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Back taxes help Publication 559 - Main Content Table of Contents Personal RepresentativeDuties Fees Received by Personal Representatives Final Income Tax Return for Decedent—Form 1040Name, Address, and Signature When and Where To File Filing Requirements Income To Include Exemptions and Deductions Credits, Other Taxes, and Payments Tax Forgiveness for Armed Forces Members, Victims of Terrorism, and Astronauts Filing Reminders Other Tax InformationTax Benefits for Survivors Income in Respect of a Decedent Deductions in Respect of a Decedent Estate Tax Deduction Gifts, Insurance, and Inheritances Other Items of Income Income Tax Return of an Estate— Form 1041Filing Requirements Income To Include Exemption and Deductions Credits, Tax, and Payments Name, Address, and Signature When and Where To File Distributions to BeneficiariesIncome That Must Be Distributed Currently Other Amounts Distributed Discharge of a Legal Obligation Character of Distributions How and When To Report Bequest Termination of Estate Estate and Gift TaxesApplicable Credit Amount Gift Tax Estate Tax Generation-Skipping Transfer Tax Comprehensive ExampleFinal Return for Decedent—Form 1040 Income Tax Return of an Estate—Form 1041 How To Get Tax HelpLow Income Taxpayer Clinics Personal Representative A personal representative of an estate is an executor, administrator, or anyone who is in charge of the decedent's property. Back taxes help Generally, an executor (or executrix) is named in a decedent's will to administer the estate and distribute properties as the decedent has directed. Back taxes help An administrator (or administratrix) is usually appointed by the court if no will exists, if no executor was named in the will, or if the named executor cannot or will not serve. Back taxes help In general, an executor and an administrator perform the same duties and have the same responsibilities. Back taxes help For estate tax purposes, if there is no executor or administrator appointed, qualified, and acting within the United States, the term “executor” includes anyone in actual or constructive possession of any property of the decedent. Back taxes help It includes, among others, the decedent's agents and representatives; safe-deposit companies, warehouse companies, and other custodians of property in this country; brokers holding securities of the decedent as collateral; and the debtors of the decedent who are in this country. Back taxes help Duties The primary duties of a personal representative are to collect all the decedent's assets, pay his or her creditors, and distribute the remaining assets to the heirs or other beneficiaries. Back taxes help The personal representative also must perform the following duties. Back taxes help Apply for an employer identification number (EIN) for the estate. Back taxes help File all tax returns, including income, estate and gift tax returns, when due. Back taxes help Pay the tax determined up to the date of discharge from duties. Back taxes help Other duties of the personal representative in federal tax matters are discussed in other sections of this publication. Back taxes help If any beneficiary is a nonresident alien, see Publication 515, Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Entities, for information on the personal representative's duties as a withholding agent. Back taxes help Penalty. Back taxes help   There is a penalty for failure to file a tax return when due unless the failure is due to reasonable cause. Back taxes help Reliance on an agent (attorney, accountant, etc. Back taxes help ) is not reasonable cause for late filing. Back taxes help It is the personal representative's duty to file the returns for the decedent and the estate when due. Back taxes help Identification number. Back taxes help   The first action you should take if you are the personal representative for the decedent is to apply for an EIN for the estate. Back taxes help You should apply for this number as soon as possible because you need to enter it on returns, statements, and other documents you file concerning the estate. Back taxes help You also must give the number to payers of interest and dividends and other payers who must file a return concerning the estate. Back taxes help   You can get an EIN by applying online at www. Back taxes help irs. Back taxes help gov (click on "Apply for an EIN Online" under the Tools heading). Back taxes help Generally, if you apply online, you will receive your EIN immediately upon completing the application. Back taxes help You can also apply using Form SS-4, Application for Employer Identification Number. Back taxes help Generally, if you apply by mail, it takes about 4 weeks to get your EIN. Back taxes help See the form instructions for other ways to apply. Back taxes help   Payers of interest and dividends report amounts on Forms 1099 using the identification number of the person to whom the account is payable. Back taxes help After a decedent's death, Forms 1099 must reflect the identification number of the estate or beneficiary to whom the amounts are payable. Back taxes help As the personal representative handling the estate, you must furnish this identification number to the payer. Back taxes help For example, if interest is payable to the estate, the estate's EIN must be provided to the payer and used to report the interest on Form 1099-INT, Interest Income. Back taxes help If the interest is payable to a surviving joint owner, the survivor's identification number, such as an SSN or ITIN, must be provided to the payer and used to report the interest. Back taxes help   If the estate or a survivor may receive interest or dividends after you inform the payer of the decedent's death, the payer should give you (or the survivor) a Form W-9, Request for Taxpayer Identification Number and Certification (or a similar substitute form). Back taxes help Complete this form to inform the payer of the estate's (or if completed by the survivor, the survivor's) identification number and return it to the payer. Back taxes help    Do not use the deceased individual's identifying number to file an individual income tax return after the decedent's final tax return. Back taxes help Also do not use it to make estimated tax payments for a tax year after the year of death. Back taxes help Penalty. Back taxes help   If you do not include the EIN or the taxpayer identification number of another person where it is required on a return, statement, or other document, you are liable for a penalty for each failure, unless you can show reasonable cause. Back taxes help You also are liable for a penalty if you do not give the taxpayer identification number of another person when required on a return, statement, or other document. Back taxes help Notice of fiduciary relationship. Back taxes help   The term fiduciary means any person acting for another person. Back taxes help It applies to persons who have positions of trust on behalf of others. Back taxes help A personal representative for a decedent's estate is a fiduciary. Back taxes help Form 56. Back taxes help   If you are appointed to act in a fiduciary capacity for another, you must file a written notice with the IRS stating this. Back taxes help Form 56, Notice Concerning Fiduciary Relationship, is used for this purpose. Back taxes help See the Instructions for Form 56 for filing requirements and other information. Back taxes help   File Form 56 as soon as all the necessary information (including the EIN) is available. Back taxes help It notifies the IRS that you, as the fiduciary, are assuming the powers, rights, duties, and privileges of the decedent. Back taxes help The notice remains in effect until you notify the IRS (by filing another Form 56) that your fiduciary relationship with the estate has terminated. Back taxes help Termination of fiduciary relationship. Back taxes help   Form 56 should also be filed to notify the IRS if your fiduciary relationship is terminated or when a successor fiduciary is appointed if the estate has not been terminated. Back taxes help See Form 56 and its instructions for more information. Back taxes help   At the time of termination of the fiduciary relationship, you may want to file Form 4810, Request for Prompt Assessment Under Internal Revenue Code Section 6501(d), and Form 5495, Request for Discharge From Personal Liability Under Internal Revenue Code Section 2204 or 6905, to wind up your duties as fiduciary. Back taxes help See below for a discussion of these forms. Back taxes help Request for prompt assessment (charge) of tax. Back taxes help   The IRS ordinarily has 3 years from the date an income tax return is filed, or its due date, whichever is later, to charge any additional tax due. Back taxes help However, as a personal representative, you may request a prompt assessment of tax after the return has been filed. Back taxes help This reduces the time for making the assessment to 18 months from the date the written request for prompt assessment was received. Back taxes help This request can be made for any tax return (except the estate tax return) of the decedent or the decedent's estate. Back taxes help This may permit a quicker settlement of the tax liability of the estate and an earlier final distribution of the assets