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2011taxes

2011taxes Publication 15-A - Additional Material Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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The 2011taxes

2011taxes 2. 2011taxes   Accounting Periods and Methods Table of Contents Introduction Useful Items - You may want to see: Accounting Periods Accounting MethodsCash Method Accrual Method Combination Method Inventories Uniform Capitalization Rules Special Methods Change in Accounting Method Introduction You must figure your taxable income and file an income tax return for an annual accounting period called a tax year. 2011taxes Also, you must consistently use an accounting method that clearly shows your income and expenses for the tax year. 2011taxes Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 538 Accounting Periods and Methods See chapter 12 for information about getting publications and forms. 2011taxes Accounting Periods When preparing a statement of income and expenses (generally your income tax return), you must use your books and records for a specific interval of time called an accounting period. 2011taxes The annual accounting period for your income tax return is called a tax year. 2011taxes You can use one of the following tax years. 2011taxes A calendar tax year. 2011taxes A fiscal tax year. 2011taxes Unless you have a required tax year, you adopt a tax year by filing your first income tax return using that tax year. 2011taxes A required tax year is a tax year required under the Internal Revenue Code or the Income Tax Regulations. 2011taxes Calendar tax year. 2011taxes   A calendar tax year is 12 consecutive months beginning January 1 and ending December 31. 2011taxes   You must adopt the calendar tax year if any of the following apply. 2011taxes You do not keep books. 2011taxes You have no annual accounting period. 2011taxes Your present tax year does not qualify as a fiscal year. 2011taxes Your use of the calendar tax year is required under the Internal Revenue Code or the Income Tax Regulations. 2011taxes   If you filed your first income tax return using the calendar tax year and you later begin business as a sole proprietor, you must continue to use the calendar tax year unless you get IRS approval to change it or are otherwise allowed to change it without IRS approval. 2011taxes For more information, see Change in tax year, later. 2011taxes   If you adopt the calendar tax year, you must maintain your books and records and report your income and expenses for the period from January 1 through December 31 of each year. 2011taxes Fiscal tax year. 2011taxes   A fiscal tax year is 12 consecutive months ending on the last day of any month except December. 2011taxes A 52-53-week tax year is a fiscal tax year that varies from 52 to 53 weeks but does not have to end on the last day of a month. 2011taxes   If you adopt a fiscal tax year, you must maintain your books and records and report your income and expenses using the same tax year. 2011taxes   For more information on a fiscal tax year, including a 52-53-week tax year, see Publication 538. 2011taxes Change in tax year. 2011taxes   Generally, you must file Form 1128, Application To Adopt, Change, or Retain a Tax Year, to request IRS approval to change your tax year. 2011taxes See the Instructions for Form 1128 for exceptions. 2011taxes If you qualify for an automatic approval request, a user fee is not required. 2011taxes If you do not qualify for automatic approval, a ruling must be requested. 2011taxes See the instructions for Form 1128 for information about user fees if you are requesting a ruling. 2011taxes Accounting Methods An accounting method is a set of rules used to determine when and how income and expenses are reported. 2011taxes Your accounting method includes not only the overall method of accounting you use, but also the accounting treatment you use for any material item. 2011taxes You choose an accounting method for your business when you file your first income tax return that includes a Schedule C for the business. 2011taxes After that, if you want to change your accounting method, you must generally get IRS approval. 2011taxes See Change in Accounting Method, later. 2011taxes Kinds of methods. 2011taxes   Generally, you can use any of the following accounting methods. 2011taxes Cash method. 2011taxes An accrual method. 2011taxes Special methods of accounting for certain items of income and expenses. 2011taxes Combination method using elements of two or more of the above. 2011taxes You must use the same accounting method to figure your taxable income and to keep your books. 2011taxes Also, you must use an accounting method that clearly shows your income. 2011taxes Business and personal items. 2011taxes   You can account for business and personal items under different accounting methods. 2011taxes For example, you can figure your business income under an accrual method, even if you use the cash method to figure personal items. 2011taxes Two or more businesses. 2011taxes   If you have two or more separate and distinct businesses, you can use a different accounting method for each if the method clearly reflects the income of each business. 2011taxes They are separate and distinct only if you maintain complete and separate books and records for each business. 2011taxes Cash Method Most individuals and many sole proprietors with no inventory use the cash method because they find it easier to keep cash method records. 2011taxes However, if an inventory is necessary to account for your income, you must generally use an accrual method of accounting for sales and purchases. 2011taxes For more information, see Inventories, later. 2011taxes Income Under the cash method, include in your gross income all items of income you actually or constructively receive during your tax year. 2011taxes If you receive property or services, you must include their fair market value in income. 2011taxes Example. 2011taxes On December 30, 2012, Mrs. 2011taxes Sycamore sent you a check for interior decorating services you provided to her. 2011taxes You received the check on January 2, 2013. 2011taxes You must include the amount of the check in income for 2013. 2011taxes Constructive receipt. 2011taxes   You have constructive receipt of income when an amount is credited to your account or made available to you without restriction. 2011taxes You do not need to have possession of it. 2011taxes If you authorize someone to be your agent and receive income for you, you are treated as having received it when your agent received it. 2011taxes Example. 2011taxes Interest is credited to your bank account in December 2013. 2011taxes You do not withdraw it or enter it into your passbook until 2014. 2011taxes You must include it in your gross income for 2013. 2011taxes Delaying receipt of income. 2011taxes   You cannot hold checks or postpone taking possession of similar property from one tax year to another to avoid paying tax on the income. 2011taxes You must report the income in the year the property is received or made available to you without restriction. 2011taxes Example. 2011taxes Frances Jones, a service contractor, was entitled to receive a $10,000 payment on a contract in December 2013. 2011taxes She was told in December that her payment was available. 2011taxes At her request, she was not paid until January 2014. 2011taxes She must include this payment in her 2013 income because it was constructively received in 2013. 2011taxes Checks. 2011taxes   Receipt of a valid check by the end of the tax year is constructive receipt of income in that year, even if you cannot cash or deposit the check until the following year. 2011taxes Example. 2011taxes Dr. 2011taxes Redd received a check for $500 on December 31, 2013, from a patient. 2011taxes She could not deposit the check in her business account until January 2, 2014. 2011taxes She must include this fee in her income for 2013. 2011taxes Debts paid by another person or canceled. 2011taxes   If your debts are paid by another person or are canceled by your creditors, you may have to report part or all of this debt relief as income. 2011taxes If you receive income in this way, you constructively receive the income when the debt is canceled or paid. 2011taxes For more information, see Canceled Debt under Kinds of Income in chapter 5. 2011taxes Repayment of income. 2011taxes   If you include an amount in income and in a later year you have to repay all or part of it, you can usually deduct the repayment in the year in which you make it. 2011taxes If the amount you repay is over $3,000, a special rule applies. 2011taxes For details about the special rule, see Repayments in chapter 11 of Publication 535, Business Expenses. 2011taxes Expenses Under the cash method, you generally deduct expenses in the tax year in which you actually pay them. 2011taxes This includes business expenses for which you contest liability. 2011taxes However, you may not be able to deduct an expense paid in advance or you may be required to capitalize certain costs, as explained later under Uniform Capitalization Rules. 2011taxes Expenses paid in advance. 2011taxes   You can deduct an expense you pay in advance only in the year to which it applies. 2011taxes Example. 2011taxes You are a calendar year taxpayer and you pay $1,000 in 2013 for a business insurance policy effective for one year, beginning July 1. 2011taxes You can deduct $500 in 2013 and $500 in 2014. 2011taxes Accrual Method Under an accrual method of accounting, you generally report income in the year earned and deduct or capitalize expenses in the year incurred. 2011taxes The purpose of an accrual method of accounting is to match income and expenses in the correct year. 2011taxes Income—General Rule Under an accrual method, you generally include an amount in your gross income for the tax year in which all events that fix your right to receive the income have occurred and you can determine the amount with reasonable accuracy. 2011taxes Example. 2011taxes You are a calendar year accrual method taxpayer. 2011taxes You sold a computer on December 28, 2013. 2011taxes You billed the customer in the first week of January 2014, but you did not receive payment until February 2014. 2011taxes You must include the amount received for the computer in your 2013 income. 2011taxes Income—Special Rules The following are special rules that apply to advance payments, estimating income, and changing a payment schedule for services. 2011taxes Estimated income. 2011taxes   If you include a reasonably estimated amount in gross income, and later determine the exact amount is different, take the difference into account in the tax year in which you make the determination. 2011taxes Change in payment schedule for services. 2011taxes   If you perform services for a basic rate specified in a contract, you must accrue the income at the basic rate, even if you agree to receive payments at a lower rate until you complete the services and then receive the difference. 2011taxes Advance payments for services. 2011taxes   Generally, you report an advance payment for services to be performed in a later tax year as income in the year you receive the payment. 2011taxes However, if you receive an advance payment for services you agree to perform by the end of the next tax year, you can elect to postpone including the advance payment in income until the next tax year. 2011taxes However, you cannot postpone including any payment beyond that tax year. 2011taxes   For more information, see Advance Payment for Services under Accrual Method in Publication 538. 2011taxes That publication also explains special rules for reporting the following types of income. 2011taxes Advance payments for service agreements. 2011taxes Prepaid rent. 2011taxes Advance payments for sales. 2011taxes   Special rules apply to including income from advance payments on agreements for future sales or other dispositions of goods you hold primarily for sale to your customers in the ordinary course of your business. 2011taxes If the advance payments are for contracts involving both the sale and service of goods, it may be necessary to treat them as two agreements. 2011taxes An agreement includes a gift certificate that can be redeemed for goods. 2011taxes Treat amounts that are due and payable as amounts you received. 2011taxes   You generally include an advance payment in income for the tax year in which you receive it. 2011taxes However, you can use an alternative method. 2011taxes For information about the alternative method, see Publication 538. 2011taxes Expenses Under an accrual method of accounting, you generally deduct or capitalize a business expense when both the following apply. 2011taxes The all-events test has been met. 2011taxes The test has been met when: All events have occurred that fix the fact of liability, and The liability can be determined with reasonable accuracy. 2011taxes Economic performance has occurred. 2011taxes Economic performance. 2011taxes   You generally cannot deduct or capitalize a business expense until economic performance occurs. 2011taxes If your expense is for property or services provided to you, or for your use of property, economic performance occurs as the property or services are provided or as the property is used. 2011taxes If your expense is for property or services you provide to others, economic performance occurs as you provide the property or services. 2011taxes An exception allows certain recurring items to be treated as incurred during a tax year even though economic performance has not occurred. 2011taxes For more information on economic performance, see Economic Performance under Accrual Method in Publication 538. 2011taxes Example. 2011taxes You are a calendar year taxpayer and use an accrual method of accounting. 2011taxes You buy office supplies in December 2013. 2011taxes You receive the supplies and the bill in December, but you pay the bill in January 2014. 2011taxes You can deduct the expense in 2013 because all events that fix the fact of liability have occurred, the amount of the liability could be reasonably determined, and economic performance occurred in that year. 2011taxes Your office supplies may qualify as a recurring expense. 2011taxes In that case, you can deduct them in 2013 even if the supplies are not delivered until 2014 (when economic performance occurs). 2011taxes Keeping inventories. 2011taxes   When the production, purchase, or sale of merchandise is an income-producing factor in your business, you must generally take inventories into account at the beginning and the end of your tax year. 2011taxes If you must account for an inventory, you must generally use an accrual method of accounting for your purchases and sales. 2011taxes For more information, see Inventories , later. 2011taxes Special rule for related persons. 2011taxes   You cannot deduct business expenses and interest owed to a related person who uses the cash method of accounting until you make the payment and the corresponding amount is includible in the related person's gross income. 