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2012 1040a Tax Forms

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2012 1040a Tax Forms

2012 1040a tax forms 10. 2012 1040a tax forms   Self-Employment (SE) Tax Table of Contents Who Must Pay SE Tax?Special Rules and Exceptions Figuring Earnings Subject to SE Tax Farm Optional Method Using Both Optional Methods Reporting Self-Employment Tax The SE tax rules apply no matter how old you are and even if you are already receiving social security and Medicare benefits. 2012 1040a tax forms Who Must Pay SE Tax? Generally, you must pay SE tax and file Schedule SE (Form 1040) if your net earnings from self-employment were $400 or more. 2012 1040a tax forms Use Schedule SE to figure net earnings from self-employment. 2012 1040a tax forms Sole proprietor or independent contractor. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you are self-employed as a sole proprietor or independent contractor, you generally use Schedule C or C-EZ (Form 1040) to figure your earnings subject to SE tax. 2012 1040a tax forms SE tax rate. 2012 1040a tax forms    For 2013, the SE tax rate on net earnings is 15. 2012 1040a tax forms 3% (12. 2012 1040a tax forms 4% social security tax plus 2. 2012 1040a tax forms 9% Medicare tax). 2012 1040a tax forms Maximum earnings subject to self-employment tax. 2012 1040a tax forms    Only the first $113,700 of your combined wages, tips, and net earnings in 2013 is subject to any combination of the 12. 2012 1040a tax forms 4% social security part of SE tax, social security tax, or railroad retirement (tier 1) tax. 2012 1040a tax forms   All of your combined wages, tips, and net earnings in 2013 are subject to any combination of the 2. 2012 1040a tax forms 9% Medicare part of SE tax, social security tax, or railroad retirement (tier 1) tax. 2012 1040a tax forms   If your wages and tips are subject to either social security or railroad retirement (tier 1) tax, or both, and total at least $113,700, do not pay the 12. 2012 1040a tax forms 4% social security part of the SE tax on any of your net earnings. 2012 1040a tax forms However, you must pay the 2. 2012 1040a tax forms 9% Medicare part of the SE tax on all your net earnings. 2012 1040a tax forms Special Rules and Exceptions Aliens. 2012 1040a tax forms   Generally, resident aliens must pay self-employment tax under the same rules that apply to U. 2012 1040a tax forms S. 2012 1040a tax forms citizens. 2012 1040a tax forms Nonresident aliens are not subject to SE tax unless an international social security agreement in effect determines that they are covered under the U. 2012 1040a tax forms S. 2012 1040a tax forms social security system. 2012 1040a tax forms However, residents of the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or American Samoa are subject to self-employment tax, as they are considered U. 2012 1040a tax forms S. 2012 1040a tax forms residents for self-employment tax purposes. 2012 1040a tax forms For more information on aliens, see Publication 519, U. 2012 1040a tax forms S. 2012 1040a tax forms Tax Guide for Aliens. 2012 1040a tax forms Child employed by parent. 2012 1040a tax forms   You are not subject to SE tax if you are under age 18 and you are working for your father or mother. 2012 1040a tax forms Church employee. 2012 1040a tax forms    If you work for a church or a qualified church-controlled organization (other than as a minister or member of a religious order) that elected an exemption from social security and Medicare taxes, you are subject to SE tax if you receive $108. 2012 1040a tax forms 28 or more in wages from the church or organization. 2012 1040a tax forms For more information, see Publication 517, Social Security and Other Information for Members of the Clergy and Religious Workers. 2012 1040a tax forms Fishing crew member. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you are a member of the crew on a boat that catches fish or other water life, your earnings are subject to SE tax if all the following conditions apply. 2012 1040a tax forms You do not get any pay for the work except your share of the catch or a share of the proceeds from the sale of the catch, unless the pay meets all the following conditions. 2012 1040a tax forms The pay is not more than $100 per trip. 2012 1040a tax forms The pay is received only if there is a minimum catch. 2012 1040a tax forms The pay is solely for additional duties (such as mate, engineer, or cook) for which additional cash pay is traditional in the fishing industry. 2012 1040a tax forms You get a share of the catch or a share of the proceeds from the sale of the catch. 2012 1040a tax forms Your share depends on the amount of the catch. 2012 1040a tax forms The boat's operating crew normally numbers fewer than 10 individuals. 2012 1040a tax forms (An operating crew is considered as normally made up of fewer than 10 if the average size of the crew on trips made during the last four calendar quarters is fewer than 10. 2012 1040a tax forms ) Notary public. 2012 1040a tax forms   Fees you receive for services you perform as a notary public are reported on Schedule C or C-EZ but are not subject to self-employment tax (see the Instructions for Schedule SE (Form 1040)). 2012 1040a tax forms State or local government employee. 2012 1040a tax forms   You are subject to SE tax if you are an employee of a state or local government, are paid solely on a fee basis, and your services are not covered under a federal-state social security agreement. 2012 1040a tax forms Foreign government or international organization employee. 2012 1040a tax forms   You are subject to SE tax if both the following conditions are true. 2012 1040a tax forms You are a U. 2012 1040a tax forms S. 2012 1040a tax forms citizen employed in the United States, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the Virgin Islands by: A foreign government, A wholly-owned agency of a foreign government, or An international organization. 2012 1040a tax forms Your employer is not required to withhold social security and Medicare taxes from your wages. 2012 1040a tax forms U. 2012 1040a tax forms S. 2012 1040a tax forms citizen or resident alien residing abroad. 2012 1040a tax forms    If you are a self-employed U. 2012 1040a tax forms S. 2012 1040a tax forms citizen or resident alien living outside the United States, in most cases you must pay SE tax. 2012 1040a tax forms Do not reduce your foreign earnings from self-employment by your foreign earned income exclusion. 2012 1040a tax forms Exception. 2012 1040a tax forms    The United States has social security agreements with many countries to eliminate double taxation under two social security systems. 2012 1040a tax forms Under these agreements, you generally must only pay social security and Medicare taxes to the country in which you live. 2012 1040a tax forms The country to which you must pay the tax will issue a certificate which serves as proof of exemption from social security tax in the other country. 2012 1040a tax forms   For more information, see the Instructions for Schedule SE (Form 1040). 2012 1040a tax forms More Than One Business If you have earnings subject to SE tax from more than one trade, business, or profession, you must combine the net profit (or loss) from each to determine your total earnings subject to SE tax. 2012 1040a tax forms A loss from one business reduces your profit from another business. 2012 1040a tax forms Community Property Income If any of the income from a trade or business, other than a partnership, is community property income under state law, it is included in the earnings subject to SE tax of the spouse carrying on the trade or business. 2012 1040a tax forms Gain or Loss Do not include in earnings subject to SE tax a gain or loss from the disposition of property that is neither stock in trade nor held primarily for sale to customers. 2012 1040a tax forms It does not matter whether the disposition is a sale, exchange, or an involuntary conversion. 2012 1040a tax forms Lost Income Payments If you are self-employed and reduce or stop your business activities, any payment you receive from insurance or other sources for the lost business income is included in earnings subject to SE tax. 2012 1040a tax forms If you are not working when you receive the payment, it still relates to your business and is included in earnings subject to SE tax, even though your business is temporarily inactive. 2012 1040a tax forms Figuring Earnings Subject to SE Tax Methods for Figuring Net Earnings There are three ways to figure your net earnings from self-employment. 2012 1040a tax forms The regular method. 2012 1040a tax forms The nonfarm optional method. 2012 1040a tax forms The farm optional method. 2012 1040a tax forms You must use the regular method unless you are eligible to use one or both of the optional methods. 2012 1040a tax forms Why use an optional method?    You may want to use the optional methods (discussed later) when you have a loss or a small net profit and any one of the following applies. 2012 1040a tax forms You want to receive credit for social security benefit coverage. 2012 1040a tax forms You incurred child or dependent care expenses for which you could claim a credit. 2012 1040a tax forms (An optional method may increase your earned income, which could increase your credit. 2012 1040a tax forms ) You are entitled to the earned income credit. 2012 1040a tax forms (An optional method may increase your earned income, which could increase your credit. 2012 1040a tax forms ) You are entitled to the additional child tax credit. 2012 1040a tax forms (An optional method may increase your earned income, which could increase your credit. 2012 1040a tax forms ) Effects of using an optional method. 2012 1040a tax forms   Using an optional method could increase your SE tax. 2012 1040a tax forms Paying more SE tax could result in your getting higher benefits when you retire. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you use either or both optional methods, you must figure and pay the SE tax due under these methods even if you would have had a smaller tax or no tax using the regular method. 2012 1040a tax forms   The optional methods may be used only to figure your SE tax. 2012 1040a tax forms To figure your income tax, include your actual earnings in gross income, regardless of which method you use to determine SE tax. 2012 1040a tax forms Regular Method Multiply your total earnings subject to SE tax by 92. 2012 1040a tax forms 35% (. 2012 1040a tax forms 9235) to get your net earnings under the regular method. 2012 1040a tax forms See Short Schedule SE, line 4, or Long Schedule SE, line 4a. 2012 1040a tax forms Net earnings figured using the regular method are also called actual net earnings. 2012 1040a tax forms Nonfarm Optional Method Use the nonfarm optional method only for earnings that do not come from farming. 2012 1040a tax forms You may use this method if you meet all the following tests. 2012 1040a tax forms You are self-employed on a regular basis. 2012 1040a tax forms This means that your actual net earnings from self-employment were $400 or more in at least 2 of the 3 tax years before the one for which you use this method. 2012 1040a tax forms The net earnings can be from either farm or nonfarm earnings or both. 2012 1040a tax forms You have used this method less than 5 years. 2012 1040a tax forms (There is a 5-year lifetime limit. 2012 1040a tax forms ) The years do not have to be one after another. 2012 1040a tax forms Your net nonfarm profits were: Less than $5,024, and Less than 72. 2012 1040a tax forms 189% of your gross nonfarm income. 2012 1040a tax forms Net nonfarm profits. 2012 1040a tax forms   Net nonfarm profit generally is the total of the amounts from: Line 31, Schedule C (Form 1040), Line 3, Schedule C-EZ (Form 1040), Box 14, code A, Schedule K-1 (Form 1065) (from nonfarm partnerships), and Box 9, code J1, Schedule K-1 (Form 1065-B). 2012 1040a tax forms   However, you may need to adjust the amount reported on Schedule K-1 if you are a general partner or if it is a loss. 2012 1040a tax forms Gross nonfarm income. 2012 1040a tax forms   Your gross nonfarm income generally is the total of the amounts from: Line 7, Schedule C (Form 1040), Line 1, Schedule C-EZ (Form 1040), Box 14, code C, Schedule K-1 (Form 1065) (from nonfarm partnerships), and Box 9, code J2, Schedule K-1 (Form 1065-B). 2012 1040a tax forms Figuring Nonfarm Net Earnings If you meet the three tests explained earlier, use the following table to figure your net earnings from self-employment under the nonfarm optional method. 2012 1040a tax forms Table 10-1. 2012 1040a tax forms Figuring Nonfarm Net Earnings IF your gross nonfarm income is. 2012 1040a tax forms . 2012 1040a tax forms . 2012 1040a tax forms THEN your net earnings are equal to. 2012 1040a tax forms . 2012 1040a tax forms . 2012 1040a tax forms $6,960 or less Two-thirds of your gross nonfarm income. 2012 1040a tax forms More than $6,960 $4,640 Actual net earnings. 2012 1040a tax forms   Your actual net earnings are 92. 2012 1040a tax forms 35% of your total earnings subject to SE tax (that is, multiply total earnings subject to SE tax by 92. 2012 1040a tax forms 35% (. 2012 1040a tax forms 9235) to get actual net earnings). 2012 1040a tax forms Actual net earnings are equivalent to net earnings figured using the regular method. 2012 1040a tax forms Optional net earnings less than actual net earnings. 2012 1040a tax forms   You cannot use this method to report an amount less than your actual net earnings from self-employment. 2012 1040a tax forms Gross nonfarm income of $6,960 or less. 2012 1040a tax forms   The following examples illustrate how to figure net earnings when gross nonfarm income is $6,960 or less. 2012 1040a tax forms Example 1. 2012 1040a tax forms Net nonfarm profit less than $5,024 and less than 72. 2012 1040a tax forms 189% of gross nonfarm income. 2012 1040a tax forms Ann Green runs a craft business. 2012 1040a tax forms Her actual net earnings from self-employment were $800 in 2011 and $900 in 2012. 2012 1040a tax forms She meets the test for being self-employed on a regular basis. 2012 1040a tax forms She has used the nonfarm optional method less than 5 years. 2012 1040a tax forms Her gross income and net profit in 2013 are as follows: Gross nonfarm income $5,400 Net nonfarm profit $1,200 Ann's actual net earnings for 2013 are $1,108 ($1,200 × . 2012 1040a tax forms 9235). 2012 1040a tax forms Because her net profit is less than $5,024 and less than 72. 2012 1040a tax forms 189% of her gross income, she can use the nonfarm optional method to figure net earnings of $3,600 (2/3 × $5,400). 2012 1040a tax forms Because these net earnings are higher than her actual net earnings, she can report net earnings of $3,600 for 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms Example 2. 2012 1040a tax forms Net nonfarm profit less than $5,024 but not less than 72. 2012 1040a tax forms 189% of gross nonfarm income. 2012 1040a tax forms Assume that in Example 1 Ann's gross income is $1,000 and her net profit is $800. 2012 1040a tax forms She must use the regular method to figure her net earnings. 2012 1040a tax forms She cannot use the nonfarm optional method because her net profit is not less than 72. 2012 1040a tax forms 189% of her gross income. 2012 1040a tax forms Example 3. 2012 1040a tax forms Net loss from a nonfarm business. 2012 1040a tax forms Assume that in Example 1 Ann has a net loss of $700. 2012 1040a tax forms She can use the nonfarm optional method and report $3,600 (2/3 × $5,400) as her net earnings. 2012 1040a tax forms Example 4. 2012 1040a tax forms Nonfarm net earnings less than $400. 2012 1040a tax forms Assume that in Example 1 Ann has gross income of $525 and a net profit of $175. 2012 1040a tax forms In this situation, she would not pay any SE tax under either the regular method or the nonfarm optional method because her net earnings under both methods are less than $400. 2012 1040a tax forms Gross nonfarm income of more than $6,960. 2012 1040a tax forms   The following examples illustrate how to figure net earnings when gross nonfarm income is more than $6,960. 2012 1040a tax forms Example 1. 2012 1040a tax forms Net nonfarm profit less than $5,024 and less than 72. 2012 1040a tax forms 189% of gross nonfarm income. 2012 1040a tax forms John White runs an appliance repair shop. 2012 1040a tax forms His actual net earnings from self-employment were $10,500 in 2011 and $9,500 in 2012. 2012 1040a tax forms He meets the test for being self-employed on a regular basis. 2012 1040a tax forms He has used the nonfarm optional method less than 5 years. 2012 1040a tax forms His gross income and net profit in 2013 are as follows: Gross nonfarm income $12,000 Net nonfarm profit $1,200 John's actual net earnings for 2013 are $1,108 ($1,200 × . 2012 1040a tax forms 9235). 2012 1040a tax forms Because his net profit is less than $5,024 and less than 72. 2012 1040a tax forms 189% of his gross income, he can use the nonfarm optional method to figure net earnings of $4,640. 2012 1040a tax forms Because these net earnings are higher than his actual net earnings, he can report net earnings of $4,640 for 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms Example 2. 2012 1040a tax forms Net nonfarm profit not less than $5,024. 2012 1040a tax forms Assume that in Example 1 John's net profit is $5,400. 2012 1040a tax forms He must use the regular method. 2012 1040a tax forms He cannot use the nonfarm optional method because his net nonfarm profit is not less than $5,024. 2012 1040a tax forms Example 3. 2012 1040a tax forms Net loss from a nonfarm business. 2012 1040a tax forms Assume that in Example 1 John has a net loss of $700. 2012 1040a tax forms He can use the nonfarm optional method and report $4,640 as his net earnings from self-employment. 2012 1040a tax forms Farm Optional Method Use the farm optional method only for earnings from a farming business. 2012 1040a tax forms See Publication 225 for information about this method. 2012 1040a tax forms Using Both Optional Methods If you have both farm and nonfarm earnings, you may be able to use both optional methods to determine your net earnings from self-employment. 2012 1040a tax forms To figure your net earnings using both optional methods, you must: Figure your farm and nonfarm net earnings separately under each method. 2012 1040a tax forms Do not combine farm earnings with nonfarm earnings to figure your net earnings under either method. 2012 1040a tax forms Add the net earnings figured under each method to arrive at your total net earnings from self-employment. 2012 1040a tax forms You can report less than your total actual farm and nonfarm net earnings but not less than actual nonfarm net earnings. 2012 1040a tax forms If you use both optional methods, you can report no more than $4,640 as your combined net earnings from self-employment. 2012 1040a tax forms Example. 2012 1040a tax forms You are a self-employed farmer. 2012 1040a tax forms You also operate a retail grocery store. 2012 1040a tax forms Your gross income, actual net earnings from self-employment, and optional farm and optional nonfarm net earnings from self-employment are shown in Table 10-2. 2012 1040a tax forms Table 10-2. 2012 1040a tax forms Example—Farm and Nonfarm Earnings Income and Earnings Farm Nonfarm Gross income $3,000 $6,000 Actual net earnings $900 $500 Optional net earnings (2/3 of gross income) $2,000 $4,000 Table 10-3 shows four methods or combinations of methods you can use to figure net earnings from self-employment using the farm and nonfarm gross income and actual net earnings shown in Table 10-2. 2012 1040a tax forms Method 1. 2012 1040a tax forms Using the regular method for both farm and nonfarm income. 2012 1040a tax forms Method 2. 2012 1040a tax forms Using the optional method for farm income and the regular method for nonfarm income. 2012 1040a tax forms Method 3. 2012 1040a tax forms Using the regular method for farm income and the optional method for nonfarm income. 2012 1040a tax forms Method 4. 2012 1040a tax forms Using the optional method for both farm and nonfarm income. 2012 1040a tax forms Note. 2012 1040a tax forms Actual net earnings is the same as net earnings figured using the regular method. 2012 1040a tax forms Table 10-3. 2012 1040a tax forms Example—Net Earnings Net Earnings 1 2 3 4 Actual  farm $ 900   $ 900   Optional  farm   $ 2,000   $ 2,000 Actual nonfarm $ 500 $ 500     Optional nonfarm     $4,000 $4,000 Amount you can report: $1,400 $2,500 $4,900 $4,640* *Limited to $4,640 because you used both optional methods. 2012 1040a tax forms Fiscal Year Filer If you use a tax year other than the calendar year, you must use the tax rate and maximum earnings limit in effect at the beginning of your tax year. 2012 1040a tax forms Even if the tax rate or maximum earnings limit changes during your tax year, continue to use the same rate and limit throughout your tax year. 2012 1040a tax forms Reporting Self-Employment Tax Use Schedule SE (Form 1040) to figure and report your SE tax. 2012 1040a tax forms Then enter the SE tax on line 56 of Form 1040 and attach Schedule SE to Form 1040. 2012 1040a tax forms Most taxpayers can use Section A—Short Schedule SE to figure their SE tax. 2012 1040a tax forms However, certain taxpayers must use Section B—Long Schedule SE. 2012 1040a tax forms If you have to pay SE tax, you must file Form 1040 (with Schedule SE attached) even if you do not otherwise have to file a federal income tax return. 2012 1040a tax forms Joint return. 2012 1040a tax forms   Even if you file a joint return, you cannot file a joint Schedule SE. 2012 1040a tax forms This is true whether one spouse or both spouses have earnings subject to SE tax. 2012 1040a tax forms If both of you have earnings subject to SE tax, each of you must complete a separate Schedule SE. 2012 1040a tax forms However, if one spouse uses the Short Schedule SE and the other spouse has to use the Long Schedule SE, both can use the same form. 2012 1040a tax forms Attach both schedules to the joint return. 2012 1040a tax forms More than one business. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you have more than one trade or business, you must combine the net profit (or loss) from each business to figure your SE tax. 2012 1040a tax forms A loss from one business will reduce your profit from another business. 2012 1040a tax forms File one Schedule SE showing the earnings from self-employment, but file a separate Schedule C, C-EZ, or F for each business. 2012 1040a tax forms Example. 2012 1040a tax forms You are the sole proprietor of two separate businesses. 2012 1040a tax forms You operate a restaurant that made a net profit of $25,000. 2012 1040a tax forms You also have a cabinetmaking business that had a net loss of $500. 2012 1040a tax forms You must file a Schedule C for the restaurant showing your net profit of $25,000 and another Schedule C for the cabinetmaking business showing your net loss of $500. 2012 1040a tax forms You file Schedule SE showing total earnings subject to SE tax of $24,500. 2012 1040a tax forms Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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The 2012 1040a Tax Forms

2012 1040a tax forms Publication 936 - Main Content Table of Contents Part I. 2012 1040a tax forms Home Mortgage InterestSecured Debt Qualified Home Special Situations Points Mortgage Insurance Premiums Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement How To Report Special Rule for Tenant-Stockholders in Cooperative Housing Corporations Part II. 2012 1040a tax forms Limits on Home Mortgage Interest DeductionHome Acquisition Debt Home Equity Debt Grandfathered Debt Table 1 Instructions How To Get Tax HelpLow Income Taxpayer Clinics Part I. 2012 1040a tax forms Home Mortgage Interest This part explains what you can deduct as home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms It includes discussions on points, mortgage insurance premiums, and how to report deductible interest on your tax return. 2012 1040a tax forms Generally, home mortgage interest is any interest you pay on a loan secured by your home (main home or a second home). 2012 1040a tax forms The loan may be a mortgage to buy your home, a second mortgage, a line of credit, or a home equity loan. 2012 1040a tax forms You can deduct home mortgage interest if all the following conditions are met. 2012 1040a tax forms You file Form 1040 and itemize deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040). 2012 1040a tax forms The mortgage is a secured debt on a qualified home in which you have an ownership interest. 2012 1040a tax forms Secured Debt and Qualified Home are explained later. 2012 1040a tax forms  Both you and the lender must intend that the loan be repaid. 2012 1040a tax forms Fully deductible interest. 2012 1040a tax forms   In most cases, you can deduct all of your home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms How much you can deduct depends on the date of the mortgage, the amount of the mortgage, and how you use the mortgage proceeds. 2012 1040a tax forms   If all of your mortgages fit into one or more of the following three categories at all times during the year, you can deduct all of the interest on those mortgages. 2012 1040a tax forms (If any one mortgage fits into more than one category, add the debt that fits in each category to your other debt in the same category. 2012 1040a tax forms ) If one or more of your mortgages does not fit into any of these categories, use Part II of this publication to figure the amount of interest you can deduct. 2012 1040a tax forms   The three categories are as follows. 2012 1040a tax forms Mortgages you took out on or before October 13, 1987 (called grandfathered debt). 2012 1040a tax forms Mortgages you took out after October 13, 1987, to buy, build, or improve your home (called home acquisition debt), but only if throughout 2013 these mortgages plus any grandfathered debt totaled $1 million or less ($500,000 or less if married filing separately). 2012 1040a tax forms Mortgages you took out after October 13, 1987, other than to buy, build, or improve your home (called home equity debt), but only if throughout 2013 these mortgages totaled $100,000 or less ($50,000 or less if married filing separately) and totaled no more than the fair market value of your home reduced by (1) and (2). 2012 1040a tax forms The dollar limits for the second and third categories apply to the combined mortgages on your main home and second home. 2012 1040a tax forms   See Part II for more detailed definitions of grandfathered, home acquisition, and home equity debt. 2012 1040a tax forms    You can use Figure A to check whether your home mortgage interest is fully deductible. 2012 1040a tax forms This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. 2012 1040a tax forms Please click the link to view the image. 2012 1040a tax forms Figure A. 2012 1040a tax forms Is My Home Mortgage Interest Fully Deductible? Secured Debt You can deduct your home mortgage interest only if your mortgage is a secured debt. 2012 1040a tax forms A secured debt is one in which you sign an instrument (such as a mortgage, deed of trust, or land contract) that: Makes your ownership in a qualified home security for payment of the debt, Provides, in case of default, that your home could satisfy the debt, and Is recorded or is otherwise perfected under any state or local law that applies. 2012 1040a tax forms In other words, your mortgage is a secured debt if you put your home up as collateral to protect the interests of the lender. 2012 1040a tax forms If you cannot pay the debt, your home can then serve as payment to the lender to satisfy (pay) the debt. 2012 1040a tax forms In this publication, mortgage will refer to secured debt. 2012 1040a tax forms Debt not secured by home. 2012 1040a tax forms   A debt is not secured by your home if it is secured solely because of a lien on your general assets or if it is a security interest that attaches to the property without your consent (such as a mechanic's lien or judgment lien). 2012 1040a tax forms   A debt is not secured by your home if it once was, but is no longer secured by your home. 2012 1040a tax forms Wraparound mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms   This is not a secured debt unless it is recorded or otherwise perfected under state law. 2012 1040a tax forms Example. 2012 1040a tax forms Beth owns a home subject to a mortgage of $40,000. 2012 1040a tax forms She sells the home for $100,000 to John, who takes it subject to the $40,000 mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms Beth continues to make the payments on the $40,000 note. 2012 1040a tax forms John pays $10,000 down and gives Beth a $90,000 note secured by a wraparound mortgage on the home. 2012 1040a tax forms Beth does not record or otherwise perfect the $90,000 mortgage under the state law that applies. 2012 1040a tax forms Therefore, the mortgage is not a secured debt and John cannot deduct any of the interest he pays on it as home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms Choice to treat the debt as not secured by your home. 2012 1040a tax forms   You can choose to treat any debt secured by your qualified home as not secured by the home. 2012 1040a tax forms This treatment begins with the tax year for which you make the choice and continues for all later tax years. 2012 1040a tax forms You can revoke your choice only with the consent of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). 2012 1040a tax forms   You may want to treat a debt as not secured by your home if the interest on that debt is fully deductible (for example, as a business expense) whether or not it qualifies as home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms This may allow you, if the limits in Part II apply, more of a deduction for interest on other debts that are deductible only as home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms Cooperative apartment owner. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you own stock in a cooperative housing corporation, see the Special Rule for Tenant-Stockholders in Cooperative Housing Corporations , near the end of this Part I. 2012 1040a tax forms Qualified Home For you to take a home mortgage interest deduction, your debt must be secured by a qualified home. 2012 1040a tax forms This means your main home or your second home. 2012 1040a tax forms A home includes a house, condominium, cooperative, mobile home, house trailer, boat, or similar property that has sleeping, cooking, and toilet facilities. 2012 1040a tax forms The interest you pay on a mortgage on a home other than your main or second home may be deductible if the proceeds of the loan were used for business, investment, or other deductible purposes. 2012 1040a tax forms Otherwise, it is considered personal interest and is not deductible. 2012 1040a tax forms Main home. 2012 1040a tax forms   You can have only one main home at any one time. 2012 1040a tax forms This is the home where you ordinarily live most of the time. 2012 1040a tax forms Second home. 2012 1040a tax forms   A second home is a home that you choose to treat as your second home. 2012 1040a tax forms Second home not rented out. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you have a second home that you do not hold out for rent or resale to others at any time during the year, you can treat it as a qualified home. 2012 1040a tax forms You do not have to use the home during the year. 2012 1040a tax forms Second home rented out. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you have a second home and rent it out part of the year, you also must use it as a home during the year for it to be a qualified home. 2012 1040a tax forms You must use this home more than 14 days or more than 10% of the number of days during the year that the home is rented at a fair rental, whichever is longer. 2012 1040a tax forms If you do not use the home long enough, it is considered rental property and not a second home. 2012 1040a tax forms For information on residential rental property, see Publication 527. 2012 1040a tax forms More than one second home. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you have more than one second home, you can treat only one as the qualified second home during any year. 2012 1040a tax forms However, you can change the home you treat as a second home during the year in the following situations. 2012 1040a tax forms If you get a new home during the year, you can choose to treat the new home as your second home as of the day you buy it. 2012 1040a tax forms If your main home no longer qualifies as your main home, you can choose to treat it as your second home as of the day you stop using it as your main home. 2012 1040a tax forms If your second home is sold during the year or becomes your main home, you can choose a new second home as of the day you sell the old one or begin using it as your main home. 2012 1040a tax forms Divided use of your home. 2012 1040a tax forms   The only part of your home that is considered a qualified home is the part you use for residential living. 2012 1040a tax forms If you use part of your home for other than residential living, such as a home office, you must allocate the use of your home. 2012 1040a tax forms You must then divide both the cost and fair market value of your home between the part that is a qualified home and the part that is not. 2012 1040a tax forms Dividing the cost may affect the amount of your home acquisition debt, which is limited to the cost of your home plus the cost of any improvements. 2012 1040a tax forms (See Home Acquisition Debt in Part II. 2012 1040a tax forms ) Dividing the fair market value may affect your home equity debt limit, also explained in Part II . 2012 1040a tax forms Renting out part of home. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you rent out part of a qualified home to another person (tenant), you can treat the rented part as being used by you for residential living only if all of the following conditions apply. 2012 1040a tax forms The rented part of your home is used by the tenant primarily for residential living. 2012 1040a tax forms The rented part of your home is not a self-contained residential unit having separate sleeping, cooking, and toilet facilities. 2012 1040a tax forms You do not rent (directly or by sublease) the same or different parts of your home to more than two tenants at any time during the tax year. 2012 1040a tax forms If two persons (and dependents of either) share the same sleeping quarters, they are treated as one tenant. 2012 1040a tax forms Office in home. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you have an office in your home that you use in your business, see Publication 587, Business Use of Your Home. 2012 1040a tax forms It explains how to figure your deduction for the business use of your home, which includes the business part of your home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms Home under construction. 2012 1040a tax forms   You can treat a home under construction as a qualified home for a period of up to 24 months, but only if it becomes your qualified home at the time it is ready for occupancy. 2012 1040a tax forms   The 24-month period can start any time on or after the day construction begins. 2012 1040a tax forms Home destroyed. 2012 1040a tax forms   You may be able to continue treating your home as a qualified home even after it is destroyed in a fire, storm, tornado, earthquake, or other casualty. 2012 1040a tax forms This means you can continue to deduct the interest you pay on your home mortgage, subject to the limits described in this publication. 2012 1040a tax forms   You can continue treating a destroyed home as a qualified home if, within a reasonable period of time after the home is destroyed, you: Rebuild the destroyed home and move into it, or Sell the land on which the home was located. 2012 1040a tax forms   This rule applies to your main home and to a second home that you treat as a qualified home. 2012 1040a tax forms Time-sharing arrangements. 2012 1040a tax forms   You can treat a home you own under a time-sharing plan as a qualified home if it meets all the requirements. 2012 1040a tax forms A time-sharing plan is an arrangement between two or more people that limits each person's interest in the home or right to use it to a certain part of the year. 2012 1040a tax forms Rental of time-share. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you rent out your time-share, it qualifies as a second home only if you also use it as a home during the year. 2012 1040a tax forms See Second home rented out , earlier, for the use requirement. 2012 1040a tax forms To know whether you meet that requirement, count your days of use and rental of the home only during the time you have a right to use it or to receive any benefits from the rental of it. 2012 1040a tax forms Married taxpayers. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you are married and file a joint return, your qualified home(s) can be owned either jointly or by only one spouse. 2012 1040a tax forms Separate returns. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you are married filing separately and you and your spouse own more than one home, you can each take into account only one home as a qualified home. 2012 1040a tax forms However, if you both consent in writing, then one spouse can take both the main home and a second home into account. 2012 1040a tax forms Special Situations This section describes certain items that can be included as home mortgage interest and others that cannot. 2012 1040a tax forms It also describes certain special situations that may affect your deduction. 2012 1040a tax forms Late payment charge on mortgage payment. 2012 1040a tax forms   You can deduct as home mortgage interest a late payment charge if it was not for a specific service performed in connection with your mortgage loan. 2012 1040a tax forms Mortgage prepayment penalty. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you pay off your home mortgage early, you may have to pay a penalty. 2012 1040a tax forms You can deduct that penalty as home mortgage interest provided the penalty is not for a specific service performed or cost incurred in connection with your mortgage loan. 2012 1040a tax forms Sale of home. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you sell your home, you can deduct your home mortgage interest (subject to any limits that apply) paid up to, but not including, the date of the sale. 2012 1040a tax forms Example. 2012 1040a tax forms John and Peggy Harris sold their home on May 7. 2012 1040a tax forms Through April 30, they made home mortgage interest payments of $1,220. 2012 1040a tax forms The settlement sheet for the sale of the home showed $50 interest for the 6-day period in May up to, but not including, the date of sale. 2012 1040a tax forms Their mortgage interest deduction is $1,270 ($1,220 + $50). 2012 1040a tax forms Prepaid interest. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you pay interest in advance for a period that goes beyond the end of the tax year, you must spread this interest over the tax years to which it applies. 2012 1040a tax forms You can deduct in each year only the interest that qualifies as home mortgage interest for that year. 2012 1040a tax forms However, there is an exception that applies to points, discussed later. 2012 1040a tax forms Mortgage interest credit. 2012 1040a tax forms    You may be able to claim a mortgage interest credit if you were issued a mortgage credit certificate (MCC) by a state or local government. 2012 1040a tax forms Figure the credit on Form 8396, Mortgage Interest Credit. 2012 1040a tax forms If you take this credit, you must reduce your mortgage interest deduction by the amount of the credit. 2012 1040a tax forms   See Form 8396 and Publication 530 for more information on the mortgage interest credit. 2012 1040a tax forms Ministers' and military housing allowance. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you are a minister or a member of the uniformed services and receive a housing allowance that is not taxable, you can still deduct your home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms Hardest Hit Fund and Emergency Homeowners' Loan Programs. 2012 1040a tax forms   You can use a special method to compute your deduction for mortgage interest and real estate taxes on your main home if you meet the following two conditions. 2012 1040a tax forms You received assistance under: A State Housing Finance Agency (State HFA) Hardest Hit Fund program in which program payments could be used to pay mortgage interest, or An Emergency Homeowners' Loan Program administered by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) or a state. 2012 1040a tax forms You meet the rules to deduct all of the mortgage interest on your loan and all of the real estate taxes on your main home. 2012 1040a tax forms If you meet these tests, then you can deduct all of the payments you actually made during the year to your mortgage servicer, the State HFA, or HUD on the home mortgage (including the amount shown on box 3 of Form 1098–MA, Mortgage Assistance Payments), but not more than the sum of the amounts shown on Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement, in box 1 (mortgage interest received from payer(s) / borrower(s)), box 4 (mortgage insurance premiums), and box 5 (other information including real property taxes paid). 2012 1040a tax forms However, you are not required to use this special method to compute your deduction for mortgage interest and real estate taxes on your main home. 2012 1040a tax forms Mortgage assistance payments under section 235 of the National Housing Act. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you qualify for mortgage assistance payments for lower-income families under section 235 of the National Housing Act, part or all of the interest on your mortgage may be paid for you. 2012 1040a tax forms You cannot deduct the interest that is paid for you. 2012 1040a tax forms No other effect on taxes. 2012 1040a tax forms   Do not include these mortgage assistance payments in your income. 2012 1040a tax forms Also, do not use these payments to reduce other deductions, such as real estate taxes. 2012 1040a tax forms Divorced or separated individuals. 2012 1040a tax forms   If a divorce or separation agreement requires you or your spouse or former spouse to pay home mortgage interest on a home owned by both of you, the payment of interest may be alimony. 2012 1040a tax forms See the discussion of Payments for jointly-owned home under Alimony in Publication 504, Divorced or Separated Individuals. 2012 1040a tax forms Redeemable ground rents. 2012 1040a tax forms   In some states (such as Maryland), you can buy your home subject to a ground rent. 2012 1040a tax forms A ground rent is an obligation you assume to pay a fixed amount per year on the property. 2012 1040a tax forms Under this arrangement, you are leasing (rather than buying) the land on which your home is located. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you make annual or periodic rental payments on a redeemable ground rent, you can deduct them as mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms   A ground rent is a redeemable ground rent if all of the following are true. 2012 1040a tax forms Your lease, including renewal periods, is for more than 15 years. 2012 1040a tax forms You can freely assign the lease. 2012 1040a tax forms You have a present or future right (under state or local law) to end the lease and buy the lessor's entire interest in the land by paying a specific amount. 2012 1040a tax forms The lessor's interest in the land is primarily a security interest to protect the rental payments to which he or she is entitled. 2012 1040a tax forms   Payments made to end the lease and to buy the lessor's entire interest in the land are not deductible as mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms Nonredeemable ground rents. 2012 1040a tax forms   Payments on a nonredeemable ground rent are not mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms You can deduct them as rent if they are a business expense or if they are for rental property. 2012 1040a tax forms Reverse mortgages. 2012 1040a tax forms   A reverse mortgage is a loan where the lender pays you (in a lump sum, a monthly advance, a line of credit, or a combination of all three) while you continue to live in your home. 2012 1040a tax forms With a reverse mortgage, you retain title to your home. 2012 1040a tax forms Depending on the plan, your reverse mortgage becomes due with interest when you move, sell your home, reach the end of a pre-selected loan period, or die. 2012 1040a tax forms Because reverse mortgages are considered loan advances and not income, the amount you receive is not taxable. 2012 1040a tax forms Any interest (including original issue discount) accrued on a reverse mortgage is not deductible until you actually pay it, which is usually when you pay off the loan in full. 2012 1040a tax forms Your deduction may be limited because a reverse mortgage loan generally is subject to the limit on Home Equity Debt discussed in Part II. 2012 1040a tax forms Rental payments. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you live in a house before final settlement on the purchase, any payments you make for that period are rent and not interest. 2012 1040a tax forms This is true even if the settlement papers call them interest. 2012 1040a tax forms You cannot deduct these payments as home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms Mortgage proceeds invested in tax-exempt securities. 2012 1040a tax forms   You cannot deduct the home mortgage interest on grandfathered debt or home equity debt if you used the proceeds of the mortgage to buy securities or certificates that produce tax-free income. 2012 1040a tax forms “Grandfathered debt” and “home equity debt” are defined in Part II of this publication. 2012 1040a tax forms Refunds of interest. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you receive a refund of interest in the same tax year you paid it, you must reduce your interest expense by the amount refunded to you. 2012 1040a tax forms If you receive a refund of interest you deducted in an earlier year, you generally must include the refund in income in the year you receive it. 2012 1040a tax forms However, you need to include it only up to the amount of the deduction that reduced your tax in the earlier year. 2012 1040a tax forms This is true whether the interest overcharge was refunded to you or was used to reduce the outstanding principal on your mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms If you need to include the refund in income, report it on Form 1040, line 21. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you received a refund of interest you overpaid in an earlier year, you generally will receive a Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement, showing the refund in box 3. 2012 1040a tax forms For information about Form 1098, see Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement , later. 2012 1040a tax forms   For more information on how to treat refunds of interest deducted in earlier years, see Recoveries in Publication 525, Taxable and Nontaxable Income. 2012 1040a tax forms Cooperative apartment owner. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you own a cooperative apartment, you must reduce your home mortgage interest deduction by your share of any cash portion of a patronage dividend that the cooperative receives. 2012 1040a tax forms The patronage dividend is a partial refund to the cooperative housing corporation of mortgage interest it paid in a prior year. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you receive a Form 1098 from the cooperative housing corporation, the form should show only the amount you can deduct. 2012 1040a tax forms Points The term “points” is used to describe certain charges paid, or treated as paid, by a borrower to obtain a home mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms Points may also be called loan origination fees, maximum loan charges, loan discount, or discount points. 2012 1040a tax forms This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. 2012 1040a tax forms Please click the link to view the image. 2012 1040a tax forms Figure B. 2012 1040a tax forms Are My Points Fully Deductible This Year? A borrower is treated as paying any points that a home seller pays for the borrower's mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms See Points paid by the seller , later. 2012 1040a tax forms General Rule You generally cannot deduct the full amount of points in the year paid. 2012 1040a tax forms Because they are prepaid interest, you generally deduct them ratably over the life (term) of the mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms See Deduction Allowed Ratably , next. 2012 1040a tax forms For exceptions to the general rule, see Deduction Allowed in Year Paid , later. 2012 1040a tax forms Deduction Allowed Ratably If you do not meet the tests listed under Deduction Allowed in Year Paid , later, the loan is not a home improvement loan, or you choose not to deduct your points in full in the year paid, you can deduct the points ratably (equally) over the life of the loan if you meet all the following tests. 2012 1040a tax forms You use the cash method of accounting. 2012 1040a tax forms This means you report income in the year you receive it and deduct expenses in the year you pay them. 2012 1040a tax forms Most individuals use this method. 2012 1040a tax forms Your loan is secured by a home. 2012 1040a tax forms (The home does not need to be your main home. 2012 1040a tax forms ) Your loan period is not more than 30 years. 2012 1040a tax forms If your loan period is more than 10 years, the terms of your loan are the same as other loans offered in your area for the same or longer period. 2012 1040a tax forms Either your loan amount is $250,000 or less, or the number of points is not more than: 4, if your loan period is 15 years or less, or 6, if your loan period is more than 15 years. 2012 1040a tax forms Example. 2012 1040a tax forms You use the cash method of accounting. 2012 1040a tax forms In 2013, you took out a $100,000 loan payable over 20 years. 2012 1040a tax forms The terms of the loan are the same as for other 20-year loans offered in your area. 2012 1040a tax forms You paid $4,800 in points. 2012 1040a tax forms You made 3 monthly payments on the loan in 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms You can deduct $60 [($4,800 ÷ 240 months) x 3 payments] in 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms In 2014, if you make all twelve payments, you will be able to deduct $240 ($20 x 12). 2012 1040a tax forms Deduction Allowed in Year Paid You can fully deduct points in the year paid if you meet all the following tests. 2012 1040a tax forms (You can use Figure B as a quick guide to see whether your points are fully deductible in the year paid. 2012 1040a tax forms ) Your loan is secured by your main home. 2012 1040a tax forms (Your main home is the one you ordinarily live in most of the time. 2012 1040a tax forms ) Paying points is an established business practice in the area where the loan was made. 2012 1040a tax forms The points paid were not more than the points generally charged in that area. 2012 1040a tax forms You use the cash method of accounting. 2012 1040a tax forms This means you report income in the year you receive it and deduct expenses in the year you pay them. 2012 1040a tax forms Most individuals use this method. 2012 1040a tax forms The points were not paid in place of amounts that ordinarily are stated separately on the settlement statement, such as appraisal fees, inspection fees, title fees, attorney fees, and property taxes. 2012 1040a tax forms The funds you provided at or before closing, plus any points the seller paid, were at least as much as the points charged. 2012 1040a tax forms The funds you provided are not required to have been applied to the points. 2012 1040a tax forms They can include a down payment, an escrow deposit, earnest money, and other funds you paid at or before closing for any purpose. 2012 1040a tax forms You cannot have borrowed these funds from your lender or mortgage broker. 2012 1040a tax forms You use your loan to buy or build your main home. 2012 1040a tax forms The points were computed as a percentage of the principal amount of the mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms The amount is clearly shown on the settlement statement (such as the Settlement Statement, Form HUD-1) as points charged for the mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms The points may be shown as paid from either your funds or the seller's. 2012 1040a tax forms Note. 2012 1040a tax forms If you meet all of these tests, you can choose to either fully deduct the points in the year paid, or deduct them over the life of the loan. 2012 1040a tax forms Home improvement loan. 2012 1040a tax forms   You can also fully deduct in the year paid points paid on a loan to improve your main home, if tests (1) through (6) are met. 2012 1040a tax forms Second home. 2012 1040a tax forms You cannot fully deduct in the year paid points you pay on loans secured by your second home. 2012 1040a tax forms You can deduct these points only over the life of the loan. 2012 1040a tax forms Refinancing. 2012 1040a tax forms   Generally, points you pay to refinance a mortgage are not deductible in full in the year you pay them. 2012 1040a tax forms This is true even if the new mortgage is secured by your main home. 2012 1040a tax forms   However, if you use part of the refinanced mortgage proceeds to improve your main home and you meet the first 6 tests listed under Deduction Allowed in Year Paid , you can fully deduct the part of the points related to the improvement in the year you paid them with your own funds. 2012 1040a tax forms You can deduct the rest of the points over the life of the loan. 2012 1040a tax forms Example 1. 2012 1040a tax forms In 1998, Bill Fields got a mortgage to buy a home. 2012 1040a tax forms In 2013, Bill refinanced that mortgage with a 15-year $100,000 mortgage loan. 2012 1040a tax forms The mortgage is secured by his home. 2012 1040a tax forms To get the new loan, he had to pay three points ($3,000). 2012 1040a tax forms Two points ($2,000) were for prepaid interest, and one point ($1,000) was charged for services, in place of amounts that ordinarily are stated separately on the settlement statement. 2012 1040a tax forms Bill paid the points out of his private funds, rather than out of the proceeds of the new loan. 2012 1040a tax forms The payment of points is an established practice in the area, and the points charged are not more than the amount generally charged there. 2012 1040a tax forms Bill's first payment on the new loan was due July 1. 2012 1040a tax forms He made six payments on the loan in 2013 and is a cash basis taxpayer. 2012 1040a tax forms Bill used the funds from the new mortgage to repay his existing mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms Although the new mortgage loan was for Bill's continued ownership of his main home, it was not for the purchase or improvement of that home. 2012 1040a tax forms He cannot deduct all of the points in 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms He can deduct two points ($2,000) ratably over the life of the loan. 2012 1040a tax forms He deducts $67 [($2,000 ÷ 180 months) × 6 payments] of the points in 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms The other point ($1,000) was a fee for services and is not deductible. 2012 1040a tax forms Example 2. 2012 1040a tax forms The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that Bill used $25,000 of the loan proceeds to improve his home and $75,000 to repay his existing mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms Bill deducts 25% ($25,000 ÷ $100,000) of the points ($2,000) in 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms His deduction is $500 ($2,000 × 25%). 2012 1040a tax forms Bill also deducts the ratable part of the remaining $1,500 ($2,000 − $500) that must be spread over the life of the loan. 2012 1040a tax forms This is $50 [($1,500 ÷ 180 months) × 6 payments] in 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms The total amount Bill deducts in 2013 is $550 ($500 + $50). 2012 1040a tax forms Special Situations This section describes certain special situations that may affect your deduction of points. 2012 1040a tax forms Original issue discount. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you do not qualify to either deduct the points in the year paid or deduct them ratably over the life of the loan, or if you choose not to use either of these methods, the points reduce the issue price of the loan. 2012 1040a tax forms This reduction results in original issue discount, which is discussed in chapter 4 of Publication 535. 2012 1040a tax forms Amounts charged for services. 2012 1040a tax forms    Amounts charged by the lender for specific services connected to the loan are not interest. 2012 1040a tax forms Examples of these charges are: Appraisal fees, Notary fees, and Preparation costs for the mortgage note or deed of trust. 2012 1040a tax forms  You cannot deduct these amounts as points either in the year paid or over the life of the mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms Points paid by the seller. 2012 1040a tax forms   The term “points” includes loan placement fees that the seller pays to the lender to arrange financing for the buyer. 2012 1040a tax forms Treatment by seller. 2012 1040a tax forms   The seller cannot deduct these fees as interest. 2012 1040a tax forms But they are a selling expense that reduces the amount realized by the seller. 2012 1040a tax forms See Publication 523 for information on selling your home. 2012 1040a tax forms Treatment by buyer. 2012 1040a tax forms   The buyer reduces the basis of the home by the amount of the seller-paid points and treats the points as if he or she had paid them. 2012 1040a tax forms If all the tests under Deduction Allowed in Year Paid , earlier, are met, the buyer can deduct the points in the year paid. 2012 1040a tax forms If any of those tests are not met, the buyer deducts the points over the life of the loan. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you need information about the basis of your home, see Publication 523 or Publication 530. 2012 1040a tax forms Funds provided are less than points. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you meet all the tests in Deduction Allowed in Year Paid , earlier, except that the funds you provided were less than the points charged to you (test (6)), you can deduct the points in the year paid, up to the amount of funds you provided. 2012 1040a tax forms In addition, you can deduct any points paid by the seller. 2012 1040a tax forms Example 1. 2012 1040a tax forms When you took out a $100,000 mortgage loan to buy your home in December, you were charged one point ($1,000). 2012 1040a tax forms You meet all the tests for deducting points in the year paid, except the only funds you provided were a $750 down payment. 2012 1040a tax forms Of the $1,000 charged for points, you can deduct $750 in the year paid. 2012 1040a tax forms You spread the remaining $250 over the life of the mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms Example 2. 2012 1040a tax forms The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that the person who sold you your home also paid one point ($1,000) to help you get your mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms In the year paid, you can deduct $1,750 ($750 of the amount you were charged plus the $1,000 paid by the seller). 2012 1040a tax forms You spread the remaining $250 over the life of the mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms You must reduce the basis of your home by the $1,000 paid by the seller. 2012 1040a tax forms Excess points. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you meet all the tests in Deduction Allowed in Year Paid , earlier, except that the points paid were more than generally paid in your area (test (3)), you deduct in the year paid only the points that are generally charged. 2012 1040a tax forms You must spread any additional points over the life of the mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms Mortgage ending early. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you spread your deduction for points over the life of the mortgage, you can deduct any remaining balance in the year the mortgage ends. 2012 1040a tax forms However, if you refinance the mortgage with the same lender, you cannot deduct any remaining balance of spread points. 2012 1040a tax forms Instead, deduct the remaining balance over the term of the new loan. 2012 1040a tax forms   A mortgage may end early due to a prepayment, refinancing, foreclosure, or similar event. 2012 1040a tax forms Example. 2012 1040a tax forms Dan paid $3,000 in points in 2002 that he had to spread out over the 15-year life of the mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms He deducts $200 points per year. 2012 1040a tax forms Through 2012, Dan has deducted $2,200 of the points. 2012 1040a tax forms Dan prepaid his mortgage in full in 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms He can deduct the remaining $800 of points in 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms Limits on deduction. 2012 1040a tax forms   You cannot fully deduct points paid on a mortgage that exceeds the limits discussed in Part II . 2012 1040a tax forms See the Table 1 Instructions for line 10. 2012 1040a tax forms Form 1098. 2012 1040a tax forms    The mortgage interest statement you receive should show not only the total interest paid during the year, but also your deductible points paid during the year. 2012 1040a tax forms See Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement , later. 2012 1040a tax forms Mortgage Insurance Premiums You can treat amounts you paid during 2013 for qualified mortgage insurance as home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms The insurance must be in connection with home acquisition debt, and the insurance contract must have been issued after 2006. 2012 1040a tax forms Qualified mortgage insurance. 2012 1040a tax forms   Qualified mortgage insurance is mortgage insurance provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Federal Housing Administration, or the Rural Housing Service, and private mortgage insurance (as defined in section 2 of the Homeowners Protection Act of 1998 as in effect on December 20, 2006). 2012 1040a tax forms   Mortgage insurance provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs is commonly known as a funding fee. 2012 1040a tax forms If provided by the Rural Housing Service, it is commonly known as a guarantee fee. 2012 1040a tax forms The funding fee and guarantee fee can either be included in the amount of the loan or paid in full at the time of closing. 2012 1040a tax forms These fees can be deducted fully in 2013 if the mortgage insurance contract was issued in 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms Contact the mortgage insurance issuer to determine the deductible amount if it is not reported in box 4 of Form 1098. 2012 1040a tax forms Special rules for prepaid mortgage insurance. 2012 1040a tax forms   Generally, if you paid premiums for qualified mortgage insurance that are properly allocable to periods after the close of the tax year, such premiums are treated as paid in the period to which they are allocated. 2012 1040a tax forms You must allocate the premiums over the shorter of the stated term of the mortgage or 84 months, beginning with the month the insurance was obtained. 2012 1040a tax forms No deduction is allowed for the unamortized balance if the mortgage is satisfied before its term. 2012 1040a tax forms This paragraph does not apply to qualified mortgage insurance provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs or the Rural Housing Service. 2012 1040a tax forms Example. 2012 1040a tax forms Ryan purchased a home in May of 2012 and financed the home with a 15-year mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms Ryan also prepaid all of the $9,240 in private mortgage insurance required at the time of closing in May. 2012 1040a tax forms Since the $9,240 in private mortgage insurance is allocable to periods after 2012, Ryan must allocate the $9,240 over the shorter of the life of the mortgage or 84 months. 2012 1040a tax forms Ryan's adjusted gross income (AGI) for 2012 is $76,000. 2012 1040a tax forms Ryan can deduct $880 ($9,240 ÷ 84 x 8 months) for qualified mortgage insurance premiums in 2012. 2012 1040a tax forms For 2013, Ryan can deduct $1,320 ($9,240 ÷ 84 x 12 months) if his AGI is $100,000 or less. 2012 1040a tax forms In this example, the mortgage insurance premiums are allocated over 84 months, which is shorter than the life of the mortgage of 15 years (180 months). 2012 1040a tax forms Limit on deduction. 2012 1040a tax forms   If your adjusted gross income on Form 1040, line 38, is more than $100,000 ($50,000 if your filing status is married filing separately), the amount of your mortgage insurance premiums that are otherwise deductible is reduced and may be eliminated. 2012 1040a tax forms See Line 13 in the instructions for Schedule A (Form 1040) and complete the Mortgage Insurance Premiums Deduction Worksheet to figure the amount you can deduct. 2012 1040a tax forms If your adjusted gross income is more than $109,000 ($54,500 if married filing separately), you cannot deduct your mortgage insurance premiums. 2012 1040a tax forms Form 1098. 2012 1040a tax forms   The mortgage interest statement you receive should show not only the total interest paid during the year, but also your mortgage insurance premiums paid during the year, which may qualify to be treated as deductible mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms See Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement, next. 2012 1040a tax forms Form 1098, Mortgage Interest Statement If you paid $600 or more of mortgage interest (including certain points and mortgage insurance premiums) during the year on any one mortgage, you generally will receive a Form 1098 or a similar statement from the mortgage holder. 2012 1040a tax forms You will receive the statement if you pay interest to a person (including a financial institution or cooperative housing corporation) in the course of that person's trade or business. 2012 1040a tax forms A governmental unit is a person for purposes of furnishing the statement. 2012 1040a tax forms The statement for each year should be sent to you by January 31 of the following year. 2012 1040a tax forms A copy of this form will also be sent to the IRS. 2012 1040a tax forms The statement will show the total interest you paid during the year, any mortgage insurance premiums you paid, and if you purchased a main home during the year, it also will show the deductible points paid during the year, including seller-paid points. 2012 1040a tax forms However, it should not show any interest that was paid for you by a government agency. 2012 1040a tax forms As a general rule, Form 1098 will include only points that you can fully deduct in the year paid. 2012 1040a tax forms However, certain points not included on Form 1098 also may be deductible, either in the year paid or over the life of the loan. 2012 1040a tax forms See the earlier discussion of Points to determine whether you can deduct points not shown on Form 1098. 2012 1040a tax forms Prepaid interest on Form 1098. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you prepaid interest in 2013 that accrued in full by January 15, 2014, this prepaid interest may be included in box 1 of Form 1098. 2012 1040a tax forms However, you cannot deduct the prepaid amount for January 2014 in 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms (See Prepaid interest , earlier. 2012 1040a tax forms ) You will have to figure the interest that accrued for 2014 and subtract it from the amount in box 1. 2012 1040a tax forms You will include the interest for January 2014 with other interest you pay for 2014. 2012 1040a tax forms Refunded interest. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you received a refund of mortgage interest you overpaid in an earlier year, you generally will receive a Form 1098 showing the refund in box 3. 2012 1040a tax forms See Refunds of interest , earlier. 2012 1040a tax forms Mortgage insurance premiums. 2012 1040a tax forms   The amount of mortgage insurance premiums you paid during 2013 may be shown in Box 4 of Form 1098. 2012 1040a tax forms See Mortgage Insurance Premiums , earlier. 2012 1040a tax forms How To Report Deduct the home mortgage interest and points reported to you on Form 1098 on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 10. 2012 1040a tax forms If you paid more deductible interest to the financial institution than the amount shown on Form 1098, show the larger deductible amount on line 10. 2012 1040a tax forms Attach a statement explaining the difference and print “See attached” next to line 10. 2012 1040a tax forms Deduct home mortgage interest that was not reported to you on Form 1098 on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 11. 2012 1040a tax forms If you paid home mortgage interest to the person from whom you bought your home, show that person's name, address, and taxpayer identification number (TIN) on the dotted lines next to line 11. 2012 1040a tax forms The seller must give you this number and you must give the seller your TIN. 2012 1040a tax forms A Form W-9, Request for Taxpayer Identification Number and Certification, can be used for this purpose. 2012 1040a tax forms Failure to meet any of these requirements may result in a $50 penalty for each failure. 2012 1040a tax forms The TIN can be either a social security number, an individual taxpayer identification number (issued by the Internal Revenue Service), or an employer identification number. 2012 1040a tax forms If you can take a deduction for points that were not reported to you on Form 1098, deduct those points on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 12. 2012 1040a tax forms Deduct mortgage insurance premiums on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 13. 2012 1040a tax forms More than one borrower. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you and at least one other person (other than your spouse if you file a joint return) were liable for and paid interest on a mortgage that was for your home, and the other person received a Form 1098 showing the interest that was paid during the year, attach a statement to your return explaining this. 2012 1040a tax forms Show how much of the interest each of you paid, and give the name and address of the person who received the form. 2012 1040a tax forms Deduct your share of the interest on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 11, and print “See attached” next to the line. 2012 1040a tax forms Also, deduct your share of any qualified mortgage insurance premiums on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 13. 2012 1040a tax forms   Similarly, if you are the payer of record on a mortgage on which there are other borrowers entitled to a deduction for the interest shown on the Form 1098 you received, deduct only your share of the interest on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 10. 2012 1040a tax forms Let each of the other borrowers know what his or her share is. 2012 1040a tax forms Mortgage proceeds used for business or investment. 2012 1040a tax forms   If your home mortgage interest deduction is limited under the rules explained in Part II , but all or part of the mortgage proceeds were used for business, investment, or other deductible activities, see Table 2 near the end of this publication. 2012 1040a tax forms It shows where to deduct the part of your excess interest that is for those activities. 2012 1040a tax forms The Table 1 Instructions for line 13 in Part II explain how to divide the excess interest among the activities for which the mortgage proceeds were used. 2012 1040a tax forms Special Rule for Tenant-Stockholders in Cooperative Housing Corporations A qualified home includes stock in a cooperative housing corporation owned by a tenant-stockholder. 2012 1040a tax forms This applies only if the tenant-stockholder is entitled to live in the house or apartment because of owning stock in the cooperative. 2012 1040a tax forms Cooperative housing corporation. 2012 1040a tax forms   This is a corporation that meets all of the following conditions. 2012 1040a tax forms Has only one class of stock outstanding, Has no stockholders other than those who own the stock that can live in a house, apartment, or house trailer owned or leased by the corporation, Has no stockholders who can receive any distribution out of capital other than on a liquidation of the corporation, and Meets at least one of the following requirements. 2012 1040a tax forms Receives at least 80% of its gross income for the year in which the mortgage interest is paid or incurred from tenant-stockholders. 2012 1040a tax forms For this purpose, gross income is all income received during the entire year, including amounts received before the corporation changed to cooperative ownership. 2012 1040a tax forms At all times during the year, at least 80% of the total square footage of the corporation's property is used or available for use by the tenant-stockholders for residential or residential-related use. 2012 1040a tax forms At least 90% of the corporation's expenditures paid or incurred during the year are for the acquisition, construction, management, maintenance, or care of corporate property for the benefit of the tenant-stockholders. 2012 1040a tax forms Stock used to secure debt. 2012 1040a tax forms   In some cases, you cannot use your cooperative housing stock to secure a debt because of either: Restrictions under local or state law, or Restrictions in the cooperative agreement (other than restrictions in which the main purpose is to permit the tenant- stockholder to treat unsecured debt as secured debt). 2012 1040a tax forms However, you can treat a debt as secured by the stock to the extent that the proceeds are used to buy the stock under the allocation of interest rules. 2012 1040a tax forms See chapter 4 of Publication 535 for details on these rules. 2012 1040a tax forms Figuring deductible home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms   Generally, if you are a tenant-stockholder, you can deduct payments you make for your share of the interest paid or incurred by the cooperative. 2012 1040a tax forms The interest must be on a debt to buy, build, change, improve, or maintain the cooperative's housing, or on a debt to buy the land. 2012 1040a tax forms   Figure your share of this interest by multiplying the total by the following fraction. 2012 1040a tax forms      Your shares of stock in the cooperative   The total shares of stock in the cooperative Limits on deduction. 2012 1040a tax forms   To figure how the limits discussed in Part II apply to you, treat your share of the cooperative's debt as debt incurred by you. 2012 1040a tax forms The cooperative should determine your share of its grandfathered debt, its home acquisition debt, and its home equity debt. 2012 1040a tax forms (Your share of each of these types of debt is equal to the average balance of each debt multiplied by the fraction just given. 2012 1040a tax forms ) After your share of the average balance of each type of debt is determined, you include it with the average balance of that type of debt secured by your stock. 2012 1040a tax forms Form 1098. 2012 1040a tax forms    The cooperative should give you a Form 1098 showing your share of the interest. 2012 1040a tax forms Use the rules in this publication to determine your deductible mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms Part II. 2012 1040a tax forms Limits on Home Mortgage Interest Deduction This part of the publication discusses the limits on deductible home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms These limits apply to your home mortgage interest expense if you have a home mortgage that does not fit into any of the three categories listed at the beginning of Part I under Fully deductible interest . 2012 1040a tax forms Your home mortgage interest deduction is limited to the interest on the part of your home mortgage debt that is not more than your qualified loan limit. 2012 1040a tax forms This is the part of your home mortgage debt that is grandfathered debt or that is not more than the limits for home acquisition debt and home equity debt. 2012 1040a tax forms Table 1 can help you figure your qualified loan limit and your deductible home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms Home Acquisition Debt Home acquisition debt is a mortgage you took out after October 13, 1987, to buy, build, or substantially improve a qualified home (your main or second home). 2012 1040a tax forms It also must be secured by that home. 2012 1040a tax forms If the amount of your mortgage is more than the cost of the home plus the cost of any substantial improvements, only the debt that is not more than the cost of the home plus improvements qualifies as home acquisition debt. 2012 1040a tax forms The additional debt may qualify as home equity debt (discussed later). 2012 1040a tax forms Home acquisition debt limit. 2012 1040a tax forms   The total amount you can treat as home acquisition debt at any time on your main home and second home cannot be more than $1 million ($500,000 if married filing separately). 2012 1040a tax forms This limit is reduced (but not below zero) by the amount of your grandfathered debt (discussed later). 2012 1040a tax forms Debt over this limit may qualify as home equity debt (also discussed later). 2012 1040a tax forms Refinanced home acquisition debt. 2012 1040a tax forms   Any secured debt you use to refinance home acquisition debt is treated as home acquisition debt. 2012 1040a tax forms However, the new debt will qualify as home acquisition debt only up to the amount of the balance of the old mortgage principal just before the refinancing. 2012 1040a tax forms Any additional debt not used to buy, build, or substantially improve a qualified home is not home acquisition debt, but may qualify as home equity debt (discussed later). 2012 1040a tax forms Mortgage that qualifies later. 2012 1040a tax forms   A mortgage that does not qualify as home acquisition debt because it does not meet all the requirements may qualify at a later time. 2012 1040a tax forms For example, a debt that you use to buy your home may not qualify as home acquisition debt because it is not secured by the home. 2012 1040a tax forms However, if the debt is later secured by the home, it may qualify as home acquisition debt after that time. 2012 1040a tax forms Similarly, a debt that you use to buy property may not qualify because the property is not a qualified home. 2012 1040a tax forms However, if the property later becomes a qualified home, the debt may qualify after that time. 2012 1040a tax forms Mortgage treated as used to buy, build, or improve home. 2012 1040a tax forms   A mortgage secured by a qualified home may be treated as home acquisition debt, even if you do not actually use the proceeds to buy, build, or substantially improve the home. 2012 1040a tax forms This applies in the following situations. 2012 1040a tax forms You buy your home within 90 days before or after the date you take out the mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms The home acquisition debt is limited to the home's cost, plus the cost of any substantial improvements within the limit described below in (2) or (3). 2012 1040a tax forms (See Example 1 later. 2012 1040a tax forms ) You build or improve your home and take out the mortgage before the work is completed. 2012 1040a tax forms The home acquisition debt is limited to the amount of the expenses incurred within 24 months before the date of the mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms You build or improve your home and take out the mortgage within 90 days after the work is completed. 2012 1040a tax forms The home acquisition debt is limited to the amount of the expenses incurred within the period beginning 24 months before the work is completed and ending on the date of the mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms (See Example 2 later. 2012 1040a tax forms ) Example 1. 2012 1040a tax forms You bought your main home on June 3 for $175,000. 2012 1040a tax forms You paid for the home with cash you got from the sale of your old home. 2012 1040a tax forms On July 15, you took out a mortgage of $150,000 secured by your main home. 2012 1040a tax forms You used the $150,000 to invest in stocks. 2012 1040a tax forms You can treat the mortgage as taken out to buy your home because you bought the home within 90 days before you took out the mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms The entire mortgage qualifies as home acquisition debt because it was not more than the home's cost. 2012 1040a tax forms Example 2. 2012 1040a tax forms On January 31, John began building a home on the lot that he owned. 2012 1040a tax forms He used $45,000 of his personal funds to build the home. 2012 1040a tax forms The home was completed on October 31. 2012 1040a tax forms On November 21, John took out a $36,000 mortgage that was secured by the home. 2012 1040a tax forms The mortgage can be treated as used to build the home because it was taken out within 90 days after the home was completed. 2012 1040a tax forms The entire mortgage qualifies as home acquisition debt because it was not more than the expenses incurred within the period beginning 24 months before the home was completed. 2012 1040a tax forms This is illustrated by Figure C. 2012 1040a tax forms   Please click here for the text description of the image. 2012 1040a tax forms Figure C. 2012 1040a tax forms John's example Date of the mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms   The date you take out your mortgage is the day the loan proceeds are disbursed. 2012 1040a tax forms This is generally the closing date. 2012 1040a tax forms You can treat the day you apply in writing for your mortgage as the date you take it out. 2012 1040a tax forms However, this applies only if you receive the loan proceeds within a reasonable time (such as within 30 days) after your application is approved. 2012 1040a tax forms If a timely application you make is rejected, a reasonable additional time will be allowed to make a new application. 2012 1040a tax forms Cost of home or improvements. 2012 1040a tax forms   To determine your cost, include amounts paid to acquire any interest in a qualified home or to substantially improve the home. 2012 1040a tax forms   The cost of building or substantially improving a qualified home includes the costs to acquire real property and building materials, fees for architects and design plans, and required building permits. 2012 1040a tax forms Substantial improvement. 2012 1040a tax forms   An improvement is substantial if it: Adds to the value of your home, Prolongs your home's useful life, or Adapts your home to new uses. 2012 1040a tax forms    Repairs that maintain your home in good condition, such as repainting your home, are not substantial improvements. 2012 1040a tax forms However, if you paint your home as part of a renovation that substantially improves your qualified home, you can include the painting costs in the cost of the improvements. 2012 1040a tax forms Acquiring an interest in a home because of a divorce. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you incur debt to acquire the interest of a spouse or former spouse in a home, because of a divorce or legal separation, you can treat that debt as home acquisition debt. 2012 1040a tax forms Part of home not a qualified home. 2012 1040a tax forms    To figure your home acquisition debt, you must divide the cost of your home and improvements between the part of your home that is a qualified home and any part that is not a qualified home. 2012 1040a tax forms See Divided use of your home under Qualified Home in Part I. 2012 1040a tax forms Home Equity Debt If you took out a loan for reasons other than to buy, build, or substantially improve your home, it may qualify as home equity debt. 2012 1040a tax forms In addition, debt you incurred to buy, build, or substantially improve your home, to the extent it is more than the home acquisition debt limit (discussed earlier), may qualify as home equity debt. 2012 1040a tax forms Home equity debt is a mortgage you took out after October 13, 1987, that: Does not qualify as home acquisition debt or as grandfathered debt, and Is secured by your qualified home. 2012 1040a tax forms Example. 2012 1040a tax forms You bought your home for cash 10 years ago. 2012 1040a tax forms You did not have a mortgage on your home until last year, when you took out a $50,000 loan, secured by your home, to pay for your daughter's college tuition and your father's medical bills. 2012 1040a tax forms This loan is home equity debt. 2012 1040a tax forms Home equity debt limit. 2012 1040a tax forms   There is a limit on the amount of debt that can be treated as home equity debt. 2012 1040a tax forms The total home equity debt on your main home and second home is limited to the smaller of: $100,000 ($50,000 if married filing separately), or The total of each home's fair market value (FMV) reduced (but not below zero) by the amount of its home acquisition debt and grandfathered debt. 2012 1040a tax forms Determine the FMV and the outstanding home acquisition and grandfathered debt for each home on the date that the last debt was secured by the home. 2012 1040a tax forms Example. 2012 1040a tax forms You own one home that you bought in 2000. 2012 1040a tax forms Its FMV now is $110,000, and the current balance on your original mortgage (home acquisition debt) is $95,000. 2012 1040a tax forms Bank M offers you a home mortgage loan of 125% of the FMV of the home less any outstanding mortgages or other liens. 2012 1040a tax forms To consolidate some of your other debts, you take out a $42,500 home mortgage loan [(125% × $110,000) − $95,000] with Bank M. 2012 1040a tax forms Your home equity debt is limited to $15,000. 2012 1040a tax forms This is the smaller of: $100,000, the maximum limit, or $15,000, the amount that the FMV of $110,000 exceeds the amount of home acquisition debt of $95,000. 2012 1040a tax forms Debt higher than limit. 2012 1040a tax forms   Interest on amounts over the home equity debt limit (such as the interest on $27,500 [$42,500 − $15,000] in the preceding example) generally is treated as personal interest and is not deductible. 2012 1040a tax forms But if the proceeds of the loan were used for investment, business, or other deductible purposes, the interest may be deductible. 2012 1040a tax forms If it is, see the Table 1 Instructions for line 13 for an explanation of how to allocate the excess interest. 2012 1040a tax forms Part of home not a qualified home. 2012 1040a tax forms   To figure the limit on your home equity debt, you must divide the FMV of your home between the part that is a qualified home and any part that is not a qualified home. 2012 1040a tax forms See Divided use of your home under Qualified Home in Part I. 2012 1040a tax forms Fair market value (FMV). 2012 1040a tax forms    This is the price at which the home would change hands between you and a buyer, neither having to sell or buy, and both having reasonable knowledge of all relevant facts. 2012 1040a tax forms Sales of similar homes in your area, on about the same date your last debt was secured by the home, may be helpful in figuring the FMV. 2012 1040a tax forms Grandfathered Debt If you took out a mortgage on your home before October 14, 1987, or you refinanced such a mortgage, it may qualify as grandfathered debt. 2012 1040a tax forms To qualify, it must have been secured by your qualified home on October 13, 1987, and at all times after that date. 2012 1040a tax forms How you used the proceeds does not matter. 2012 1040a tax forms Grandfathered debt is not limited. 2012 1040a tax forms All of the interest you paid on grandfathered debt is fully deductible home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms However, the amount of your grandfathered debt reduces the $1 million limit for home acquisition debt and the limit based on your home's fair market value for home equity debt. 2012 1040a tax forms Refinanced grandfathered debt. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you refinanced grandfathered debt after October 13, 1987, for an amount that was not more than the mortgage principal left on the debt, then you still treat it as grandfathered debt. 2012 1040a tax forms To the extent the new debt is more than that mortgage principal, it is treated as home acquisition or home equity debt, and the mortgage is a mixed-use mortgage (discussed later under Average Mortgage Balance in the Table 1 instructions). 2012 1040a tax forms The debt must be secured by the qualified home. 2012 1040a tax forms   You treat grandfathered debt that was refinanced after October 13, 1987, as grandfathered debt only for the term left on the debt that was refinanced. 2012 1040a tax forms After that, you treat it as home acquisition debt or home equity debt, depending on how you used the proceeds. 2012 1040a tax forms Exception. 2012 1040a tax forms   If the debt before refinancing was like a balloon note (the principal on the debt was not amortized over the term of the debt), then you treat the refinanced debt as grandfathered debt for the term of the first refinancing. 2012 1040a tax forms This term cannot be more than 30 years. 2012 1040a tax forms Example. 2012 1040a tax forms Chester took out a $200,000 first mortgage on his home in 1986. 2012 1040a tax forms The mortgage was a five-year balloon note and the entire balance on the note was due in 1991. 2012 1040a tax forms Chester refinanced the debt in 1991 with a new 20-year mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms The refinanced debt is treated as grandfathered debt for its entire term (20 years). 2012 1040a tax forms Line-of-credit mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms    If you had a line-of-credit mortgage on October 13, 1987, and borrowed additional amounts against it after that date, then the additional amounts are either home acquisition debt or home equity debt depending on how you used the proceeds. 2012 1040a tax forms The balance on the mortgage before you borrowed the additional amounts is grandfathered debt. 2012 1040a tax forms The newly borrowed amounts are not grandfathered debt because the funds were borrowed after October 13, 1987. 2012 1040a tax forms See Average Mortgage Balance in the Table 1 Instructions that follow. 2012 1040a tax forms Table 1 Instructions Unless you are subject to the overall limit on itemized deductions, you can deduct all of the interest you paid during the year on mortgages secured by your main home or second home in either of the following two situations. 