 2012 When your spouse died, half the FMV of the community interest was includible in your spouse's estate. Form 1040x 2012 The FMV of the community interest was $100,000. Form 1040x 2012 The basis of your half of the property after the death of your spouse is $50,000 (half of the $100,000 FMV). Form 1040x 2012 The basis of the other half to your spouse's heirs is also $50,000. Form 1040x 2012 For more information about community property, see Publication 555, Community Property. Form 1040x 2012 Property Changed From Personal to Business or Rental Use If you hold property for personal use and then change it to business use or use it to produce rent, you can begin to depreciate the property at the time of the change. Form 1040x 2012 To do so, you must figure its basis for depreciation at the time of the change. Form 1040x 2012 An example of changing property held for personal use to business or rental use would be renting out your former personal residence. Form 1040x 2012 Basis for depreciation. Form 1040x 2012   The basis for depreciation is the lesser of the following amounts. Form 1040x 2012 The FMV of the property on the date of the change. Form 1040x 2012 Your adjusted basis on the date of the change. Form 1040x 2012 Example. Form 1040x 2012 Several years ago, you paid $160,000 to have your house built on a lot that cost $25,000. Form 1040x 2012 You paid $20,000 for permanent improvements to the house and claimed a $2,000 casualty loss deduction for damage to the house before changing the property to rental use last year. Form 1040x 2012 Because land is not depreciable, you include only the cost of the house when figuring the basis for depreciation. Form 1040x 2012 Your adjusted basis in the house when you changed its use was $178,000 ($160,000 + $20,000 − $2,000). Form 1040x 2012 On the same date, your property had an FMV of $180,000, of which $15,000 was for the land and $165,000 was for the house. Form 1040x 2012 The basis for figuring depreciation on the house is its FMV on the date of the change ($165,000) because it is less than your adjusted basis ($178,000). Form 1040x 2012 Sale of property. Form 1040x 2012   If you later sell or dispose of property changed to business or rental use, the basis you use will depend on whether you are figuring gain or loss. Form 1040x 2012 Gain. Form 1040x 2012   The basis for figuring a gain is your adjusted basis in the property when you sell the property. Form 1040x 2012 Example. Form 1040x 2012 Assume the same facts as in the previous example except that you sell the property at a gain after being allowed depreciation deductions of $37,500. Form 1040x 2012 Your adjusted basis for figuring gain is $165,500 ($178,000 + $25,000 (land) − $37,500). Form 1040x 2012 Loss. Form 1040x 2012   Figure the basis for a loss starting with the smaller of your adjusted basis or the FMV of the property at the time of the change to business or rental use. Form 1040x 2012 Then make adjustments (increases and decreases) for the period after the change in the property's use, as discussed earlier under Adjusted Basis . Form 1040x 2012 Example. Form 1040x 2012 Assume the same facts as in the previous example, except that you sell the property at a loss after being allowed depreciation deductions of $37,500. Form 1040x 2012 In this case, you would start with the FMV on the date of the change to rental use ($180,000), because it is less than the adjusted basis of $203,000 ($178,000 + $25,000 (land)) on that date. Form 1040x 2012 Reduce that amount ($180,000) by the depreciation deductions ($37,500). Form 1040x 2012 The basis for loss is $142,500 ($180,000 − $37,500). Form 1040x 2012 Stocks and Bonds The basis of stocks or bonds you buy generally is the purchase price plus any costs of purchase, such as commissions and recording or transfer fees. Form 1040x 2012 If you get stocks or bonds other than by purchase, your basis is usually determined by the FMV or the previous owner's adjusted basis, as discussed earlier. Form 1040x 2012 You must adjust the basis of stocks for certain events that occur after purchase. Form 1040x 2012 For example, if you receive additional stock from nontaxable stock dividends or stock splits, reduce your basis for each share of stock by dividing the adjusted basis of the old stock by the number of shares of old and new stock. Form 1040x 2012 This rule applies only when the additional stock received is identical to the stock held. Form 1040x 2012 Also reduce your basis when you receive nontaxable distributions. Form 1040x 2012 They are a return of capital. Form 1040x 2012 Example. Form 1040x 2012 In 2011 you bought 100 shares of XYZ stock for $1,000 or $10 a share. Form 1040x 2012 In 2012 you bought 100 shares of XYZ stock for $1,600 or $16 a share. Form 1040x 2012 In 2013 XYZ declared a 2-for-1 stock split. Form 1040x 2012 You now have 200 shares of stock with a basis of $5 a share and 200 shares with a basis of $8 a share. Form 1040x 2012 Other basis. Form 1040x 2012   There are other ways to figure the basis of stocks or bonds depending on how you acquired them. Form 1040x 2012 For detailed information, see Stocks and Bonds under Basis of Investment Property in chapter 4 of Publication 550. Form 1040x 2012 Identifying stocks or bonds sold. Form 1040x 2012   If you can adequately identify the shares of stock or the bonds you sold, their basis is the cost or other basis of the particular shares of stocks or bonds. Form 1040x 2012 If you buy and sell securities at various times in varying quantities and you cannot adequately identify the shares you sell, the basis of the securities you sell is the basis of the securities you acquired first. Form 1040x 2012 For more information about identifying securities you sell, see Stocks and Bonds under Basis of Investment Property in chapter 4 of Publication 550. Form 1040x 2012 Mutual fund shares. Form 1040x 2012   If you sell mutual fund shares you acquired at various times and prices and left on deposit in an account kept by a custodian or agent, you can elect to use an average basis. Form 1040x 2012 For more information, see Publication 550. Form 1040x 2012 Bond premium. Form 1040x 2012   If you buy a taxable bond at a premium and elect to amortize the premium, reduce the basis of the bond by the amortized premium you deduct each year. Form 1040x 2012 See Bond Premium Amortization in chapter 3 of Publication 550 for more information. Form 1040x 2012 Although you cannot deduct the premium on a tax-exempt bond, you must amortize the premium each year and reduce your basis in the bond by the amortized amount. Form 1040x 2012 Original issue discount (OID) on debt instruments. Form 1040x 2012   You must increase your basis in an OID debt instrument by the OID you include in income for that instrument. Form 1040x 2012 See Original Issue Discount (OID) in chapter 7 and Publication 1212, Guide To Original Issue Discount (OID) Instruments. Form 1040x 2012 Tax-exempt obligations. Form 1040x 2012    OID on tax-exempt obligations is generally not taxable. Form 1040x 2012 However, when you dispose of a tax-exempt obligation issued after September 3, 1982, and acquired after March 1, 1984, you must accrue OID on the obligation to determine its adjusted basis. Form 1040x 2012 The accrued OID is added to the basis of the obligation to determine your gain or loss. Form 1040x 2012 See chapter 4 of Publication 550. Form 1040x 2012 Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications