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File taxes online free federal and state 4. File taxes online free federal and state   Farm Business Expenses Table of Contents What's New for 2013 Introduction Topics - This chapter discusses: Useful Items - You may want to see: Deductible ExpensesReasonable allocation. File taxes online free federal and state Prepaid Farm Supplies Prepaid Livestock Feed Labor Hired Repairs and Maintenance Interest Breeding Fees Fertilizer and Lime Taxes Insurance Rent and Leasing Depreciation Business Use of Your Home Truck and Car Expenses Travel Expenses Marketing Quota Penalties Tenant House Expenses Items Purchased for Resale Other Expenses Domestic Production Activities Deduction Capital ExpensesForestation and reforestation costs. File taxes online free federal and state Nondeductible ExpensesPersonal, Living, and Family Expenses Other Nondeductible Items Losses From Operating a FarmAt-Risk Limits Passive Activity Limits Excess Farm Loss Limit Not-for-Profit FarmingUsing the presumption later. File taxes online free federal and state Category 1. File taxes online free federal and state Category 2. File taxes online free federal and state Category 3. File taxes online free federal and state What's New for 2013 Standard mileage rate. File taxes online free federal and state  For 2013, the standard mileage rate for the cost of operating your car, van, pickup, or panel truck for each mile of business use is 56. File taxes online free federal and state 5 cents. File taxes online free federal and state See Truck and Car Expenses , later. File taxes online free federal and state Simplified method for business use of home deduction. File taxes online free federal and state  The IRS now provides a simplified method to determine your expenses for business use of your home. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Schedule C (Form 1040), Part II, and its instructions. File taxes online free federal and state Introduction You can generally deduct the current costs of operating your farm. File taxes online free federal and state Current costs are expenses you do not have to capitalize or include in inventory costs. File taxes online free federal and state However, your deduction for the cost of livestock feed and certain other supplies may be limited. File taxes online free federal and state If you have an operating loss, you may not be able to deduct all of it. File taxes online free federal and state Topics - This chapter discusses: Deductible expenses Domestic production activities deduction Capital expenses Nondeductible expenses Losses from operating a farm Not-for-profit farming Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 463 Travel, Entertainment, Gift, and Car Expenses 535 Business Expenses 587 Business Use of Your Home 925 Passive Activity and At-Risk Rules 936 Home Mortgage Interest Deduction Form (and Instructions) Sch A (Form 1040) Itemized Deductions Sch F (Form 1040) Profit or Loss From Farming 1045 Application for Tentative Refund 5213 Election To Postpone Determination as To Whether the Presumption Applies That an Activity Is Engaged in for Profit 8903 Domestic Production Activities Deduction See chapter 16 for information about getting publications and forms. File taxes online free federal and state Deductible Expenses The ordinary and necessary costs of operating a farm for profit are deductible business expenses. File taxes online free federal and state “Ordinary” means what most farmers do and “necessary” means what is useful and helpful in farming. File taxes online free federal and state Schedule F, Part II, lists some common farm expenses that are typically deductible. File taxes online free federal and state This chapter discusses many of these expenses, as well as others not listed on Schedule F. File taxes online free federal and state Reimbursed expenses. File taxes online free federal and state   If the reimbursement is received in the same year that the expense is claimed, reduce the expense by the amount of the reimbursement. File taxes online free federal and state If the reimbursement is received in a year after the expense is claimed, include the reimbursement amount in income. File taxes online free federal and state See Refund or reimbursement under Income From Other Sources in chapter 3. File taxes online free federal and state Personal and business expenses. File taxes online free federal and state   Some expenses you pay during the tax year may be part personal and part business. File taxes online free federal and state These may include expenses for gasoline, oil, fuel, water, rent, electricity, telephone, automobile upkeep, repairs, insurance, interest, and taxes. File taxes online free federal and state   You must allocate these mixed expenses between their business and personal parts. File taxes online free federal and state Generally, the personal part of these expenses is not deductible. File taxes online free federal and state The business portion of the expenses is deductible on Schedule F. File taxes online free federal and state Example. File taxes online free federal and state You paid $1,500 for electricity during the tax year. File taxes online free federal and state You used 1/3 of the electricity for personal purposes and 2/3 for farming. File taxes online free federal and state Under these circumstances, you can deduct $1,000 (2/3 of $1,500) of your electricity expense as a farm business expense. File taxes online free federal and state Reasonable allocation. File taxes online free federal and state   It is not always easy to determine the business and nonbusiness parts of an expense. File taxes online free federal and state There is no method of allocation that applies to all mixed expenses. File taxes online free federal and state Any reasonable allocation is acceptable. File taxes online free federal and state What is reasonable depends on the circumstances in each case. File taxes online free federal and state Prepaid Farm Supplies Prepaid farm supplies include the following items if paid for during the year. File taxes online free federal and state Feed, seed, fertilizer, and similar farm supplies not used or consumed during the year, but not including farm supplies that you would have consumed during the year if not for a fire, storm, flood, other casualty, disease, or drought. File taxes online free federal and state Poultry (including egg-laying hens and baby chicks) bought for use (or for both use and resale) in your farm business. File taxes online free federal and state However, include only the amount that would be deductible in the following year if you had capitalized the cost and deducted it ratably over the lesser of 12 months or the useful life of the poultry. File taxes online free federal and state Poultry bought for resale and not resold during the year. File taxes online free federal and state Deduction limit. File taxes online free federal and state   If you use the cash method of accounting to report your income and expenses, your deduction for prepaid farm supplies in the year you pay for them may be limited to 50% of your other deductible farm expenses for the year (all Schedule F deductions except prepaid farm supplies). File taxes online free federal and state This limit does not apply if you meet one of the exceptions described later. File taxes online free federal and state See Chapter 2 for a discussion of the cash method of accounting. File taxes online free federal and state   If the limit applies, you can deduct the excess cost of farm supplies other than poultry in the year you use or consume the supplies. File taxes online free federal and state The excess cost of poultry bought for use (or for both use and resale) in your farm business is deductible in the year following the year you pay for it. File taxes online free federal and state The excess cost of poultry bought for resale is deductible in the year you sell or otherwise dispose of that poultry. File taxes online free federal and state Example. File taxes online free federal and state You may not qualify for the exception described next. File taxes online free federal and state During 2013, you bought fertilizer ($4,000), feed ($1,000), and seed ($500) for use on your farm in the following year. File taxes online free federal and state Your total prepaid farm supplies expense for 2013 is $5,500. File taxes online free federal and state Your other deductible farm expenses totaled $10,000 for 2013. File taxes online free federal and state Therefore, your deduction for prepaid farm supplies cannot be more than $5,000 (50% of $10,000) for 2013. File taxes online free federal and state The excess prepaid farm supplies expense of $500 ($5,500 − $5,000) is deductible in a later tax year when you use or consume the supplies. File taxes online free federal and state Exceptions. File taxes online free federal and state   This limit on the deduction for prepaid farm supplies expense does not apply if you are a farm-related taxpayer and either of the following apply. File taxes online free federal and state Your prepaid farm supplies expense is more than 50% of your other deductible farm expenses because of a change in business operations caused by unusual circumstances. File taxes online free federal and state Your total prepaid farm supplies expense for the preceding 3 tax years is less than 50% of your total other deductible farm expenses for those 3 tax years. File taxes online free federal and state   You are a farm-related taxpayer if any of the following tests apply. File taxes online free federal and state Your main home is on a farm. File taxes online free federal and state Your principal business is farming. File taxes online free federal and state A member of your family meets (1) or (2). File taxes online free federal and state For this purpose, your family includes your brothers and sisters, half-brothers and half-sisters, spouse, parents, grandparents, children, grandchildren, and aunts and uncles and their children. File taxes online free federal and state    Whether or not the deduction limit for prepaid farm supplies applies, your expenses for prepaid livestock feed may be subject to the rules for advance payment of livestock feed, discussed next. File taxes online free federal and state Prepaid Livestock Feed If you report your income and expenses under the cash method of accounting, you cannot deduct in the year paid the cost of feed your livestock will consume in a later year unless you meet all the following tests. File taxes online free federal and state The payment is for the purchase of feed rather than a deposit. File taxes online free federal and state The prepayment has a business purpose and is not merely for tax avoidance. File taxes online free federal and state Deducting the prepayment does not result in a material distortion of your income. File taxes online free federal and state If you meet all three tests, you can deduct the prepaid feed, subject to the limit on prepaid farm supplies discussed earlier. File taxes online free federal and state If you fail any of these tests, you can deduct the prepaid feed only in the year it is consumed. File taxes online free federal and state This rule does not apply to the purchase of commodity futures contracts. File taxes online free federal and state Payment for the purchase of feed. File taxes online free federal and state   Whether a payment is for the purchase of feed or a deposit depends on the facts and circumstances in each case. File taxes online free federal and state It is for the purchase of feed if you can show you made it under a binding commitment to accept delivery of a specific quantity of feed at a fixed price and you are not entitled, by contract or business custom, to a refund or repurchase. File taxes online free federal and state   The following are some factors that show a payment is a deposit rather than for the purchase of feed. File taxes online free federal and state The absence of specific quantity terms. File taxes online free federal and state The right to a refund of any unapplied payment credit at the end of the contract. File taxes online free federal and state The seller's treatment of the payment as a deposit. File taxes online free federal and state The right to substitute other goods or products for those specified in the contract. File taxes online free federal and state   A provision permitting substitution of ingredients to vary the particular feed mix to meet your livestock's current diet requirements will not suggest a deposit. File taxes online free federal and state Further, a price adjustment to reflect market value at the date of delivery is not, by itself, proof of a deposit. File taxes online free federal and state Business purpose. File taxes online free federal and state   The prepayment has a business purpose only if you have a reasonable expectation of receiving some business benefit from prepaying the cost of livestock feed. File taxes online free federal and state The following are some examples of business benefits. File taxes online free federal and state Fixing maximum prices and securing an assured feed supply. File taxes online free federal and state Securing preferential treatment in anticipation of a feed shortage. File taxes online free federal and state   Other factors considered in determining the existence of a business purpose are whether the prepayment was a condition imposed by the seller and whether that condition was meaningful. File taxes online free federal and state No material distortion of income. File taxes online free federal and state   The following are some factors considered in determining whether deducting prepaid livestock feed materially distorts income. File taxes online free federal and state Your customary business practice in conducting your livestock operations. File taxes online free federal and state The expense in relation to past purchases. File taxes online free federal and state The time of year you made the purchase. File taxes online free federal and state The expense in relation to your income for the year. File taxes online free federal and state Labor Hired You can deduct reasonable wages paid for regular farm labor, piecework, contract labor, and other forms of labor hired to perform your farming operations. File taxes online free federal and state You can pay wages in cash or in noncash items such as inventory, capital assets, or assets used in your business. File taxes online free federal and state The cost of boarding farm labor is a deductible labor cost. File taxes online free federal and state Other deductible costs you incur for farm labor include health insurance, workers' compensation insurance, and other benefits. File taxes online free federal and state If you must withhold social security, Medicare, and income taxes from your employees' cash wages, you can still deduct the full amount of wages before withholding. File taxes online free federal and state See chapter 13 for more information on employment taxes. File taxes online free federal and state Also, deduct the employer's share of the social security and Medicare taxes you must pay on your employees' wages as a farm business expense on Schedule F, line 29. File taxes online free federal and state See Taxes , later. File taxes online free federal and state Property for services. File taxes online free federal and state   If you transfer property to an employee in payment for services, you can deduct as wages paid the fair market value of the property on the date of transfer. File taxes online free federal and state If the employee pays you anything for the property, deduct as wages the fair market value of the property minus the payment by the employee for the property. File taxes online free federal and state   Treat the wages deducted as an amount received for the property. File taxes online free federal and state You may have a gain or loss to report if the property's adjusted basis on the date of transfer is different from its fair market value. File taxes online free federal and state Any gain or loss has the same character the exchanged property had in your hands. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see chapter 8. File taxes online free federal and state Child as an employee. File taxes online free federal and state   You can deduct reasonable wages or other compensation you pay to your child for doing farmwork if a true employer-employee relationship exists between you and your child. File taxes online free federal and state Include these wages in the child's income. File taxes online free federal and state The child may have to file an income tax return. File taxes online free federal and state These wages may also be subject to social security and Medicare taxes if your child is age 18 or older. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Family Employees in chapter 13. File taxes online free federal and state    A Form W-2, Wage and Tax Statement, should be issued to the child employee. File taxes online free federal and state   The fact that your child spends the wages to buy clothes or other necessities you normally furnish does not prevent you from deducting your child's wages as a farm expense. File taxes online free federal and state The amount of wages paid to the child could cause a loss of the dependency exemption depending on how the child uses the money. File taxes online free federal and state Spouse as an employee. File taxes online free federal and state   You can deduct reasonable wages or other compensation you pay to your spouse if a true employer-employee relationship exists between you and your spouse. File taxes online free federal and state Wages you pay to your spouse are subject to social security and Medicare taxes. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Family Employees in chapter 13. File taxes online free federal and state Nondeductible Pay You cannot deduct wages paid for certain household work, construction work, and maintenance of your home. File taxes online free federal and state However, those wages may be subject to the employment taxes discussed in chapter 13. File taxes online free federal and state Household workers. File taxes online free federal and state   Do not deduct amounts paid to persons engaged in household work, except to the extent their services are used in boarding or otherwise caring for farm laborers. File taxes online free federal and state Construction labor. File taxes online free federal and state   Do not deduct wages paid to hired help for the construction of new buildings or other improvements. File taxes online free federal and state These wages are part of the cost of the building or other improvement. File taxes online free federal and state You must capitalize them. File taxes online free federal and state Maintaining your home. File taxes online free federal and state   If your farm employee spends time maintaining or repairing your home, the wages and employment taxes you pay for that work are nondeductible personal expenses. File taxes online free federal and state For example, assume you have a farm employee for the entire tax year and the employee spends 5% of the time maintaining your home. File taxes online free federal and state The employee devotes the remaining time to work on your farm. File taxes online free federal and state You cannot deduct 5% of the wages and employment taxes you pay for that employee. File taxes online free federal and state Employment Credits Reduce your deduction for wages by the amount of any employment credits you claim such as the work opportunity credit for qualified tax-exempt organizations hiring qualified veterans (Form 5884-C). File taxes online free federal and state Repairs and Maintenance You can deduct most expenses for the repair and maintenance of your farm property. File taxes online free federal and state Common items of repair and maintenance are repainting, replacing shingles and supports on farm buildings, and periodic or routine maintenance of trucks, tractors, and other farm machinery. File taxes online free federal and state However, repairs to, or overhauls of, depreciable property that substantially prolong the life of the property, increase its value, or adapt it to a different use are capital expenses. File taxes online free federal and state For example, if you repair the barn roof, the cost is deductible. File taxes online free federal and state But if you replace the roof, it is a capital expense. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Capital Expenses , later. File taxes online free federal and state Interest You can deduct as a farm business expense interest paid on farm mortgages and other obligations you incur in your farm business. File taxes online free federal and state Cash method. File taxes online free federal and state   If you use the cash method of accounting, you can generally deduct interest paid during the tax year. File taxes online free federal and state You cannot deduct interest paid with funds received from the original lender through another loan, advance, or other arrangement similar to a loan. File taxes online free federal and state You can, however, deduct the interest when you start making payments on the new loan. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Cash Method in chapter 2. File taxes online free federal and state Prepaid interest. File taxes online free federal and state   Under the cash method, you generally cannot deduct any interest paid before the year it is due. File taxes online free federal and state Interest paid in advance may be deducted only in the tax year in which it is due. File taxes online free federal and state Accrual method. File taxes online free federal and state   If you use an accrual method of accounting, you can deduct only interest that has accrued during the tax year. File taxes online free federal and state However, you cannot deduct interest owed to a related person who uses the cash method until payment is made and the interest is includible in the gross income of that person. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Accrual Method in chapter 2. File taxes online free federal and state Allocation of interest. File taxes online free federal and state   If you use the proceeds of a loan for more than one purpose, you must allocate the interest on that loan to each use. File taxes online free federal and state Allocate the interest to the following categories. File taxes online free federal and state Trade or business interest. File taxes online free federal and state Passive activity interest. File taxes online free federal and state Investment interest. File taxes online free federal and state Portfolio interest. File taxes online free federal and state Personal interest. File taxes online free federal and state   You generally allocate interest on a loan the same way you allocate the loan proceeds. File taxes online free federal and state You allocate loan proceeds by tracing disbursements to specific uses. File taxes online free federal and state The easiest way to trace disbursements to specific uses is to keep the proceeds of a particular loan separate from any other funds. File taxes online free federal and state Secured loan. File taxes online free federal and state   The allocation of loan proceeds and the related interest is generally not affected by the use of property that secures the loan. File taxes online free federal and state Example. File taxes online free federal and state You secure a loan with property used in your farming business. File taxes online free federal and state You use the loan proceeds to buy a car for personal use. File taxes online free federal and state You must allocate interest expense on the loan to personal use (purchase of the car) even though the loan is secured by farm business property. File taxes online free federal and state If the property that secures the loan is your home, you generally do not allocate the loan proceeds or the related interest. File taxes online free federal and state The interest is usually deductible as qualified home mortgage interest, regardless of how the loan proceeds are used. File taxes online free federal and state However, you can choose to treat the loan as not secured by your home. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Publication 936. File taxes online free federal and state Allocation period. File taxes online free federal and state   The period for which a loan is allocated to a particular use begins on the date the proceeds are used and ends on the earlier of the following dates. File taxes online free federal and state The date the loan is repaid. File taxes online free federal and state The date the loan is reallocated to another use. File taxes online free federal and state More information. File taxes online free federal and state   For more information on interest, see chapter 4 in Publication 535. File taxes online free federal and state Breeding Fees You can deduct breeding fees as a farm business expense. File taxes online free federal and state However, if you use an accrual method of accounting, you must capitalize breeding fees and allocate them to the cost basis of the calf, foal, etc. File taxes online free federal and state For more information on who must use an accrual method of accounting, see Accrual Method Required under Accounting Methods in chapter 2. File taxes online free federal and state Fertilizer and Lime You can deduct in the year paid or incurred the cost of fertilizer, lime, and other materials applied to farmland to enrich, neutralize, or condition it if the benefits last a year or less. File taxes online free federal and state You can also deduct the cost of applying these materials in the year you pay or incur it. File taxes online free federal and state However, see Prepaid Farm Supplies , earlier, for a rule that may limit your deduction for these materials. File taxes online free federal and state If the benefits of the fertilizer, lime, or other materials last substantially more than one year, you generally capitalize their cost and deduct a part each year the benefits last. File taxes online free federal and state However, you can choose to deduct these expenses in the year paid or incurred. File taxes online free federal and state If you make this choice, you will need IRS approval if you later decide to capitalize the cost of previously deducted items. File taxes online free federal and state If you sell farmland on which fertilizer or lime has been applied and if the selling price of the land includes part or all of the cost of the fertilizer or lime, you report the sale amount attributable to the fertilizer or lime as ordinary income. File taxes online free federal and state Farmland, for these purposes, is land used for producing crops, fruits, or other agricultural products or for sustaining livestock. File taxes online free federal and state It does not include land you have never used previously for producing crops or sustaining livestock. File taxes online free federal and state You cannot deduct initial land preparation costs. File taxes online free federal and state (See Capital Expenses , later. File taxes online free federal and state ) Include government payments you receive for lime or fertilizer in income. File taxes online free federal and state See Fertilizer and Lime under Agricultural Program Payments in chapter 3. File taxes online free federal and state Taxes You can deduct as a farm business expense the real estate and personal property taxes on farm business assets, such as farm equipment, animals, farmland, and farm buildings. File taxes online free federal and state You also can deduct the social security and Medicare taxes you pay to match the amount withheld from the wages of farm employees and any federal unemployment tax you pay. File taxes online free federal and state For information on employment taxes, see chapter 13. File taxes online free federal and state Allocation of taxes. File taxes online free federal and state   The taxes on the part of your farm you use as your home (including the furnishings and surrounding land not used for farming) are nonbusiness taxes. File taxes online free federal and state You may be able to deduct these nonbusiness taxes as itemized deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040). File taxes online free federal and state To determine the nonbusiness part, allocate the taxes between the farm assets and nonbusiness assets. File taxes online free federal and state The allocation can be done from the assessed valuations. File taxes online free federal and state If your tax statement does not show the assessed valuations, you can usually get them from the tax assessor. File taxes online free federal and state State and local general sales taxes. File taxes online free federal and state   State and local general sales taxes on nondepreciable farm business expense items are deductible as part of the cost of those items. File taxes online free federal and state Include state and local general sales taxes imposed on the purchase of assets for use in your farm business as part of the cost you depreciate. File taxes online free federal and state Also treat the taxes as part of your cost if they are imposed on the seller and passed on to you. File taxes online free federal and state State and federal income taxes. File taxes online free federal and state   Individuals cannot deduct state and federal income taxes as farm business expenses. File taxes online free federal and state Individuals can deduct state and local income taxes only as an itemized deduction on Schedule A (Form 1040). File taxes online free federal and state However, you cannot deduct federal income tax. File taxes online free federal and state Highway use tax. File taxes online free federal and state   You can deduct the federal use tax on highway motor vehicles paid on a truck or truck tractor used in your farm business. File taxes online free federal and state For information on the tax itself, including information on vehicles subject to the tax, see the Instructions for Form 2290, Heavy Highway Vehicle Use Tax Return. File taxes online free federal and state Self-employment tax deduction. File taxes online free federal and state   You can deduct as an adjustment to income on Form 1040 one-half of your self-employment tax in figuring your adjusted gross income. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see chapter 12. File taxes online free federal and state Insurance You generally can deduct the ordinary and necessary cost of insurance for your farm business as a business expense. File taxes online free federal and state This includes premiums you pay for the following types of insurance. File taxes online free federal and state Fire, storm, crop, theft, liability, and other insurance on farm business assets. File taxes online free federal and state Health and accident insurance on your farm employees. File taxes online free federal and state Workers' compensation insurance set by state law that covers any claims for job-related bodily injuries or diseases suffered by employees on your farm, regardless of fault. File taxes online free federal and state Business interruption insurance. File taxes online free federal and state State unemployment insurance on your farm employees (deductible as taxes if they are considered taxes under state law). File taxes online free federal and state Insurance to secure a loan. File taxes online free federal and state   If you take out a policy on your life or on the life of another person with a financial interest in your farm business to get or protect a business loan, you cannot deduct the premiums as a business expense. File taxes online free federal and state In the event of death, the proceeds of the policy are not taxed as income even if they are used to liquidate the debt. File taxes online free federal and state Advance premiums. File taxes online free federal and state   Deduct advance payments of insurance premiums only in the year to which they apply, regardless of your accounting method. File taxes online free federal and state Example. File taxes online free federal and state On June 28, 2013, you paid a premium of $3,000 for fire insurance on your barn. File taxes online free federal and state The policy will cover a period of 3 years beginning on July 1, 2013. File taxes online free federal and state Only the cost for the 6 months in 2013 is deductible as an insurance expense on your 2013 calendar year tax return. File taxes online free federal and state Deduct $500, which is the premium for 6 months of the 36-month premium period, or 6/36 of $3,000. File taxes online free federal and state In both 2014 and 2015, deduct $1,000 (12/36 of $3,000). File taxes online free federal and state Deduct the remaining $500 in 2016. File taxes online free federal and state Had the policy been effective on January 1, 2013, the deductible expense would have been $1,000 for each of the years 2013, 2014, and 2015, based on one-third of the premium used each year. File taxes online free federal and state Business interruption insurance. File taxes online free federal and state   Use and occupancy and business interruption insurance premiums are deductible as a business expense. File taxes online free federal and state This insurance pays for lost profits if your business is shut down due to a fire or other cause. File taxes online free federal and state Report any proceeds in full on Schedule F, Part I. File taxes online free federal and state Self-employed health insurance deduction. File taxes online free federal and state   If you are self-employed, you can deduct as an adjustment to income on Form 1040 your payments for medical, dental, and qualified long-term care insurance coverage for yourself, your spouse, and your dependents when figuring your adjusted gross income on your Form 1040. File taxes online free federal and state Effective March 30, 2010, the insurance can also cover any child of yours under age 27 at the end of 2013, even if the child was not your dependent. File taxes online free federal and state Generally, this deduction cannot be more than the net profit from the business under which the plan was established. File taxes online free federal and state   If you or your spouse is also an employee of another person, you cannot take the deduction for any month in which you are eligible to participate in a subsidized health plan maintained by your employer or your spouse's employer. File taxes online free federal and state   Generally, use the Self-Employed Health Insurance Deduction Worksheet in the Instructions for Form 1040 to figure your deduction. File taxes online free federal and state Include the remaining part of the insurance payment in your medical expenses on Schedule A (Form 1040) if you itemize your deductions. File taxes online free federal and state   For more information, see Deductible Premiums in Publication 535, chapter 6. File taxes online free federal and state Rent and Leasing If you lease property for use in your farm business, you can generally deduct the rent you pay on Schedule F. File taxes online free federal and state However, you cannot deduct rent you pay in crop shares if you deduct the cost of raising the crops as farm expenses. File taxes online free federal and state Advance payments. File taxes online free federal and state   Deduct advance payments of rent only in the year to which they apply, regardless of your accounting method. File taxes online free federal and state Farm home. File taxes online free federal and state   If you rent a farm, do not deduct the part of the rental expense that represents the fair rental value of the farm home in which you live. File taxes online free federal and state Lease or Purchase If you lease a farm building or equipment, you must determine whether or not the agreement must be treated as a conditional sales contract rather than a lease. File taxes online free federal and state If the agreement is treated as a conditional sales contract, the payments under the agreement (so far as they do not represent interest or other charges) are payments for the purchase of the property. File taxes online free federal and state Do not deduct these payments as rent, but capitalize the cost of the property and recover this cost through depreciation. File taxes online free federal and state Conditional sales contract. File taxes online free federal and state   Whether an agreement is a conditional sales contract depends on the intent of the parties. File taxes online free federal and state Determine intent based on the provisions of the agreement and the facts and circumstances that exist when you make the agreement. File taxes online free federal and state No single test, or special combination of tests, always applies. File taxes online free federal and state However, in general, an agreement may be considered a conditional sales contract rather than a lease if any of the following is true. File taxes online free federal and state The agreement applies part of each payment toward an equity interest you will receive. File taxes online free federal and state You get title to the property after you make a stated amount of required payments. File taxes online free federal and state The amount you must pay to use the property for a short time is a large part of the amount you would pay to get title to the property. File taxes online free federal and state You pay much more than the current fair rental value of the property. File taxes online free federal and state You have an option to buy the property at a nominal price compared to the value of the property when you may exercise the option. File taxes online free federal and state Determine this value when you make the agreement. File taxes online free federal and state You have an option to buy the property at a nominal price compared to the total amount you have to pay under the agreement. File taxes online free federal and state The agreement designates part of the payments as interest, or part of the payments can be easily recognized as interest. File taxes online free federal and state Example. File taxes online free federal and state You lease new farm equipment from a dealer who both sells and leases. File taxes online free federal and state The agreement includes an option to purchase the equipment for a specified price. File taxes online free federal and state The lease payments and the specified option price equal the sales price of the equipment plus interest. File taxes online free federal and state Under the agreement, you are responsible for maintenance, repairs, and the risk of loss. File taxes online free federal and state For federal income tax purposes, the agreement is a conditional sales contract. File taxes online free federal and state You cannot deduct any of the lease payments as rent. File taxes online free federal and state You can deduct interest, repairs, insurance, depreciation, and other expenses related to the equipment. File taxes online free federal and state Motor vehicle leases. File taxes online free federal and state   Special rules apply to lease agreements that have a terminal rental adjustment clause. File taxes online free federal and state In general, this is a clause that provides for a rental price adjustment based on the amount the lessor is able to sell the vehicle for at the end of the lease. File taxes online free federal and state If your rental agreement contains a terminal rental adjustment clause, treat the agreement as a lease if the agreement otherwise qualifies as a lease. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Internal Revenue Code (IRC) section 7701(h). File taxes online free federal and state Leveraged leases. File taxes online free federal and state   Special rules apply to leveraged leases of equipment (arrangements in which the equipment is financed by a nonrecourse loan from a third party). File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Publication 535, chapter 3, and Revenue Procedure 2001-28, which begins on page 1156 of Internal Revenue Bulletin 2001-19 at www. File taxes online free federal and state irs. File taxes online free federal and state gov/pub/irs-irbs/irb01-19. File taxes online free federal and state pdf. File taxes online free federal and state Depreciation If property you acquire to use in your farm business is expected to last more than one year, you generally cannot deduct the entire cost in the year you acquire it. File taxes online free federal and state You must recover the cost over more than one year and deduct part of it each year on Schedule F as depreciation or amortization. File taxes online free federal and state However, you can choose to deduct part or all of the cost of certain qualifying property, up to a limit, as a section 179 deduction in the year you place it in service. File taxes online free federal and state Depreciation, amortization, and the section 179 deduction are discussed in chapter 7. File taxes online free federal and state Business Use of Your Home You can deduct expenses for the business use of your home if you use part of your home exclusively and regularly: As the principal place of business for any trade or business in which you engage, As a place to meet or deal with patients, clients, or customers in the normal course of your trade or business, or In connection with your trade or business, if you are using a separate structure that is not attached to your home. File taxes online free federal and state Your home office will qualify as your principal place of business for deducting expenses for its use if you meet both of the following requirements. File taxes online free federal and state You use it exclusively and regularly for the administrative or management activities of your trade or business. File taxes online free federal and state You have no other fixed location where you conduct substantial administrative or management activities of your trade or business. File taxes online free federal and state If you use part of your home for business, you must divide the expenses of operating your home between personal and business use. File taxes online free federal and state The IRS now provides a simplified method to determine your expenses for business use of your home. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Schedule C (Form 1040), Part II, and its instructions. File taxes online free federal and state Deduction limit. File taxes online free federal and state   If your gross income from farming equals or exceeds your total farm expenses (including expenses for the business use of your home), you can deduct all your farm expenses. File taxes online free federal and state But if your gross income from farming is less than your total farm expenses, your deduction for certain expenses for the use of your home in your farming business is limited. File taxes online free federal and state   Your deduction for otherwise nondeductible expenses, such as utilities, insurance, and depreciation (with depreciation taken last), cannot be more than the gross income from farming minus the following expenses. File taxes online free federal and state The business part of expenses you could deduct even if you did not use your home for business (such as deductible mortgage interest, real estate taxes, and casualty and theft losses). File taxes online free federal and state Farm expenses other than expenses that relate to the use of your home. File taxes online free federal and state If you are self-employed, do not include your deduction for half of your self-employment tax. File taxes online free federal and state   Deductions over the current year's limit can be carried over to your next tax year. File taxes online free federal and state They are subject to the deduction limit for the next tax year. File taxes online free federal and state More information. File taxes online free federal and state   See Publication 587 for more information on deducting expenses for the business use of your home. File taxes online free federal and state Telephone expense. File taxes online free federal and state   You cannot deduct the cost of basic local telephone service (including any taxes) for the first telephone line you have in your home, even if you have an office in your home. File taxes online free federal and state However, charges for business long-distance phone calls on that line, as well as the cost of a second line into your home used exclusively for your farm business, are deductible business expenses. File taxes online free federal and state Cell phone charges for calls relating to your farm business are deductible. File taxes online free federal and state If the cell phone you use for your farm business is part of a family cell phone plan, you must allocate and deduct only the portion of the charges attributable to farm business calls. File taxes online free federal and state Truck and Car Expenses You can deduct the actual cost of operating a truck or car in your farm business. File taxes online free federal and state Only expenses for business use are deductible. File taxes online free federal and state These include such items as gasoline, oil, repairs, license tags, insurance, and depreciation (subject to certain limits). File taxes online free federal and state Standard mileage rate. File taxes online free federal and state   Instead of using actual costs, under certain conditions you can use the standard mileage rate. File taxes online free federal and state The standard mileage rate for each mile of business use is 56. File taxes online free federal and state 5 cents in 2013. File taxes online free federal and state You can use the standard mileage rate for a car or a light truck, such as a van, pickup, or panel truck, you own or lease. File taxes online free federal and state   You cannot use the standard mileage rate if you operate five or more cars or light trucks at the same time. File taxes online free federal and state You are not using five or more vehicles at the same time if you alternate using the vehicles (you use them at different times) for business. File taxes online free federal and state Example. File taxes online free federal and state Maureen owns a car and four pickup trucks that are used in her farm business. File taxes online free federal and state Her farm employees use the trucks and she uses the car for business. File taxes online free federal and state Maureen cannot use the standard mileage rate for the car or the trucks. File taxes online free federal and state This is because all five vehicles are used in Maureen's farm business at the same time. File taxes online free federal and state She must use actual expenses for all vehicles. File taxes online free federal and state Business use percentage. File taxes online free federal and state   You can claim 75% of the use of a car or light truck as business use without any records if you used the vehicle during most of the normal business day directly in connection with the business of farming. File taxes online free federal and state You choose this method of substantiating business use the first year the vehicle is placed in service. File taxes online free federal and state Once you make this choice, you may not change to another method later. File taxes online free federal and state The following are uses directly connected with the business of farming. File taxes online free federal and state Cultivating land. File taxes online free federal and state Raising or harvesting any agricultural or horticultural commodity. File taxes online free federal and state Raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training, and managing animals. File taxes online free federal and state Driving to the feed or supply store. File taxes online free federal and state   If you keep records and they show that your business use was more than 75%, you may be able to claim more. File taxes online free federal and state See Recordkeeping requirements under Travel Expenses , below. File taxes online free federal and state More information. File taxes online free federal and state   For more information on deductible truck and car expenses, see Publication 463, chapter 4. File taxes online free federal and state If you pay your employees for the use of their truck or car in your farm business, see Reimbursements to employees under Travel Expenses next. File taxes online free federal and state Travel Expenses You can deduct ordinary and necessary expenses you incur while traveling away from home for your farm business. File taxes online free federal and state You cannot deduct lavish or extravagant expenses. File taxes online free federal and state Usually, the location of your farm business is considered your home for tax purposes. File taxes online free federal and state You are traveling away from home if: Your duties require you to be absent from your farm substantially longer than an ordinary work day, and You need to get sleep or rest to meet the demands of your work while away from home. File taxes online free federal and state If you meet these requirements and can prove the time, place, and business purpose of your travel, you can deduct your ordinary and necessary travel expenses. File taxes online free federal and state The following are some types of deductible travel expenses. File taxes online free federal and state Air, rail, bus, and car transportation; Meals and lodging; Dry cleaning and laundry; Telephone and fax; Transportation between your hotel and your temporary work or business meeting location; and Tips for any of the above expenses. File taxes online free federal and state Meals. File taxes online free federal and state   You ordinarily can deduct only 50% of your business-related meals expenses. File taxes online free federal and state You can deduct the cost of your meals while traveling on business only if your business trip is overnight or long enough to require you to stop for sleep or rest to properly perform your duties. File taxes online free federal and state You cannot deduct any of the cost of meals if it is not necessary for you to rest, unless you meet the rules for business entertainment. File taxes online free federal and state For information on entertainment expenses, see Publication 463, chapter 2. File taxes online free federal and state   The expense of a meal includes amounts you spend for your food, beverages, taxes, and tips relating to the meal. File taxes online free federal and state You can deduct either 50% of the actual cost or 50% of a standard meal allowance that covers your daily meal and incidental expenses. File taxes online free federal and state    Recordkeeping requirements. File taxes online free federal and state You must be able to prove your deductions for travel by adequate records or other evidence that will support your own statement. File taxes online free federal and state Estimates or approximations do not qualify as proof of an expense. File taxes online free federal and state   You should keep an account book or similar record, supported by adequate documentary evidence, such as receipts, that together support each element of an expense. File taxes online free federal and state Generally, it is best to record the expense and get documentation of it at the time you pay it. File taxes online free federal and state   If you choose to deduct a standard meal allowance rather than the actual expense, you do not have to keep records to prove amounts spent for meals and incidental items. File taxes online free federal and state However, you must still keep records to prove the actual amount of other travel expenses, and the time, place, and business purpose of your travel. File taxes online free federal and state More information. File taxes online free federal and state   For detailed information on travel, recordkeeping, and the standard meal allowance, see Publication 463. File taxes online free federal and state Reimbursements to employees. File taxes online free federal and state   You generally can deduct reimbursements you pay to your employees for travel and transportation expenses they incur in the conduct of your business. File taxes online free federal and state Employees may be reimbursed under an accountable or nonaccountable plan. File taxes online free federal and state Under an accountable plan, the employee must provide evidence of expenses. File taxes online free federal and state Under a nonaccountable plan, no evidence of expenses is required. File taxes online free federal and state If you reimburse expenses under an accountable plan, deduct them as travel and transportation expenses. File taxes online free federal and state If you reimburse expenses under a nonaccountable plan, you must report the reimbursements as wages on Form W-2 and deduct them as wages. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Publication 535, chapter 11. File taxes online free federal and state Marketing Quota Penalties You can deduct as Other expenses on Schedule F penalties you pay for marketing crops in excess of farm marketing quotas. File taxes online free federal and state However, if you do not pay the penalty, but instead the purchaser of your crop deducts it from the payment to you, include in gross income only the amount you received. File taxes online free federal and state Do not take a separate deduction for the penalty. File taxes online free federal and state Tenant House Expenses You can deduct the costs of maintaining houses and their furnishings for tenants or hired help as farm business expenses. File taxes online free federal and state These costs include repairs, utilities, insurance, and depreciation. File taxes online free federal and state The value of a dwelling you furnish to a tenant under the usual tenant-farmer arrangement is not taxable income to the tenant. File taxes online free federal and state Items Purchased for Resale If you use the cash method of accounting, you ordinarily deduct the cost of livestock and other items purchased for resale only in the year of sale. File taxes online free federal and state You deduct this cost, including freight charges for transporting the livestock to the farm, on Schedule F, Part I. File taxes online free federal and state However, see Chickens, seeds, and young plants , below. File taxes online free federal and state Example. File taxes online free federal and state You use the cash method of accounting. File taxes online free federal and state In 2013, you buy 50 steers you will sell in 2014. File taxes online free federal and state You cannot deduct the cost of the steers on your 2013 tax return. File taxes online free federal and state You deduct their cost on your 2014 Schedule F, Part I. File taxes online free federal and state Chickens, seeds, and young plants. File taxes online free federal and state   If you are a cash method farmer, you can deduct the cost of hens and baby chicks bought for commercial egg production, or for raising and resale, as an expense on Schedule F, Part I, in the year paid if you do it consistently and it does not distort income. File taxes online free federal and state You also can deduct the cost of seeds and young plants bought for further development and cultivation before sale as an expense on Schedule F, Part I, when paid if you do this consistently and you do not figure your income on the crop method. File taxes online free federal and state However, see Prepaid Farm Supplies , earlier, for a rule that may limit your deduction for these items. File taxes online free federal and state   If you deduct the cost of chickens, seeds, and young plants as an expense, report their entire selling price as income. File taxes online free federal and state You cannot also deduct the cost from the selling price. File taxes online free federal and state   You cannot deduct the cost of seeds and young plants for Christmas trees and timber as an expense. File taxes online free federal and state Deduct the cost of these seeds and plants through depletion allowances. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Depletion in chapter 7. File taxes online free federal and state   The cost of chickens and plants used as food for your family is never deductible. File taxes online free federal and state   Capitalize the cost of plants with a preproductive period of more than 2 years, unless you can elect out of the uniform capitalization rules. File taxes online free federal and state These rules are discussed in chapter 6. File taxes online free federal and state Example. File taxes online free federal and state You use the cash method of accounting. File taxes online free federal and state In 2013, you buy 500 baby chicks to raise for resale in 2014. File taxes online free federal and state You also buy 50 bushels of winter wheat seed in 2013 that you sow in the fall. File taxes online free federal and state Unless you previously adopted the method of deducting these costs in the year you sell the chickens or the harvested crops, you can deduct the cost of both the baby chicks and the seed wheat in 2013. File taxes online free federal and state Election to use crop method. File taxes online free federal and state   If you use the crop method, you can delay deducting the cost of seeds and young plants until you sell them. File taxes online free federal and state You must get IRS approval to use the crop method. File taxes online free federal and state If you follow this method, deduct the cost from the selling price to determine your profit on Schedule F, Part I. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Crop method under Special Methods of Accounting in chapter 2. File taxes online free federal and state Choosing a method. File taxes online free federal and state   You can adopt either the crop method or the cash method for deducting the cost in the first year you buy egg-laying hens, pullets, chicks, or seeds and young plants. File taxes online free federal and state   Although you must use the same method for egg-laying hens, pullets, and chicks, you can use a different method for seeds and young plants. File taxes online free federal and state Once you use a particular method for any of these items, use it for those items until you get IRS approval to change your method. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Change in Accounting Method in chapter 2. File taxes online free federal and state Other Expenses The following list, while not all-inclusive, shows some expenses you can deduct as other farm expenses on Schedule F, Part II. File taxes online free federal and state These expenses must be for business purposes and  (1) paid, if you use the cash method of accounting, or (2) incurred, if you use an accrual method of accounting. File taxes online free federal and state Accounting fees. File taxes online free federal and state Advertising. File taxes online free federal and state Business travel and meals. File taxes online free federal and state Commissions. File taxes online free federal and state Consultant fees. File taxes online free federal and state Crop scouting expenses. File taxes online free federal and state Dues to cooperatives. File taxes online free federal and state Educational expenses (to maintain and improve farming skills). File taxes online free federal and state Farm-related attorney fees. File taxes online free federal and state Farm magazines. File taxes online free federal and state Ginning. File taxes online free federal and state Insect sprays and dusts. File taxes online free federal and state Litter and bedding. File taxes online free federal and state Livestock fees. File taxes online free federal and state Marketing fees. File taxes online free federal and state Milk assessment. File taxes online free federal and state Recordkeeping expenses. File taxes online free federal and state Service charges. File taxes online free federal and state Small tools expected to last one year or less. File taxes online free federal and state Stamps and stationery. File taxes online free federal and state Subscriptions to professional, technical, and trade journals that deal with farming. File taxes online free federal and state Tying material and containers. File taxes online free federal and state Loan expenses. File taxes online free federal and state   You prorate and deduct loan expenses, such as legal fees and commissions, you pay to get a farm loan over the term of the loan. File taxes online free federal and state Tax preparation fees. File taxes online free federal and state   You can deduct as a farm business expense on Schedule F the cost of preparing that part of your tax return relating to your farm business. File taxes online free federal and state You may be able to deduct the remaining cost on Schedule A (Form 1040) if you itemize your deductions. File taxes online free federal and state   You also can deduct on Schedule F the amount you pay or incur in resolving tax issues relating to your farm business. File taxes online free federal and state Domestic Production Activities Deduction Generally, you are allowed a deduction for income attributable to domestic production activities. File taxes online free federal and state You can deduct 9% of the lesser of your qualified production activities income or your taxable income (adjusted gross income for individuals) for the tax year. File taxes online free federal and state Your deduction is limited to 50% of the Form W-2 wages you paid for the tax year that are properly allocable to domestic production gross receipts. File taxes online free federal and state For this purpose, Form W-2 wages do not include noncash wages paid for agricultural labor, such as compensation paid as commodities. File taxes online free federal and state Also, excluded from Form W-2 wages are wages paid to your children under age 18 and nontaxable fringe benefits. File taxes online free federal and state Income from cooperatives. File taxes online free federal and state   If you receive a patronage dividend or qualified per-unit retain allocation from a cooperative which is engaged in the manufacturing, production, growth, or extraction in whole or in significant part of any agricultural or horticultural product or in the marketing of agricultural or horticultural products, your income from the cooperative can give rise to a domestic production activities deduction. File taxes online free federal and state This deduction amount is reported on Form 1099-PATR, box 6. File taxes online free federal and state In order for you to qualify for the deduction, the cooperative is required to send you a written notice designating your portion of the domestic production activities deduction. File taxes online free federal and state More information. File taxes online free federal and state   For more information on the domestic production activities deduction, see the Instructions for Form 8903. File taxes online free federal and state Capital Expenses A capital expense is a payment, or a debt incurred, for the acquisition, improvement, or restoration of an asset that is expected to last more than one year. File taxes online free federal and state You include the expense in the basis of the asset. File taxes online free federal and state Uniform capitalization rules also require you to capitalize or include in inventory certain other expenses. File taxes online free federal and state See chapters 2  and 6. File taxes online free federal and state Capital expenses are generally not deductible, but they may be depreciable. File taxes online free federal and state However, you can elect to deduct certain capital expenses, such as the following. File taxes online free federal and state The cost of fertilizer, lime, etc. File taxes online free federal and state (See Fertilizer and Lime under Deductible Expenses , earlier. File taxes online free federal and state ) Soil and water conservation expenses. File taxes online free federal and state (See chapter 5. File taxes online free federal and state ) The cost of property that qualifies for a deduction under section 179. File taxes online free federal and state (See chapter 7. File taxes online free federal and state ) Business start-up costs. File taxes online free federal and state (See Business start-up and organizational costs , later. File taxes online free federal and state ) Forestation and reforestation costs. File taxes online free federal and state (See Forestation and reforestation costs , later. File taxes online free federal and state ) Generally, the costs of the following items, including the costs of material, hired labor, and installation, are capital expenses. File taxes online free federal and state Land and buildings. File taxes online free federal and state Additions, alterations, and improvements to buildings, etc. File taxes online free federal and state Cars and trucks. File taxes online free federal and state Equipment and machinery. File taxes online free federal and state Fences. File taxes online free federal and state Draft, breeding, sport, and dairy livestock. File taxes online free federal and state Repairs to machinery, equipment, trucks, and cars that prolong their useful life, increase their value, or adapt them to different use. File taxes online free federal and state Water wells, including drilling and equipping costs. File taxes online free federal and state Land preparation costs, such as: Clearing land for farming, Leveling and conditioning land, Purchasing and planting trees, Building irrigation canals and ditches, Laying irrigation pipes, Installing drain tile, Modifying channels or streams, Constructing earthen, masonry, or concrete tanks, reservoirs, or dams, and Building roads. File taxes online free federal and state Business start-up and organizational costs. File taxes online free federal and state   You can elect to deduct up to $5,000 of business start-up costs and $5,000 of organizational costs paid or incurred after October 22, 2004. File taxes online free federal and state The $5,000 deduction is reduced by the amount your total start-up or organizational costs exceed $50,000. File taxes online free federal and state Any remaining costs must be amortized. File taxes online free federal and state See chapter 7. File taxes online free federal and state   You elect to deduct start-up or organizational costs by claiming the deduction on the income tax return filed by the due date (including extensions) for the tax year in which the active trade or business begins. File taxes online free federal and state However, if you timely filed your return for the year without making the election, you can still make the election by filing an amended return within 6 months of the due date of the return (excluding extensions). File taxes online free federal and state Clearly indicate the election on your amended return and write “Filed pursuant to section 301. File taxes online free federal and state 9100-2” at the top of the amended return. File taxes online free federal and state File the amended return at the same address you filed the original return. File taxes online free federal and state The election applies when figuring taxable income for the current tax year and all subsequent years. File taxes online free federal and state   You can choose to forgo the election by clearly electing to capitalize your start-up or organizational costs on an income tax return filed by the due date (including extensions) for the tax year in which the active trade or business begins. File taxes online free federal and state For more information about start-up and organizational costs, see chapter 7. File taxes online free federal and state Crop production expenses. File taxes online free federal and state   The uniform capitalization rules generally require you to capitalize expenses incurred in producing plants. File taxes online free federal and state However, except for certain taxpayers required to use an accrual method of accounting, the capitalization rules do not apply to plants with a preproductive period of 2 years or less. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Uniform Capitalization Rules in chapter 6. File taxes online free federal and state Timber. File taxes online free federal and state   Capitalize the cost of acquiring timber. File taxes online free federal and state Do not include the cost of land in the cost of the timber. File taxes online free federal and state You must generally capitalize direct costs incurred in reforestation. File taxes online free federal and state However, you can elect to deduct some forestation and reforestation costs. File taxes online free federal and state See Forestation and reforestation costs next. File taxes online free federal and state Reforestation costs include the following. File taxes online free federal and state Site preparation costs, such as: Girdling, Applying herbicide, Baiting rodents, and Clearing and controlling brush. File taxes online free federal and state The cost of seed or seedlings. File taxes online free federal and state Labor and tool expenses. File taxes online free federal and state Depreciation on equipment used in planting or seeding. File taxes online free federal and state Costs incurred in replanting to replace lost seedlings. File taxes online free federal and state You can choose to capitalize certain indirect reforestation costs. File taxes online free federal and state   These capitalized amounts are your basis for the timber. File taxes online free federal and state Recover your basis when you sell the timber or take depletion allowances when you cut the timber. File taxes online free federal and state See Depletion in chapter 7. File taxes online free federal and state Forestation and reforestation costs. File taxes online free federal and state   You can elect to deduct up to $10,000 ($5,000 if married filing separately; $0 for a trust) of qualifying reforestation costs paid or incurred after October 22, 2004, for each qualified timber property. File taxes online free federal and state Any remaining costs can be amortized over an 84-month period. File taxes online free federal and state See chapter 7. File taxes online free federal and state If you make an election to deduct or amortize qualifying reforestation costs, you should create and maintain separate timber accounts for each qualified timber property. File taxes online free federal and state The accounts should include all reforestation treatments and the dates they were applied. File taxes online free federal and state Any qualified timber property that is subject to the deduction or amortization election cannot be included in any other timber account for which depletion is allowed. File taxes online free federal and state The timber account should be maintained until the timber is disposed of. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Notice 2006-47, 2006-20 I. File taxes online free federal and state R. File taxes online free federal and state B. File taxes online free federal and state 892, available at  www. File taxes online free federal and state irs. File taxes online free federal and state gov/irb/2006-20_IRB/ar11. File taxes online free federal and state html. File taxes online free federal and state   You elect to deduct forestation and reforestation costs by claiming the deduction on the income tax return filed by the due date (including extensions) for the tax year in which the expenses were paid or incurred. File taxes online free federal and state If you are filing Form T (Timber), Forest Activities Schedule, also complete Form T (Timber), Part IV. File taxes online free federal and state If you are not filing Form T (Timber), attach a statement to your return with the following information. File taxes online free federal and state The unique stand identification numbers. File taxes online free federal and state The total number of acres reforested during the tax year. File taxes online free federal and state The nature of the reforestation treatments. File taxes online free federal and state The total amounts of the qualified reforestation expenditures eligible to be amortized or deducted. File taxes online free federal and state   However, if you timely filed your return for the year without making the election, you can still make the election by filing an amended return within 6 months of the due date of the return (excluding extensions). File taxes online free federal and state Clearly indicate the election on your amended return and write “Filed pursuant to section 301. File taxes online free federal and state 9100-2” at the top of the amended return. File taxes online free federal and state File the amended return at the same address you filed the original return. File taxes online free federal and state    For more information about forestation and reforestation costs, see chapter 7. File taxes online free federal and state    For more information about timber, see Agriculture Handbook Number 731, Forest Landowners' Guide to the Federal Income Tax. File taxes online free federal and state You can view this publication on the Internet at  www. File taxes online free federal and state fs. File taxes online free federal and state fed. File taxes online free federal and state us/publications. File taxes online free federal and state Christmas tree cultivation. File taxes online free federal and state   If you are in the business of planting and cultivating Christmas trees to sell when they are more than 6 years old, capitalize expenses incurred for planting and stump culture and add them to the basis of the standing trees. File taxes online free federal and state Recover these expenses as part of your adjusted basis when you sell the standing trees or as depletion allowances when you cut the trees. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Timber Depletion under Depletion in chapter 7. File taxes online free federal and state   You can deduct as business expenses the costs incurred for shearing and basal pruning of these trees. File taxes online free federal and state Expenses incurred for silvicultural practices, such as weeding or cleaning, and noncommercial thinning are also deductible as business expenses. File taxes online free federal and state   Capitalize the cost of land improvements, such as road grading, ditching, and fire breaks, that have a useful life beyond the tax year. File taxes online free federal and state If the improvements do not have a determinable useful life, add their cost to the basis of the land. File taxes online free federal and state The cost is recovered when you sell or otherwise dispose of it. File taxes online free federal and state If the improvements have a determinable useful life, recover their cost through depreciation. File taxes online free federal and state Capitalize the cost of equipment and other depreciable assets, such as culverts and fences, to the extent you do not use them in planting Christmas trees. File taxes online free federal and state Recover these costs through depreciation. File taxes online free federal and state Nondeductible Expenses You cannot deduct personal expenses and certain other items on your tax return even if they relate to your farm. File taxes online free federal and state Personal, Living, and Family Expenses You cannot deduct certain personal, living, and family expenses as business expenses. File taxes online free federal and state These include rent and insurance premiums paid on property used as your home, life insurance premiums on yourself or your family, the cost of maintaining cars, trucks, or horses for personal use, allowances to minor children, attorneys' fees and legal expenses incurred in personal matters, and household expenses. File taxes online free federal and state Likewise, the cost of purchasing or raising produce or livestock consumed by you or your family is not deductible. File taxes online free federal and state Other Nondeductible Items You cannot deduct the following items on your tax return. File taxes online free federal and state Loss of growing plants, produce, and crops. File taxes online free federal and state   Losses of plants, produce, and crops raised for sale are generally not deductible. File taxes online free federal and state However, you may have a deductible loss on plants with a preproductive period of more than 2 years. File taxes online free federal and state See chapter 11 for more information. File taxes online free federal and state Repayment of loans. File taxes online free federal and state   You cannot deduct the repayment of a loan. File taxes online free federal and state However, if you use the proceeds of a loan for farm business expenses, you can deduct the interest on the loan. File taxes online free federal and state See Interest , earlier. File taxes online free federal and state Estate, inheritance, legacy, succession, and gift taxes. File taxes online free federal and state   You cannot deduct estate, inheritance, legacy, succession, and gift taxes. File taxes online free federal and state Loss of livestock. File taxes online free federal and state   You cannot deduct as a loss the value of raised livestock that die if you deducted the cost of raising them as an expense. File taxes online free federal and state Losses from sales or exchanges between related persons. File taxes online free federal and state   You cannot deduct losses from sales or exchanges of property between you and certain related persons, including your spouse, brother, sister, ancestor, or lineal descendant. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see chapter 2 of Publication 544, Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets. File taxes online free federal and state Cost of raising unharvested crops. File taxes online free federal and state   You cannot deduct the cost of raising unharvested crops sold with land owned more than one year if you sell both at the same time and to the same person. File taxes online free federal and state Add these costs to the basis of the land to determine the gain or loss on the sale. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Section 1231 Gains and Losses in chapter 9. File taxes online free federal and state Cost of unharvested crops bought with land. File taxes online free federal and state   Capitalize the purchase price of land, including the cost allocable to unharvested crops. File taxes online free federal and state You cannot deduct the cost of the crops at the time of purchase. File taxes online free federal and state However, you can deduct this cost in figuring net profit or loss in the tax year you sell the crops. File taxes online free federal and state Cost related to gifts. File taxes online free federal and state   You cannot deduct costs related to your gifts of agricultural products or property held for sale in the ordinary course of your business. File taxes online free federal and state The costs are not deductible in the year of the gift or any later year. File taxes online free federal and state For example, you cannot deduct the cost of raising cattle or the cost of planting and raising unharvested wheat on parcels of land given as a gift to your children. File taxes online free federal and state Club dues and membership fees. File taxes online free federal and state   Generally, you cannot deduct amounts you pay or incur for membership in any club organized for business, pleasure, recreation, or any other social purpose. File taxes online free federal and state This includes country clubs, golf and athletic clubs, hotel clubs, sporting clubs, airline clubs, and clubs operated to provide meals under circumstances generally considered to be conducive to business discussions. File taxes online free federal and state Exception. File taxes online free federal and state   The following organizations will not be treated as a club organized for business, pleasure, recreation, or other social purposes, unless one of its main purposes is to conduct entertainment activities for members or their guests or to provide members or their guests with access to entertainment facilities. File taxes online free federal and state Boards of trade. File taxes online free federal and state Business leagues. File taxes online free federal and state Chambers of commerce. File taxes online free federal and state Civic or public service organizations. File taxes online free federal and state Professional associations. File taxes online free federal and state Trade associations. File taxes online free federal and state Real estate boards. File taxes online free federal and state Fines and penalties. File taxes online free federal and state   You cannot deduct fines and penalties, except penalties for exceeding marketing quotas, discussed earlier. File taxes online free federal and state Losses From Operating a Farm If your deductible farm expenses are more than your farm income, you have a loss from the operation of your farm. File taxes online free federal and state The amount of the loss you can deduct when figuring your taxable income may be limited. File taxes online free federal and state To figure your deductible loss, you must apply the following limits. File taxes online free federal and state The at-risk limits. File taxes online free federal and state The passive activity limits. File taxes online free federal and state The following discussions explain these limits. File taxes online free federal and state If your deductible loss after applying these limits is more than your other income for the year, you may have a net operating loss. File taxes online free federal and state See Publication 536, Net Operating Losses (NOLs) for Individuals, Estates, and Trusts. File taxes online free federal and state If you do not carry on your farming activity to make a profit, your loss deduction may be limited by the not-for-profit rules. File taxes online free federal and state See Not-for-Profit Farming, later. File taxes online free federal and state At-Risk Limits The at-risk rules limit your deduction for losses from most business or income-producing activities, including farming. File taxes online free federal and state These rules limit the losses you can deduct when figuring your taxable income. File taxes online free federal and state The deductible loss from an activity is limited to the amount you have at risk in the activity. File taxes online free federal and state You are at risk in any activity for: The money and adjusted basis of property you contribute to the activity, and Amounts you borrow for use in the activity if: You are personally liable for repayment, or You pledge property (other than property used in the activity) as security for the loan. File taxes online free federal and state You are not at risk, however, for amounts you borrow for use in a farming activity from a person who has an interest in the activity (other than as a creditor) or a person related to someone (other than you) having such an interest. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Publication 925. File taxes online free federal and state Passive Activity Limits A passive activity is generally any activity involving the conduct of any trade or business in which you do not materially participate. File taxes online free federal and state Generally, a rental activity is a passive activity. File taxes online free federal and state If you have a passive activity, special rules limit the loss you can deduct in the tax year. File taxes online free federal and state You generally can deduct losses from passive activities only up to income from passive activities. File taxes online free federal and state Credits are similarly limited. File taxes online free federal and state For more information, see Publication 925. File taxes online free federal and state Excess Farm Loss Limit For tax years beginning after 2009, excess farm losses (defined below) are not deductible if you received certain applicable subsidies. File taxes online free federal and state This limit applies to any farming businesses, other than a C corporation, that received a direct or counter-cyclical payment (or any payment in lieu of such payments) under title I of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, or from a Commodity Credit Corporation loan. File taxes online free federal and state Your farming losses are limited to the greater of: $300,000 ($150,000 for a married person filing a separate return), or The total net farm income for the prior five tax years. File taxes online free federal and state Farming losses from casualty losses or losses by reason of disease or drought are disregarded for purposes of figuring this limitation. File taxes online free federal and state Also, the limitation on farm losses should be applied before the passive activity loss rules are applied. File taxes online free federal and state For more details, see IRC section 461(j). File taxes online free federal and state Excess farm loss. File taxes online free federal and state   Generally, an excess farm loss is the amount of your farming loss that exceeds the amount of the limitation (as described above). File taxes online free federal and state This loss can be determined by taking the excess of: The total deductions for the tax year from your farming businesses, over The total gross income or gain for the tax year from your farming businesses, plus the greater of: $300,000 ($150,000 for a married person filing a separate return), or The excess (if any) of the total gross income or gain from your farming businesses for the prior five tax years over the total deductions from your farming businesses for the prior five tax years. File taxes online free federal and state   Excess farm losses that are disallowed can be carried forward to the next tax year and treated as a deduction from that year. File taxes online free federal and state Not-for-Profit Farming If you operate a farm for profit, you can deduct all the ordinary and necessary expenses of carrying on the business of farming on Schedule F. File taxes online free federal and state However, if you do not carry on your farming activity, or other activity you engage or invest in, to make a profit, you report the income from the activity on Form 1040, line 21, and you can deduct expenses of carrying on the activity only if you itemize your deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040). File taxes online free federal and state Also, there is a limit on the deductions you can take. File taxes online free federal and state You cannot use a loss from that activity to offset income from other activities. File taxes online free federal and state Activities you do as a hobby, or mainly for sport or recreation, come under this limit. File taxes online free federal and state An investment activity intended only to produce tax losses for the investors also comes under this limit. File taxes online free federal and state The limit on not-for-profit losses applies to individuals, partnerships, estates, trusts, and S corporations. File taxes online free federal and state It does not apply to corporations other than S corporations. File taxes online free federal and state In determining whether you are carrying on your farming activity for profit, all the facts are taken into account. File taxes online free federal and state No one factor alone is decisive. File taxes online free federal and state Among the factors to consider are whether: You operate your farm in a businesslike manner; The time and effort you spend on farming indicate you intend to make it profitable; You depend on income from farming for your livelihood; Your losses are due to circumstances beyond your control or are normal in the start-up phase of farming; You change your methods of operation in an attempt to improve profitability; You, or your advisors, have the knowledge needed to carry on the farming activity as a successful business; You were successful in making a profit in similar activities in the past; You make a profit from farming in some years and the amount of profit you make; and You can expect to make a future profit from the appreciation of the assets used in the farming activity. File taxes online free federal and state Presumption of profit. File taxes online free federal and state   Your farming or other activity is presumed carried on for profit if it produced a profit in at least 3 of the last 5 tax years, including the current year. File taxes online free federal and state Activities that consist primarily of breeding, training, showing, or racing horses are presumed carried on for profit if they produced a profit in at least 2 of the last 7 tax years, including the current year. File taxes online free federal and state The activity must be substantially the same for each year within this period. File taxes online free federal and state You have a profit when the gross income from an activity is more than the deductions for it. File taxes online free federal and state   If a taxpayer dies before the end of the 5-year (or 7-year) period, the period ends on the date of the taxpayer's death. File taxes online free federal and state   If your business or investment activity passes this 3- (or 2-) years-of-profit test, presume it is carried on for profit. File taxes online free federal and state This means the limits discussed here do not apply. File taxes online free federal and state You can take all your business deductions from the activity on Schedule F, even for the years that you have a loss. File taxes online free federal and state You can rely on this presumption in every case, unless the IRS shows it is not valid. File taxes online free federal and state   If you fail the 3- (or 2-) years-of-profit test, you still may be considered to operate your farm for profit by considering the factors listed earlier. File taxes online free federal and state Using the presumption later. File taxes online free federal and state   If you are starting out in farming and do not have 3 (or 2) years showing a profit, you may want to take advantage of this presumption later, after you have had the 5 (or 7) years of experience allowed by the test. File taxes online free federal and state   You can choose to do this by filing Form 5213. File taxes online free federal and state Filing this form postpones any determination that your farming activity is not carried on for profit until 5 (or 7) years have passed since you first started farming. File taxes online free federal and state You must file Form 5213 within 3 years after the due date of your return for the year in which you first carried on the activity, or, if earlier, within 60 days after receiving a written notice from the IRS proposing to disallow deductions attributable to the activity. File taxes online free federal and state   The benefit gained by making this choice is that the IRS will not immediately question whether your farming activity is engaged in for profit. File taxes online free federal and state Accordingly, it will not limit your deductions. File taxes online free federal and state Rather, you will gain time to earn a profit in 3 (or 2) out of the first 5 (or 7) years you carry on the farming activity. File taxes online free federal and state If you show 3 (or 2) years of profit at the end of this period, your deductions are not limited under these rules. File taxes online free federal and state If you do not have 3 (or 2) years of profit (and cannot otherwise show that you operated your farm for profit), the limit applies retroactively to any year in the 5-year (or 7-year) period with a loss. File taxes online free federal and state   Filing Form 5213 automatically extends the period of limitations on any year