to the beneficiaries. Back taxes help Form 4810. Back taxes help   Form 4810 can be used for making this request. Back taxes help It must be filed separately from any other document. Back taxes help   As the personal representative for the decedent's estate, you are responsible for any additional taxes that may be due. Back taxes help You can request prompt assessment of any of the decedent's taxes (other than federal estate taxes) for any years for which the statutory period for assessment is open. Back taxes help This applies even though the returns were filed before the decedent's death. Back taxes help Failure to report income. Back taxes help   If you or the decedent failed to report substantial amounts of gross income (more than 25% of the gross income reported on the return) or filed a false or fraudulent return, your request for prompt assessment will not shorten the period during which the IRS may assess the additional tax. Back taxes help However, such a request may relieve you of personal liability for the tax if you did not have knowledge of the unpaid tax. Back taxes help Request for discharge from personal liability for tax. Back taxes help   An executor can make a request for discharge from personal liability for a decedent's income, gift, and estate taxes. Back taxes help The request must be made after the returns for those taxes are filed. Back taxes help To make the request, file Form 5495. Back taxes help For this purpose, an executor is an executor or administrator that is appointed, qualified, and acting within the United States. Back taxes help   Within 9 months after receipt of the request, the IRS will notify the executor of the amount of taxes due. Back taxes help If this amount is paid, the executor will be discharged from personal liability for any future deficiencies. Back taxes help If the IRS has not notified the executor, he or she will be discharged from personal liability at the end of the 9-month period. Back taxes help    Even if the executor is discharged from personal liability, the IRS will still be able to assess tax deficiencies against the executor to the extent he or she still has any of the decedent's property. Back taxes help Insolvent estate. Back taxes help   Generally, if a decedent's estate is insufficient to pay all the decedent's debts, the debts due to the United States must be paid first. Back taxes help Both the decedent's federal income tax liabilities at the time of death and the estate's income tax liability are debts due to the United States. Back taxes help The personal representative of an insolvent estate is personally responsible for any tax liability of the decedent or of the estate if he or she had notice of such tax obligations or failed to exercise due care in determining if such obligations existed before distribution of the estate's assets and before being discharged from duties. Back taxes help The extent of such personal responsibility is the amount of any other payments made before paying the debts due to the United States, except where such other debt paid has priority over the debts due to the United States. Back taxes help Income tax liabilities need not be formally assessed for the personal representative to be liable if he or she was aware or should have been aware of their existence. Back taxes help Fees Received by Personal Representatives All personal representatives must include fees paid to them from an estate in their gross income. Back taxes help If you are not in the trade or business of being an executor (for instance, you are the executor of a friend's or relative's estate), report these fees on your Form 1040, line 21. Back taxes help If you are in the trade or business of being an executor, report fees received from the estate as self-employment income on Schedule C or Schedule C-EZ of your Form 1040. Back taxes help If the estate operates a trade or business and you, as executor, actively participate in the trade or business while fulfilling your duties, any fees you receive related to the operation of the trade or business must be reported as self-employment income on Schedule C (or Schedule C-EZ) of your Form 1040. Back taxes help Final Income Tax Return for Decedent—Form 1040 The personal representative (defined earlier) must file the final income tax return (Form 1040) of the decedent for the year of death and any returns not filed for preceding years. Back taxes help A surviving spouse, under certain circumstances, may have to file the returns for the decedent. Back taxes help See Joint Return, later. Back taxes help Return for preceding year. Back taxes help   If an individual died after the close of the tax year, but before the return for that year was filed, the return for the year just closed will not be the final return. Back taxes help The return for that year will be a regular return and the personal representative must file it. Back taxes help Example. Back taxes help Samantha Smith died on March 21, 2013, before filing her 2012 tax return. Back taxes help Her personal representative must file her 2012 return by April 15, 2013. Back taxes help Her final tax return covering the period from January 1, 2013, to March 20, 2013, is due April 15, 2014. Back taxes help Name, Address, and Signature Write the word “DECEASED,” the decedent's name, and the date of death across the top of the tax return. Back taxes help If filing a joint return, write the name and address of the decedent and the surviving spouse in the name and address fields. Back taxes help If a joint return is not being filed, write the decedent's name in the name field and the personal representative's name and address in the address field. Back taxes help Third party designee. Back taxes help   You can check the “Yes” box in the Third Party Designee area on page 2 of the return to authorize the IRS to discuss the return with a friend, family member, or any other person you choose. Back taxes help This allows the IRS to call the person you identified as the designee to answer any questions that may arise during the processing of the return. Back taxes help It also allows the designee to perform certain actions. Back taxes help See the Instructions for Form 1040 for details. Back taxes help Signature. Back taxes help   If a personal representative has been appointed, that person must sign the return. Back taxes help If it is a joint return, the surviving spouse must also sign it. Back taxes help If no personal representative has been appointed, the surviving spouse (on a joint return) signs the return and writes in the signature area “Filing as surviving spouse. Back taxes help ” If no personal representative has been appointed and if there is no surviving spouse, the person in charge of the decedent's property must file and sign the return as “personal representative. Back taxes help ” Paid preparer. Back taxes help   If you pay someone to prepare, assist in preparing, or review the tax return, that person must sign the return and fill in the other blanks in the Paid Preparer Use Only area of the return. Back taxes help See the Form 1040 instructions for details. Back taxes help When and Where To File The final income tax return is due at the same time the decedent's return would have been due had death not occurred. Back taxes help A final return for a decedent who was a calendar year taxpayer is generally due on April 15 following the year of death, regardless of when during that year death occurred. Back taxes help However, when the due date falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, the return is filed timely if filed by the next business day. Back taxes help The tax return must be prepared for the year of death regardless of when during the year death occurred. Back taxes help Generally, you must file the final income tax return of the decedent with the Internal Revenue Service Center for the place where you live. Back taxes help A tax return for a decedent can be electronically filed. Back taxes help A personal representative may also obtain an income tax filing extension on behalf of a decedent. Back taxes help Filing Requirements The gross income, age, and filing status of a decedent generally determine whether a return must be filed. Back taxes help Gross income is all income received by an individual from any source in the form of money, goods, property, and services that is not tax-exempt. Back taxes help It includes gross receipts from self-employment, but if the business involves manufacturing, merchandising, or mining, subtract any cost of goods sold. Back taxes help In general, filing status depends on whether the decedent was considered single or married at the time of death. Back taxes help See the income tax return instructions or Publication 501, Exemptions, Standard Deduction, and Filing Information. Back taxes help Refund A return must be filed to obtain a refund if tax was withheld from salaries, wages, pensions, or annuities, or if estimated tax was paid, even if a return is not otherwise required to be filed. Back taxes help Also, the decedent may be entitled to other credits that result in a refund. Back taxes help These advance payments of tax and credits are discussed later under Credits, Other Taxes, and Payments. Back taxes help Form 1310, Statement of Person Claiming Refund Due a Deceased Taxpayer. Back taxes help   Form 1310 does not have to be filed if you are claiming a refund and you are: A surviving spouse filing an original or amended joint return with the decedent, or A court-appointed or certified personal representative filing the decedent’s original return and a copy of the court certificate showing your appointment is attached to the return. Back taxes help   If the personal representative is filing a claim for refund on Form 1040X, Amended U. Back taxes help S. Back taxes help Individual Income Tax Return, or Form 843, Claim for Refund and Request for Abatement, and the court certificate has already been filed with the IRS, attach Form 1310 and write “Certificate Previously Filed” at the bottom of the form. Back taxes help Example. Back taxes help Edward Green died before filing his tax return. Back taxes help You were appointed the personal representative for Edward's estate, and you file his Form 1040 showing a refund due. Back taxes help You do not need Form 1310 to claim the refund if you attach a copy of the court certificate showing you were appointed the personal representative. Back taxes help    If you are a surviving spouse and you receive a tax refund check in both your name and your deceased spouse's name, you can have the check reissued in your name alone. Back taxes help Return the joint-name check marked “VOID” to your local IRS office or the service center where you mailed your return, along with a written request for reissuance of the refund check. Back taxes help A new check will be issued in your name and mailed to you. Back taxes help Death certificate. Back taxes help   When filing the decedent's final income tax return, do not attach the death certificate or other proof of death to the final return. Back taxes help Instead, keep it for your records and provide it if requested. Back taxes help Nonresident Alien If the decedent was a nonresident alien who would have had to file Form 1040NR, U. Back taxes help S. Back taxes help Nonresident Alien Income Tax Return, you must file that form for the decedent's final tax year. Back taxes help See the Instructions for Form 1040NR for the filing requirements, due date, and where to file. Back taxes help Joint Return Generally, the personal representative and the surviving spouse can file a joint return for the decedent and the surviving spouse. Back taxes help However, the surviving spouse alone can file the joint return if no personal representative has been appointed before the due date for filing the final joint return for the year of death. Back taxes help This also applies to the return for the preceding year if the decedent died after the close of the preceding tax year and before filing the return for that year. Back taxes help The income of the decedent that was includible on his or her return for the year up to the date of death (see Income To Include, later) and the income of the surviving spouse for the entire year must be included in the final joint return. Back taxes help A final joint return with the decedent cannot be filed if the surviving spouse remarried before the end of the year of the decedent's death. Back taxes help The filing status of the decedent in this instance is married filing a separate return. Back taxes help For information about tax benefits to which a surviving spouse may be entitled, see Tax Benefits for Survivors, later, under Other Tax Information. Back taxes help Personal representative may revoke joint return election. Back taxes help   A court-appointed personal representative may revoke an election to file a joint return previously made by the surviving spouse alone. Back taxes help This is done by filing a separate return for the decedent within one year from the due date of the return (including any extensions). Back taxes help The joint return made by the surviving spouse will then be regarded as the separate return of that spouse by excluding the decedent's items and refiguring the tax liability. Back taxes help Relief from joint liability. Back taxes help   In some cases, one spouse may be relieved of joint liability for tax, interest, and penalties on a joint return for items of the other spouse that were incorrectly reported on the joint return. Back taxes help If the decedent qualified for this relief while alive, the personal representative can pursue an existing request, or file a request, for relief from joint liability. Back taxes help For information on requesting this relief, see Publication 971, Innocent Spouse Relief. Back taxes help Income To Include The decedent's income includible on the final return is generally determined as if the person were still alive except that the taxable period is usually shorter because it ends on the date of death. Back taxes help The method of accounting regularly used by the decedent before death also determines the income includible on the final return. Back taxes help This section explains how some types of income are reported on the final return. Back taxes help For more information about accounting methods, see Publication 538, Accounting Periods and Methods. Back taxes help Cash Method If the decedent accounted for income under the cash method, only those items actually or constructively received before death are included on the final return. Back taxes help Constructive receipt of income. Back taxes help   Interest from coupons on the decedent's bonds is constructively received by the decedent if the coupons matured in the decedent's final tax year, but had not been cashed. Back taxes help Include the interest income on the final return. Back taxes help   Generally, a dividend is considered constructively received if it was available for use by the decedent without restriction. Back taxes help If the corporation customarily mailed its dividend checks, the dividend was includible when received. Back taxes help If the individual died between the time the dividend was declared and the time it was received in the mail, the decedent did not constructively receive it before death. Back taxes help Do not include the dividend in the final return. Back taxes help Accrual Method Generally, under an accrual method of accounting, income is reported when earned. Back taxes help If the decedent used an accrual method, only the income items normally accrued before death are included on the final return. Back taxes help Interest and Dividend Income (Forms 1099) Form(s) 1099 reporting interest and dividends earned by the decedent before death should be received and the amounts included on the decedent's final return. Back taxes help A separate Form 1099 should show the interest and dividends earned after the date of the decedent's death and paid to the estate or other recipient that must include those amounts on its return. Back taxes help You can request corrected Forms 1099 if these forms do not properly reflect the right recipient or amounts. Back taxes help For example, a Form 1099-INT, reporting interest payable to the decedent, may include income that should be reported on the final income tax return of the decedent, as well as income that the estate or other recipient should report, either as income earned after death or as income in respect of the decedent (discussed later). Back taxes help For income earned after death, you should ask the payer for a Form 1099 that properly identifies the recipient (by name and identification number) and the proper amount. Back taxes help If that is not possible, or if the form includes an amount that represents income in respect of the decedent, report the interest as shown next under How to report. Back taxes help See U. Back taxes help S. Back taxes help savings bonds acquired from decedent under Income in Respect of a Decedent, later, for information on savings bond interest that may have to be reported on the final return. Back taxes help How to report. Back taxes help   If you are preparing the decedent's final return and you have received a Form 1099-INT for the decedent that includes amounts belonging to the decedent and to another recipient (the decedent's estate or another beneficiary), report the total interest shown on Form 1099-INT on Schedule B (Form 1040A or 1040), Interest and Ordinary Dividends. Back taxes help Next, enter a subtotal of the interest shown on Forms 1099, and the interest reportable from other sources for which you did not receive Forms 1099. Back taxes help Then, show any interest (including any interest you receive as a nominee) belonging to another recipient separately and subtract it from the subtotal. Back taxes help Identify the amount of this adjustment as “Nominee Distribution” or other appropriate designation. Back taxes help   Report dividend income for which you received a Form 1099-DIV, Dividends and Distributions, on the appropriate schedule using the same procedure. Back taxes help    Note. Back taxes help If the decedent received amounts as a nominee, you must give the actual owner a Form 1099, unless the owner is the decedent's spouse. Back taxes help See General Instructions for Certain Information Returns (Forms 1097, 1098, 1099, 3921, 3922, 5498, and W-2G) for more information on filing Forms 1099. Back taxes help Partnership Income The death of a partner closes the partnership's tax year for that partner. Back taxes help Generally, it does not close the partnership's tax year for the remaining partners. Back taxes help The decedent's distributive share of partnership items must be figured as if the partnership's tax year ended on the date the partner died. Back taxes help To avoid an interim closing of the partnership books, the partners can agree to estimate the decedent's distributive share by prorating the amounts the partner would have included for the entire partnership tax year. Back taxes help On the decedent's final return, include the decedent's distributive share of partnership items for the following periods. Back taxes help The partnership's tax year that ended within or with the decedent's final tax year (the year ending on the date of death). Back taxes help The period, if any, from the end of the partnership's tax year in (1) to the decedent's date of death. Back taxes help Example. Back taxes help Mary Smith was a partner in XYZ partnership and reported her income on a tax year ending December 31. Back taxes help The partnership uses a tax year ending June 30. Back taxes help Mary died August 31, 2013, and her estate established its tax year through August 31. Back taxes help The distributive share of partnership items based on the decedent's partnership interest is reported as follows. Back taxes help Final Return for the Decedent—January 1 through August 31, 2013, includes XYZ partnership items from (a) the partnership tax year ending June 30, 2013, and (b) the partnership tax year beginning July 1, 2013, and ending August 31, 2013 (the date of death). Back taxes help Income Tax Return of the Estate—September 1, 2013, through August 31, 2014, includes XYZ partnership items for the period September 1, 2013, through June 30, 2014. Back taxes help S Corporation Income If the decedent was a shareholder in an S corporation, include on the final return the decedent's share of the S corporation's items of income, loss, deduction, and credit for the following periods. Back taxes help The corporation's tax year that ended within or with the decedent's final tax year (the year ending on the date of death). Back taxes help The period, if any, from the end of the corporation's tax year in (1) to the decedent's date of death. Back taxes help Self-Employment Income Include self-employment income actually or constructively received or accrued, depending on the decedent's accounting method. Back taxes help For self-employment tax purposes only, the decedent's self-employment income will include the decedent's distributive share of a partnership's income or loss through the end of the month in which death occurred. Back taxes help For this purpose, the partnership's income or loss is considered to be earned ratably over the partnership's tax year. Back taxes help Community Income If the decedent was married and domiciled in a community property state, half of the income received and half of the expenses paid during the decedent's tax year by either the decedent or spouse may be considered to be the income and expenses of the other. Back taxes help For more information, see Publication 555, Community Property. Back taxes help HSA, Archer MSA, or Medicare Advantage MSA The treatment of an HSA (health savings account), an Archer MSA (medical savings account), or a Medicare Advantage MSA at the death of the account holder, depends on who acquires the interest in the account. Back taxes help If the decedent's estate acquires the interest, the fair market value (FMV) of the assets in the account on the date of death is included in income on the decedent's final return. Back taxes help The estate tax deduction, discussed later, does not apply to this amount. Back taxes help If a beneficiary acquires the interest, see the discussion under Income in Respect of a Decedent, later. Back taxes help For other information on HSAs, Archer MSAs, or Medicare Advantage MSAs, see Publication 969, Health Savings Accounts and Other Tax-Favored Health Plans. Back taxes help Coverdell Education Savings Account (ESA) Generally, the balance in a Coverdell ESA must be distributed within 30 days after the individual for whom the account was established reaches age 30, or dies, whichever is earlier. Back taxes help The treatment of the Coverdell ESA at the death of an individual under age 30 depends on who acquires the interest in the account. Back taxes help If the decedent's estate acquires the interest, the earnings on the account must be included on the final income tax return of the decedent. Back taxes help The estate tax deduction, discussed later, does not apply to this amount. Back taxes help If a beneficiary acquires the interest, see the discussion under Income in Respect of a Decedent, later. Back taxes help The age 30 limitation does not apply if the individual for whom the account was established or the beneficiary that acquires the account is an individual with special needs. Back taxes help This includes an individual who, because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition (including a learning disability), requires additional time to complete his or her education. Back taxes help For more information on Coverdell ESAs, see Publication 970, Tax Benefits for Education. Back taxes help Accelerated Death Benefits Accelerated death benefits are amounts received under a life insurance contract before the death of the insured individual. Back taxes help These benefits also include amounts received on the sale or assignment of the contract to a viatical settlement provider. Back taxes help Generally, if the decedent received accelerated death benefits on the life of a terminally or chronically ill individual, whether on his or her own life or on the life of another person, those benefits are not included in the decedent's income. Back taxes help For more information, see the discussion under Gifts, Insurance, and Inheritances under Other Tax Information, later. Back taxes help Exemptions and Deductions Generally, the rules for exemptions and deductions allowed to an individual also apply to the decedent's final income tax return. Back taxes help Show on the final return deductible items the decedent paid (or accrued, if the decedent reported deductions on an accrual method) before death. Back taxes help This section contains a detailed discussion of medical expenses because the tax treatment of the decedent's medical expenses can be different. Back taxes help See Medical Expenses, later. Back taxes help Exemptions You can claim the decedent's personal exemption on the final income tax return. Back taxes help If the decedent was another person's dependent (for example, a parent's), you cannot claim the personal exemption on the decedent's final return. Back taxes help Standard Deduction If you do not itemize deductions on the final return, the full amount of the appropriate standard deduction is allowed regardless of the date of death. Back taxes help For information on the appropriate standard deduction, see the Form 1040 income tax return instructions or Publication 501. Back taxes help Medical Expenses Medical expenses paid before death by the decedent are deductible, subject to limits, on the final income tax return if deductions are itemized. Back taxes help This includes expenses for the decedent, as well as for the decedent's spouse and dependents. Back taxes help Beginning in 2013, medical expenses exceeding 10% of adjusted gross income (AGI) may be deducted, unless the decedent or their spouse is age 65 or older. Back taxes help In that case medical expenses exceeding 7. Back taxes help 5% of AGI may be deducted. Back taxes help Qualified medical expenses are not deductible if paid with a tax-free distribution from an HSA or an Archer MSA. Back taxes help Election for decedent's expenses. Back taxes help   Medical expenses not paid before death are liabilities of the estate and are shown on the federal estate tax return (Form 706). Back taxes help However, if medical expenses for the decedent are paid out of the estate during the 1-year period beginning with the day after death, you can elect to treat all or part of the expenses as paid by the decedent at the time they were incurred. Back taxes help   If you make the election, you can claim all or part of the expenses on the decedent's income tax return (if deductions are itemized) rather than on the federal estate tax return (Form 706). Back taxes help You can deduct expenses incurred in the year of death on the final income tax return. Back taxes help You should file an amended return (Form 1040X) for medical expenses incurred in an earlier year, unless the statutory period for filing a claim for that year has expired. Back taxes help   The amount you can deduct on the income tax return is the amount above 10% of adjusted gross income (or 7. Back taxes help 5% of adjusted gross income if the decedent or the decedent's spouse was born before January 2, 1949). Back taxes help Amounts not deductible because of this percentage cannot be claimed on the federal estate tax return. Back taxes help Making the election. Back taxes help   You make the election by attaching a statement, in duplicate, to the decedent's income tax return or amended return. Back taxes help The statement must state that you have not claimed the amount as an estate tax deduction, and that the estate waives the right to claim the amount as a deduction. Back taxes help This election applies only to expenses incurred for the decedent, not to expenses incurred to provide medical care for dependents. Back taxes help Example. Back taxes help Richard Brown used the cash method of accounting and filed his income tax return on a calendar year basis. Back taxes help Richard died on June 1, 2013, at the age of 78, after incurring $800 in medical expenses. Back taxes help Of that amount, $500 was incurred in 2012 and $300 was incurred in 2013. Back taxes help Richard itemized his deductions when he filed his 2012 income tax return. Back taxes help The personal representative of the estate paid the entire $800 liability in August 2013. Back taxes help The personal representative may file an amended return (Form 1040X) for 2012 claiming the $500 medical expense as a deduction, subject to the 7. Back taxes help 5% limit. Back taxes help The $300 of expenses incurred in 2013 can be deducted on the final income tax return if deductions are itemized, subject to the 7. Back taxes help 5% limit. Back taxes help The personal representative must file a statement in duplicate with each return stating that these amounts have not been claimed on the federal estate tax return (Form 706), and waiving the right to claim such a deduction on Form 706 in the future. Back taxes help Medical expenses not paid by estate. Back taxes help   If you paid medical expenses for your deceased spouse or dependent, claim the expenses on your tax return for the year in which you paid them, whether they are paid before or after the decedent's death. Back taxes help If the decedent was a child of divorced or separated parents, the medical expenses can usually be claimed by both the custodial and noncustodial parent to the extent paid by that parent during the year. Back taxes help Insurance reimbursements. Back taxes help   Insurance reimbursements of previously deducted medical expenses due a decedent at the time of death and later received by the decedent's estate are includible in the income tax return of the estate (Form 1041) for the year the reimbursements are received. Back taxes help The reimbursements are also includible in the decedent's gross estate. Back taxes help No deduction for funeral expenses can be taken on the final Form 1040 of a decedent. Back taxes help These expenses may be deductible for estate tax purposes on Form 706. Back taxes help Deduction for Losses A decedent's net operating loss deduction from a prior year and any capital losses (including capital loss carryovers) can be deducted only on the decedent's final income tax return. Back taxes help A net operating loss on the decedent's final income tax return can be carried back to prior years. Back taxes help (See Publication 536, Net Operating Losses (NOLs) for Individuals, Estates, and Trusts. Back taxes help ) You cannot deduct any unused net operating loss or capital loss on the estate's income tax return. Back taxes help At-risk loss limits. Back taxes help   Special at-risk rules apply to most activities that are engaged in as a trade or business or for the production of income. Back taxes help   These rules limit the deductible loss to the amount which the individual was considered at-risk in the activity. Back taxes help An individual generally will be considered at-risk to the extent of the money and the adjusted basis of property that he or she contributed to the activity and certain amounts the individual borrowed for use in the activity. Back taxes help An individual will be considered at-risk for amounts borrowed only if he or she was personally liable for the repayment or if the amounts borrowed were secured by property other than that used in the activity. Back taxes help The individual is not considered at-risk for borrowed amounts if the lender has an interest in the activity or if the lender is related to a person who has an interest in the activity. Back taxes help For more information, see Publication 925, Passive Activity and At-Risk Rules. Back taxes help Passive activity rules. Back taxes help   A passive activity is any trade or business activity in which the taxpayer does not materially participate. Back taxes help To determine material participation, see Publication 925. Back taxes help Rental activities are passive activities regardless of the taxpayer's participation, unless the taxpayer meets certain eligibility requirements. Back taxes help   Individuals, estates, and trusts can offset passive activity losses only against passive activity income. Back taxes help Passive activity losses or credits not allowed in one tax year can be carried forward to the next year. Back taxes help   If a passive activity interest is transferred because a taxpayer dies, the accumulated unused passive activity losses are allowed as a deduction against the decedent's income in the year of death. Back taxes help Losses are allowed only to the extent they are greater than the excess of the transferee's (recipient of the interest transferred) basis in the property over the decedent's adjusted basis in the property immediately before death. Back taxes help The part of the accumulated losses equal to the excess is not allowed as a deduction for any tax year. Back taxes help   Use Form 8582, Passive Activity Loss Limitations, to summarize losses and income from passive activities and to figure the amounts allowed. Back taxes help For more information, see Publication 925. Back taxes help Credits, Other Taxes, and Payments Discussed below are some of the tax credits, types of taxes that may be owed, income tax withheld, and estimated tax payments reported on the final return of a decedent. Back taxes help Credits On the final income tax return, you can claim any tax credits that applied to the decedent before death. Back taxes help Some of these credits are discussed next. Back taxes help Earned income credit. Back taxes help   If the decedent was an eligible individual, you can claim the earned income credit on the decedent's final return even though the return covers less than 12 months. Back taxes help If the allowable credit is more than the tax liability for the year, the excess is refunded. Back taxes help   For more information, see Publication 596, Earned Income Credit (EIC). Back taxes help Credit for the elderly or the disabled. Back taxes help   This credit is allowable on a decedent's final income tax return if the decedent met both of the following requirements in the year of death. Back taxes help The decedent: Was a “qualified individual,” and Had income (adjusted gross income (AGI) and nontaxable social security and pensions) less than certain limits. Back taxes help   For details on qualifying for or figuring the credit, see Publication 524, Credit for the Elderly or the Disabled. Back taxes help Child tax credit. Back taxes help   If the decedent had a qualifying child, you may be able to claim the child tax credit on the decedent's final return even though the return covers less than 12 months. Back taxes help You may be able to claim the additional child tax credit and get a refund if the credit is more than the decedent's liability. Back taxes help For more information, see the Instructions for Form 1040. Back taxes help Adoption credit. Back taxes help   Depending upon when the adoption was finalized, this credit may be taken on a decedent's final income tax return if the decedent: Adopted an eligible child and paid qualified adoption expenses, or Has a carryforward of an adoption credit from a prior year. Back taxes help   Also, if the decedent is survived by a spouse who meets the filing status of qualifying widow(er), unused adoption credit may be carried forward and used following the death of the decedent. Back taxes help See Form 8839, Qualified Adoption Expenses, and its instructions for more details. Back taxes help General business tax credit. Back taxes help   The general business credit available to a taxpayer is limited. Back taxes help Any credit arising in a tax year beginning before 1998 that has not been used up can be carried forward for up to 15 years. Back taxes help Any unused credit arising in a tax year beginning after 1997 has a 1-year carryback and a 20-year carryforward period. Back taxes help   After the carryforward period, a deduction may be allowed for any unused business credit. Back taxes help If the taxpayer dies before the end of the carryforward period, the deduction generally is allowed in the year of death. Back taxes help   For more information on the general business credit, see Publication 334, Tax Guide for Small Business. Back taxes help Other Taxes Taxes other than income tax that may be owed on the final return of a decedent include self-employment tax and alternative minimum tax, which are reported on Form 1040. Back taxes help Self-employment tax. Back taxes help   Self-employment tax may be owed on the final return if either of the following applied to the decedent in the year of death: Net earnings from self-employment (excluding income described in (2)) were $400 or more; or Wages from services performed as a church employee were $108. Back taxes help 28 or more. Back taxes help Alternative minimum tax (AMT). Back taxes help   The tax laws give special treatment to certain types of income and allow special deductions and credits for certain types of expenses. Back taxes help The alternative minimum tax (AMT) was enacted so taxpayers who benefit from these laws still pay at least a minimum amount of tax. Back taxes help In general, the AMT is the excess of the tentative minimum tax over the regular tax shown on the return. Back taxes help Form 6251. Back taxes help    Use Form 6251, Alternative Minimum Tax—Individuals, to determine if this tax applies to the decedent. Back taxes help See the form instructions for information on when you must attach Form 6251 to Form 1040. Back taxes help Form 8801. Back taxes help   If the decedent paid AMT in a previous year or had a credit carryforward, the decedent may be eligible for a minimum tax credit. Back taxes help See Form 8801, Credit for Prior Year Minimum Tax—Individuals, Estates, and Trusts. Back taxes help Payments of Tax The income tax withheld from the decedent's salary, wages, pensions, or annuities, and the amount paid as estimated tax are credits (advance payments of tax) that must be claimed on the final return. Back taxes help Tax Forgiveness for Armed Forces Members, Victims of Terrorism, and Astronauts Income tax liability may be forgiven for a decedent who dies due to service in a combat zone, due to military or terrorist actions, as a result of a terrorist attack, or while serving in the line of duty as an astronaut. Back taxes help Combat Zone If a member of the Armed Forces of the United States dies while in active service in a combat zone or from wounds, disease, or injury incurred in a combat zone, the decedent's income tax liability is abated (forgiven) for the entire year in which death occurred and for any prior tax year ending on or after the first day the person served in a combat zone in active service. Back taxes help For this purpose, a qualified hazardous duty area is treated as a combat zone. Back taxes help If the tax (including interest, additions to the tax, and additional amounts) for these years has been assessed, the assessment will be forgiven. Back taxes help If the tax has been collected (regardless of the date of collection), that tax will be credited or refunded. Back taxes help Any of the decedent's income tax for tax years before those mentioned above that remains unpaid as of the actual (or presumptive) date of death will not be assessed. Back taxes help If any unpaid tax (including interest, additions to the tax, and additional amounts) has been assessed, this assessment will be forgiven. Back taxes help Also, if any tax was collected after the date of death, that amount will be credited or refunded. Back taxes help The date of death of a member of the Armed Forces reported as missing in action or as a prisoner of war is the date his or her name is removed from missing status for military pay purposes. Back taxes help This is true even if death actually occurred earlier. Back taxes help For other tax information for members of the Armed Forces, see Publication 3, Armed Forces' Tax Guide. Back taxes help Military or Terrorist Actions The decedent's income tax liability is forgiven if, at death, he or she was a military or civilian employee of the United States who died because of wounds or injury incurred: While a U. Back taxes help S. Back taxes help employee, and In a military or terrorist action. Back taxes help The forgiveness applies to the tax year in which death occurred and for any earlier tax year, beginning with the year before the year in which the wounds or injury occurred. Back taxes help Example. Back taxes help The income tax liability of a civilian employee of the United States who died in 2013 because of wounds incurred while a U. Back taxes help S. Back taxes help employee in a terrorist attack that occurred in 2008 will be forgiven for 2013 and for all prior tax years in the period 2007 through 2012. Back taxes help Refunds are allowed for the tax years for which the period for filing a claim for refund has not ended, as discussed later. Back taxes help Military or terrorist action defined. Back taxes help   A military or terrorist action means the following. Back taxes help Any terrorist activity that most of the evidence indicates was directed against the United States or any of its allies. Back taxes help Any military action involving the U. Back taxes help S. Back taxes help Armed Forces and resulting from violence or aggression against the United States or any of its allies, or the threat of such violence or aggression. Back taxes help   Terrorist activity includes criminal offenses intended to coerce, intimidate, or retaliate against the government or civilian population. Back taxes help Military action does not include training exercises. Back taxes help Any multinational force in which the United States is participating is treated as an ally of the United States. Back taxes help Determining if a terrorist activity or military action has occurred. Back taxes help   You may rely on published guidance from the IRS to determine if a particular event is considered a terrorist activity or military action. Back taxes help Specified Terrorist Victim The Victims of Terrorism Tax Relief Act of 2001 (the Act) provides tax relief for those injured or killed as a result of terrorist attacks, certain survivors of those killed as a result of terrorist attacks, and others who were affected by terrorist attacks. Back taxes help Under the Act, the federal income tax liability of those killed in the following attacks (specified terrorist victim) is forgiven for certain tax years. Back taxes help The April 19, 1995, terrorist attack on the Alfred P. Back taxes help Murrah Federal Building (Oklahoma City). Back taxes help The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Back taxes help The terrorist attacks involving anthrax occurring after September 10, 2001, and before January 1, 2002. Back taxes help The Act also exempts from federal income tax the following types of income. Back taxes help Qualified disaster relief payments made after September 10, 2001, to cover personal, family, living, or funeral expenses incurred because of a terrorist attack. Back taxes help Certain disability payments received in tax years ending after September 10, 2001, for injuries sustained in a terrorist attack. Back taxes help Certain death benefits paid by an employer to the survivor of an employee because the employee died as a result of a terrorist attack. Back taxes help Payments from the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund 2001. Back taxes help The Act also reduces the estate tax of individuals who die as a result of a terrorist attack. Back taxes help See Publication 3920, Tax Relief for Victims of Terrorist Attacks, for more information. Back taxes help Astronauts Legislation extended the tax relief available under the Victims of Terrorism Tax Relief Act of 2001 (the Act) to astronauts who died in the line of duty after December 31, 2002. Back taxes help The decedent's income tax liability is forgiven for the tax year in which death occurs, and for the tax year prior to death. Back taxes help For information on death benefit payments and the reduction of federal estate taxes, see Publication 3920. Back taxes help However, the discussions in that publication under Death Benefits and Estate Tax Reduction should be modified for astronauts (for example, by using the date of death of the astronaut instead of September 11, 2001). Back taxes help For more information on the Act, see Publication 3920. Back taxes help Claim for Credit or Refund If any of these tax-forgiveness situations applies to a prior year tax, any tax paid for which the period for filing a claim has not ended will be credited or refunded. Back taxes help If any tax is still due, it will be canceled. Back taxes help The normal period for filing a claim for credit or refund is 3 years after the return was filed or 2 years after the tax was paid, whichever is later. Back taxes help If death occurred in a combat zone or from wounds, disease, or injury incurred in a combat zone, the period for filing the claim is extended by: The amount of time served in the combat zone (including any period in which the individual was in missing status), plus The period of continuous qualified hospitalization for injury from service in the combat zone, if any, plus The next 180 days. Back taxes help Qualified hospitalization means any hospitalization outside the United States and any hospitalization in the United States of not more than 5 years. Back taxes help This extended period for filing the claim also applies to a member of the Armed Forces who was deployed outside the United States in a designated contingency operation. Back taxes help Filing a claim. Back taxes help   Use the following procedures to file a claim. Back taxes help If a U. Back taxes help S. Back taxes help individual income tax return (Form 1040, 1040A, or 1040EZ) has not been filed, you should make a claim for refund of any withheld income tax or estimated tax payments by filing Form 1040. Back taxes help Form W-2, Wage and Tax Statement, must accompany all returns. Back taxes help If a U. Back taxes help S. Back taxes help individual income tax return has been filed, you should make a claim for refund by filing Form 1040X. Back taxes help You must file a separate Form 1040X for each year in question. Back taxes help   You must file these returns and claims at the following address for regular mail (U. Back taxes help S. Back taxes help Postal Service). Back taxes help    Internal Revenue Service 333 W. Back taxes help Pershing, P5–6503 Kansas City, MO 64108   Identify all returns and claims for refund by writing “Iraq—KIA,” “Enduring Freedom—KIA,” “Kosovo Operation—KIA,” “Desert Storm—KIA,” or “Former Yugoslavia—KIA” in bold letters on the top of page 1 of the return or claim. Back taxes help On the applicable return, write the same phrase on the line for total tax. Back taxes help If the individual was killed in a terrorist or military action, put “KITA” on the front of the return and on the line for total tax. Back taxes help   Include an attachment showing the computation of the decedent's tax liability and a computation of the amount to be forgiven. Back taxes help On joint returns, make an allocation of the tax as described below under Joint returns. Back taxes help If you cannot make a proper allocation, attach a statement of all income and deductions allocable to each spouse and the IRS will make the proper allocation. Back taxes help   You must attach Form 1310 to all returns and claims for refund. Back taxes help However, for exceptions to filing Form 1310, see Form 1310. Back taxes help Statement of Person Claiming Refund Due a Deceased Taxpayer, under Refund, earlier. Back taxes help   You must also attach proof of death that includes a statement that the individual was a U. Back taxes help S. Back taxes help employee on the date of injury and on the date of death and died as the result of a military or terrorist action. Back taxes help For military and civilian employees of the Department of Defense, attach DD Form 1300, Report of Casualty. Back taxes help For other U. Back taxes help S. Back taxes help civilian employees killed in the United States, attach a death certificate and a certification (letter) from the federal employer. Back taxes help For other U. Back taxes help S. Back taxes help civilian employees killed overseas, attach a certification from the Department of State. Back taxes help   If you do not have enough tax information to file a timely claim for refund, you can suspend the period for filing a claim by filing Form 1040X. Back taxes help Attach Form 1310, any required documentation currently available, and a statement that you will file an amended claim as soon as you have the required tax information. Back taxes help Joint returns. Back taxes help   If a joint return was filed, only the decedent's part of the income tax liability is eligible for forgiveness. Back taxes help Determine the decedent's tax liability as follows. Back taxes help Figure the income tax for which the decedent would have been liable if a separate return had been filed. Back taxes help Figure the income tax for which the spouse would have been liable if a separate return had been filed. Back taxes help Multiply the joint tax liability by a fraction. Back taxes help The numerator of the fraction is the amount in (1), above. Back taxes help The denominator of the fraction is the total of (1) and (2). Back taxes help   The resulting amount from (3) above is the decedent's tax liability eligible for forgiveness. Back taxes help Filing Reminders To minimize the time needed to process the decedent's final return and issue any refund, be sure to follow these procedures. Back taxes help Write “DECEASED,” the decedent's name, and the date of death across the top of the tax return. Back taxes help If a personal representative has been appointed, the personal representative must sign the return. Back taxes help If it is a joint return, the surviving spouse must also sign it. Back taxes help If you are the decedent's spouse filing a joint return with the decedent and no personal representative has been appointed, write “Filing as surviving spouse” in the area where you sign the return. Back taxes help If no personal representative has been appointed and if there is no surviving spouse, the person in charge of the decedent's property must file and sign the return as “personal representative. Back taxes help ” To claim a refund for the decedent, do the following. Back taxes help If you are the decedent's spouse filing a joint return with the decedent, file only the tax return to claim the refund. Back taxes help If you are the personal representative and the return is not a joint return filed with the decedent's surviving spouse, file the return and attach a copy of the certificate that shows your appointment by the court. Back taxes help (A power of attorney or a copy of the decedent's will is not acceptable evidence of your appointment as the personal representative. Back taxes help ) If you are filing an amended return, attach Form 1310 and a copy of the certificate of appointment (or, if you have already sent the certificate of appointment to IRS, write “Certificate Previously Filed” at the bottom of Form 1310). Back taxes help If you are not filing a joint return as the surviving spouse and a personal representative has not been appointed, file the return and attach Form 1310. Back taxes help Other Tax Information Discussed below is information about the effect of an individual's death on the income tax liability of the survivors (including widows and widowers), the beneficiaries, and the estate. Back taxes help Tax Benefits for Survivors Survivors can qualify for certain benefits when filing their own income tax returns. Back taxes help Joint return by surviving spouse. Back taxes help   A surviving spouse can file a joint return for the year of death and may qualify for special tax rates for the following 2 years, as explained under Qualifying widows and widowers, later. Back taxes help Decedent as your dependent. Back taxes help   If the decedent qualified as your dependent for a part of the year before death, you can claim the exemption for the dependent on your tax return, regardless of when death occurred during the year. Back taxes help   If the decedent was your qualifying child, you may be able to claim the child tax credit or the earned income credit. Back taxes help To determine if you qualify for the child tax credit, see the instructions for Form 1040, line 51; Form 1040A, line 33; or Form 1040NR, line 48. Back taxes help To determine if you qualify for the earned income credit, see the instructions for Form 1040, lines 64a and 64b or Form 1040A, lines 38a and 38b. Back taxes help Qualifying widows and widowers. Back taxes help   If your spouse died within the 2 tax years preceding the year for which your return is being filed, you may be eligible to claim the filing status of qualifying widow(er) with dependent child and qualify to use the married-filing-jointly tax rates. Back taxes help Requirements. Back taxes help   Generally, you qualify for this special benefit if you meet all of the following requirements. Back taxes help You were entitled to file a joint return with your spouse for the year of death—whether or not you actually filed jointly. Back taxes help You did not remarry before the end of the current tax year. Back taxes help You have a child, stepchild, or foster child who qualifies as your dependent for the tax year. Back taxes help You provide more than half the cost of maintaining your home, which is the principal residence of that child for the entire year except for temporary absences. Back taxes help Example. Back taxes help William Burns' wife died in 2010. Back taxes help William has not remarried and continued throughout 2011 and 2012 to maintain a home for himself and his dependent child. Back taxes help For 2010, he was entitled to file a joint return for himself and his deceased wife. Back taxes help For 2011 and 2012, he qualifies to file as a qualifying widower with dependent child. Back taxes help For later years, he may qualify to file as a head of household. Back taxes help Figuring your tax. Back taxes help   Check the box on line 5 (Form 1040 or 1040A) under Filing Status on your tax return. Back taxes help Use the Tax Rate Schedule or the column in the Tax Table for Married filing jointly, which gives you the split-income benefits. Back taxes help   The last year you can file jointly with, or claim an exemption for, your deceased spouse is the year of death. Back taxes help Joint return filing rules. Back taxes help   If you are the surviving spouse and a personal representative is handling the estate for the decedent, you should coordinate filing your return for the year of death with this personal representative. Back taxes help See Joint Return under Final Income Tax Return for Decedent—Form 1040, earlier. Back taxes help Income in Respect of a Decedent All income the decedent would have received had death not occurred that was not properly includible on the final return, discussed earlier, is income in respect of a decedent. Back taxes help If the decedent is a specified terrorist victim (see Specified Terrorist Victim, earlier), income received after the date of death and before the end of the decedent's tax year (determined without regard to death) is excluded from the recipient's gross income. Back taxes help This exclusion does not apply to certain income. Back taxes help For more information, see Publication 3920. Back taxes help How To Report Income in respect of a decedent must be included in the income of one of the following. Back taxes help The decedent's estate, if the estate receives it. Back taxes help The beneficiary, if the right to income is passed directly to the beneficiary and the beneficiary receives it. Back taxes help Any person to whom the estate properly distributes the right to receive it. Back taxes help If you have to include income in respect of a decedent in your gross income and an estate tax return (Form 706) was filed for the decedent, you may be able to claim a deduction for the estate tax paid on that income. Back taxes help See Estate Tax Deduction, later. Back taxes help Example 1. Back taxes help Frank Johnson owned and operated an apple orchard. Back taxes help He used the cash method of accounting. Back taxes help He sold and delivered 1,000 bushels of apples to a canning factory for $2,000, but did not receive payment before his death. Back taxes help The proceeds from the sale are income in respect of a decedent. Back taxes help When the estate was settled, payment had not been made and the estate transferred the right to the payment to his widow. Back taxes help When Frank's widow collects the $2,000, she must include that amount in her return. Back taxes help It is not reported on the final return of the decedent or on the return of the estate. Back taxes help Example 2. Back taxes help Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that Frank used the accrual method of accounting. Back taxes help The amount accrued from the sale of the apples would be included on his final return. Back taxes help Neither the estate nor the widow would realize income in respect of a decedent when the money is later paid. Back taxes help Example 3. Back taxes help On February 1, George High, a cash method taxpayer, sold his tractor for $3,000, payable March 1 of the same year. Back taxes help His adjusted basis in the tractor was $2,000. Back taxes help George died on February 15, before receiving payment. Back taxes help The gain to be reported as income in respect of a decedent is the $1,000 difference between the decedent's basis in the property and the sale proceeds. Back taxes help In other words, the income in respect of a decedent is the gain the decedent would have realized had he lived. Back taxes help Example 4. Back taxes help Cathy O'Neil was entitled to a large salary payment at the date of her death. Back taxes help The amount was to be paid in five annual installments. Back taxes help The estate, after collecting two installments, distributed the right to the remaining installments to you, the beneficiary. Back taxes help The payments are income in respect of a decedent. Back taxes help None of the payments were includible on Cathy's final return. Back taxes help The estate must include in its income the two installments it received, and you must include in your income each of the three installments as you receive them. Back taxes help Example 5. Back taxes help You inherited the right to receive renewal commissions on life insurance sold by your father before his death. Back taxes help You inherited the right from your mother, who acquired it by bequest from your father. Back taxes help Your mother died before she received all the commissions she had the right to receive, so you received the rest. Back taxes help The commissions are income in respect of a decedent. Back taxes help None of these commissions were includible in your father's final return. Back taxes help The commissions received by your mother were included in her income. Back taxes help The commissions you received are not includible in your mother's income, even on her final return. Back taxes help You must include them in your income. Back taxes help Character of income. Back taxes help   The character of the income you receive in respect of a decedent remains the same as it would have been to the decedent if he or she were alive. Back taxes help If the income would have been a capital gain to the decedent, it will be a capital gain to you. Back taxes help Transfer of right to income. Back taxes help   If you transfer your right to income in respect of a decedent, you must include in your income the greater of: The amount you receive for the right, or The fair market value of the right you transfer. Back taxes help   If you make a gift of such a right, you must include in your income the fair market value of the right at the time of the gift. Back taxes help   If the right to income from an installment obligation is transferred, the amount you must include in income is reduced by the basis of the obligation. Back taxes help See Installment obligations, later. Back taxes help Transfer defined. Back taxes help   A transfer for this purpose includes a sale, exchange, or other disposition, the satisfaction of an installment obligation at other than face value, or the cancellation of an installment obligation. Back taxes help Installment obligations. Back taxes help   If the decedent sold property using the installment method and you are collecting payments on an installment obligation acquired from the decedent, use the same gross profit percentage the decedent used to figure the part of each payment that represents profit. Back taxes help Include in your income the same profit the decedent would have included had death not occurred. Back taxes help For more information, see Publication 537, Installment Sales. Back taxes help   If you dispose of an installment obligation acquired from a decedent (other than by transfer to the obligor), the rules explained in Publication 537 for figuring gain or loss on the disposition apply to you. Back taxes help Transfer to obligor. Back taxes help   A transfer of a right to income, discussed earlier, has occurred if the decedent (seller) sold property using the installment method and the installment obligation was transferred to the obligor (buyer or person legally obligated to pay the installments). Back taxes help A transfer also occurs if the obligation was canceled either at death or by the estate or person receiving the obligation from the decedent. Back taxes help An obligation that becomes unenforceable is treated as having been canceled. Back taxes help   If such a transfer occurs, the amount included in the income of the transferor (the estate or beneficiary) is the greater of the amount received or the fair market value of the installment obligation at the time of transfer, reduced by the basis of the obligation. Back taxes help The basis of the obligation is the decedent's basis, adjusted for all installment payments received after the decedent's death and before the transfer. Back taxes help   If the decedent and obligor were related persons, the fair market value of the obligation cannot be less than its face value. Back taxes help Specific Types of Income in Respect of a Decedent This section explains and provides examples of some specific types of income in respect of a decedent. Back taxes help Wages. Back taxes help   The entire amount of wages or other employee compensation earned by the decedent but unpaid at the time of death is income in respect of a decedent. Back taxes help The income is not reduced by any amounts withheld by the employer. Back taxes help If the income is $600 or more, the employer should report it in box 3 of Form 1099-MISC, Miscellaneous Income, and give the recipient a copy of the form or a similar statement. Back taxes help   Wages paid as income in respect of a decedent are not subject to federal income tax withholding. Back taxes help However, if paid during the calendar year of death, they are subject to withholding for social security and Medicare taxes. Back taxes help These taxes should be included on the decedent's Form W-2 along with the taxes withheld before death. Back taxes help These wages are not included in box 1 of Form W-2. Back taxes help   Wages paid as income in respect of a decedent after the year of death generally are not subject to withholding for any federal taxe
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Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA)

The FMCSA provides information about your rights when moving across state lines (interstate moves). Consumers should submit household goods commercial complaints or dangerous safety violations involving a commercial truck or bus to this agency.

Contact the Agency or Department

Website: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) (Interstate moving information)

Contact In-Person: Field Offices

Address: 1200 New Jersey Ave., SE
Suite W60-300

Washington, DC 20590

Phone Number: 202-366-2519

Toll-free: 1-800-832-5660 (FMCSA Information Line)
1-888-368-7238

TTY: 1-800-877-8339

The Back Taxes Help

Back taxes help It is tax season again! Figuring out and filing your tax forms can be intimidating – but there is help. Back taxes help Here you will find answers, forms and more that will make your paperwork easier, faster and less stressful. Back taxes help The information below will help you determine your residency status, find the correct forms you need and give you other information you want to get started. Back taxes help