2012 1040a tax forms All the mortgages are grandfathered debt. 2012 1040a tax forms The total of the mortgage balances for the entire year is within the limits discussed earlier under Home Acquisition Debt and Home Equity Debt . 2012 1040a tax forms In either of those cases, you do not need Table 1. 2012 1040a tax forms Otherwise, you can use Table 1 to determine your qualified loan limit and deductible home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms Fill out only one Table 1 for both your main and second home regardless of how many mortgages you have. 2012 1040a tax forms Table 1. 2012 1040a tax forms Worksheet To Figure Your Qualified Loan Limit and Deductible Home Mortgage Interest For the Current Year See the Table 1 Instructions. 2012 1040a tax forms Part I Qualified Loan Limit 1. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the average balance of all your grandfathered debt. 2012 1040a tax forms See line 1 instructions 1. 2012 1040a tax forms   2. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the average balance of all your home acquisition debt. 2012 1040a tax forms See line 2 instructions 2. 2012 1040a tax forms   3. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter $1,000,000 ($500,000 if married filing separately) 3. 2012 1040a tax forms   4. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the larger of the amount on line 1 or the amount on line 3 4. 2012 1040a tax forms   5. 2012 1040a tax forms Add the amounts on lines 1 and 2. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the total here 5. 2012 1040a tax forms   6. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the smaller of the amount on line 4 or the amount on line 5 6. 2012 1040a tax forms   7. 2012 1040a tax forms If you have home equity debt, enter the smaller of $100,000 ($50,000 if married filing separately) or your limited amount. 2012 1040a tax forms See the line 7 instructions for the limit which may apply to you. 2012 1040a tax forms 7. 2012 1040a tax forms   8. 2012 1040a tax forms Add the amounts on lines 6 and 7. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the total. 2012 1040a tax forms This is your qualified loan limit. 2012 1040a tax forms 8. 2012 1040a tax forms   Part II Deductible Home Mortgage Interest 9. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the total of the average balances of all mortgages on all qualified homes. 2012 1040a tax forms  See line 9 instructions 9. 2012 1040a tax forms     If line 8 is less than line 9, go on to line 10. 2012 1040a tax forms If line 8 is equal to or more than line 9, stop here. 2012 1040a tax forms All of your interest on all the mortgages included on line 9 is deductible as home mortgage interest on Schedule A (Form 1040). 2012 1040a tax forms     10. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the total amount of interest that you paid. 2012 1040a tax forms See line 10 instructions 10. 2012 1040a tax forms   11. 2012 1040a tax forms Divide the amount on line 8 by the amount on line 9. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the result as a decimal amount (rounded to three places) 11. 2012 1040a tax forms × . 2012 1040a tax forms 12. 2012 1040a tax forms Multiply the amount on line 10 by the decimal amount on line 11. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the result. 2012 1040a tax forms This is your deductible home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter this amount on Schedule A (Form 1040) 12. 2012 1040a tax forms   13. 2012 1040a tax forms Subtract the amount on line 12 from the amount on line 10. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the result. 2012 1040a tax forms This is not home mortgage interest. 2012 1040a tax forms See line 13 instructions 13. 2012 1040a tax forms   Home equity debt only. 2012 1040a tax forms   If all of your mortgages are home equity debt, do not fill in lines 1 through 5. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter zero on line 6 and complete the rest of Table 1. 2012 1040a tax forms Average Mortgage Balance You have to figure the average balance of each mortgage to determine your qualified loan limit. 2012 1040a tax forms You need these amounts to complete lines 1, 2, and 9 of Table 1. 2012 1040a tax forms You can use the highest mortgage balances during the year, but you may benefit most by using the average balances. 2012 1040a tax forms The following are methods you can use to figure your average mortgage balances. 2012 1040a tax forms However, if a mortgage has more than one category of debt, see Mixed-use mortgages , later, in this section. 2012 1040a tax forms Average of first and last balance method. 2012 1040a tax forms   You can use this method if all the following apply. 2012 1040a tax forms You did not borrow any new amounts on the mortgage during the year. 2012 1040a tax forms (This does not include borrowing the original mortgage amount. 2012 1040a tax forms ) You did not prepay more than one month's principal during the year. 2012 1040a tax forms (This includes prepayment by refinancing your home or by applying proceeds from its sale. 2012 1040a tax forms ) You had to make level payments at fixed equal intervals on at least a semi-annual basis. 2012 1040a tax forms You treat your payments as level even if they were adjusted from time to time because of changes in the interest rate. 2012 1040a tax forms    To figure your average balance, complete the following worksheet. 2012 1040a tax forms    1. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the balance as of the first day of the year that the mortgage was secured by your qualified home during the year (generally January 1)   2. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the balance as of the last day of the year that the mortgage was secured by your qualified home during the year (generally December 31)   3. 2012 1040a tax forms Add amounts on lines 1 and 2   4. 2012 1040a tax forms Divide the amount on line 3 by 2. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the result   Interest paid divided by interest rate method. 2012 1040a tax forms   You can use this method if at all times in 2013 the mortgage was secured by your qualified home and the interest was paid at least monthly. 2012 1040a tax forms    Complete the following worksheet to figure your average balance. 2012 1040a tax forms    1. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the interest paid in 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms Do not include points, mortgage insurance premiums, or any interest paid in 2013 that is for a year after 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms However, do include interest that is for 2013 but was paid in an earlier year   2. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the annual interest rate on the mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms If the interest rate varied in 2013, use the lowest rate for the year   3. 2012 1040a tax forms Divide the amount on line 1 by the amount on line 2. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the result   Example. 2012 1040a tax forms Mr. 2012 1040a tax forms Blue had a line of credit secured by his main home all year. 2012 1040a tax forms He paid interest of $2,500 on this loan. 2012 1040a tax forms The interest rate on the loan was 9% (. 2012 1040a tax forms 09) all year. 2012 1040a tax forms His average balance using this method is $27,778, figured as follows. 2012 1040a tax forms 1. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the interest paid in 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms Do not include points, mortgage insurance premiums, or any interest paid in 2013 that is for a year after 2013. 2012 1040a tax forms However, do include interest that is for 2013 but was paid in an earlier year $2,500 2. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the annual interest rate on the mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms If the interest rate varied in 2013, use the lowest rate for the year . 2012 1040a tax forms 09 3. 2012 1040a tax forms Divide the amount on line 1 by the amount on line 2. 2012 1040a tax forms Enter the result $27,778 Statements provided by your lender. 2012 1040a tax forms   If you receive monthly statements showing the closing balance or the average balance for the month, you can use either to figure your average balance for the year. 2012 1040a tax forms You can treat the balance as zero for any month the mortgage was not secured by your qualified home. 2012 1040a tax forms   For each mortgage, figure your average balance by adding your monthly closing or average balances and dividing that total by the number of months the home secured by that mortgage was a qualified home during the year. 2012 1040a tax forms   If your lender can give you your average balance for the year, you can use that amount. 2012 1040a tax forms Example. 2012 1040a tax forms Ms. 2012 1040a tax forms Brown had a home equity loan secured by her main home all year. 2012 1040a tax forms She received monthly statements showing her average balance for each month. 2012 1040a tax forms She can figure her average balance for the year by adding her monthly average balances and dividing the total by 12. 2012 1040a tax forms Mixed-use mortgages. 2012 1040a tax forms   A mixed-use mortgage is a loan that consists of more than one of the three categories of debt (grandfathered debt, home acquisition debt, and home equity debt). 2012 1040a tax forms For example, a mortgage you took out during the year is a mixed-use mortgage if you used its proceeds partly to refinance a mortgage that you took out in an earlier year to buy your home (home acquisition debt) and partly to buy a car (home equity debt). 2012 1040a tax forms   Complete lines 1 and 2 of Table 1 by including the separate average balances of any grandfathered debt and home acquisition debt in your mixed-use mortgage. 2012 1040a tax forms Do not use the methods described earlier in this section to figure the average balance of either category. 2012 1040a tax forms Instead, for each category, use the following method. 2012 1040a tax forms Figure the balance of that category of debt for each month. 2012 1040a tax forms This is the amount of the loan proceeds allocated to that category, reduced by your principal payments on the mortgage previously applied to that category. 2012 1040a tax forms Principal payments on a mixed-use mortgage are applied in full to each category of debt, until its balance is zero, in the following order: First, any home equity debt, Next, any grandfathered debt, and Finally, any home acquisition debt. 2012 1040a tax forms Add together the monthly balances figured in (1). 2012 1040a tax forms Divide the result in (2) by 12. 2012 1040a tax forms   Complete line 9 of Table 1 by including the average balance of the entire mixed-use mortgage, figured under one of the methods described earlier in this section. 2012 1040a tax forms Example 1. 2012 1040a tax forms In 1986, Sharon took out a $1,400,000 mortgage to buy her main home (grandfathered debt). 2012 1040a tax forms On March 2, 2013, when the home had a fair market value of $1,700,000 and she owed $1,100,000 on the mortgage, Sharon took out a second mortgage for $200,000. 2012 1040a tax forms She used $180,000 of the proceeds to make substantial improvements to her home (home acquisition debt) and the remaining $20,000 to buy a car (home equity debt). 2012 1040a tax forms Under the loan agreement, Sharon must make principal payments of $1,000 at the end of each month. 2012 1040a tax forms During 2013, her principal payments on the second mortgage totaled $10,000. 2012 1040a tax forms To complete Table 1, line 2, Sharon must figure a separate average balance for the part of her second mortgage that is home acquisition debt. 2012 1040a tax forms The January and February balances were zero. 2012 1040a tax forms The March through December balances were all $180,000, because none of her principal payments are applied to the home acquisition debt. 2012 1040a tax forms (They are all applied to the home equity debt, reducing it to $10,000 [$20,000 − $10,000]. 2012 1040a tax forms ) The monthly balances of the home acquisition debt total $1,800,000 ($180,000 × 10). 2012 1040a tax forms Therefore, the average balance of the home acquisition debt for 2013 was $150,000 ($1,800,000 ÷ 12). 2012 1040a tax forms Example 2. 2012 1040a tax forms The facts are the same as in Example 1. 2012 1040a tax forms In 2014, Sharon's January through October principal payments on her second mortgage are applied to the home equity debt, reducing it to zero. 2012 1040a tax forms The balance of the home acquisition debt remains $180,000 for each of those months. 2012 1040a tax forms Because her November and December principal payments are applied to the home acquisition debt, the November balance is $179,000 ($180,000 − $1,000) and the December balance is $178,000 ($180,000 − $2,000). 2012 1040a tax forms The monthly balances total $2,157,000 [($180,000 × 10) + $179,000 + $178,000]. 2012 1040a tax forms Therefore, the average balance of the home acquisition debt for 2014 is $179,750 ($2,157,000 ÷ 12). 2012 1040a tax forms L