2011taxes Determine the relationship, for this rule, as of the end of the tax year for which the expense or interest would otherwise be deductible. 2011taxes If a deduction is not allowed under this rule, the rule will continue to apply even if your relationship with the person ends before the expense or interest is includible in the gross income of that person. 2011taxes   Related persons include members of your immediate family, including only brothers and sisters (either whole or half), your spouse, ancestors, and lineal descendants. 2011taxes For a list of other related persons, see section 267 of the Internal Revenue Code. 2011taxes Combination Method You can generally use any combination of cash, accrual, and special methods of accounting if the combination clearly shows your income and expenses and you use it consistently. 2011taxes However, the following restrictions apply. 2011taxes If an inventory is necessary to account for your income, you must generally use an accrual method for purchases and sales. 2011taxes (See, however, Inventories, later. 2011taxes ) You can use the cash method for all other items of income and expenses. 2011taxes If you use the cash method for figuring your income, you must use the cash method for reporting your expenses. 2011taxes If you use an accrual method for reporting your expenses, you must use an accrual method for figuring your income. 2011taxes If you use a combination method that includes the cash method, treat that combination method as the cash method. 2011taxes Inventories Generally, if you produce, purchase, or sell merchandise in your business, you must keep an inventory and use the accrual method for purchases and sales of merchandise. 2011taxes However, the following taxpayers can use the cash method of accounting even if they produce, purchase, or sell merchandise. 2011taxes These taxpayers can also account for inventoriable items as materials and supplies that are not incidental (discussed later). 2011taxes A qualifying taxpayer under Revenue Procedure 2001-10 in Internal Revenue Bulletin 2001-2. 2011taxes A qualifying small business taxpayer under Revenue Procedure 2002-28 in Internal Revenue Bulletin 2002-18. 2011taxes Qualifying taxpayer. 2011taxes   You are a qualifying taxpayer if: Your average annual gross receipts for each prior tax year ending on or after December 17, 1998, is $1 million or less. 2011taxes (Your average annual gross receipts for a tax year is figured by adding the gross receipts for that tax year and the 2 preceding tax years and dividing by 3. 2011taxes ) Your business is not a tax shelter, as defined under section 448(d)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. 2011taxes Qualifying small business taxpayer. 2011taxes   You are a qualifying small business taxpayer if: Your average annual gross receipts for each prior tax year ending on or after December 31, 2000, is more than $1 million but not more than $10 million. 2011taxes (Your average annual gross receipts for a tax year is figured by adding the gross receipts for that tax year and the 2 preceding tax years and dividing the total by 3. 2011taxes ) You are not prohibited from using the cash method under section 448 of the Internal Revenue Code. 2011taxes Your principal business activity is an eligible business (described in Publication 538 and Revenue Procedure 2002-28). 2011taxes Business not owned or not in existence for 3 years. 2011taxes   If you did not own your business for all of the 3-tax-year period used in figuring your average annual gross receipts, include the period of any predecessor. 2011taxes If your business has not been in existence for the 3-tax-year period, base your average on the period it has existed including any short tax years, annualizing the short tax year's gross receipts. 2011taxes Materials and supplies that are not incidental. 2011taxes   If you account for inventoriable items as materials and supplies that are not incidental, you will deduct the cost of the items you would otherwise include in inventory in the year you sell the items, or the year you pay for them, whichever is later. 2011taxes If you are a producer, you can use any reasonable method to estimate the raw material in your work in process and finished goods on hand at the end of the year to determine the raw material used to produce finished goods that were sold during the year. 2011taxes Changing accounting method. 2011taxes   If you are a qualifying taxpayer or qualifying small business taxpayer and want to change to the cash method or to account for inventoriable items as non-incidental materials and supplies, you must file Form 3115, Application for Change in Accounting Method. 2011taxes See Change in Accounting Method, later. 2011taxes More information. 2011taxes    For more information about the qualifying taxpayer exception, see Revenue Procedure 2001-10 in Internal Revenue Bulletin 2001-2. 2011taxes For more information about the qualifying small business taxpayer exception, see Revenue Procedure 2002-28 in Internal Revenue Bulletin 2002-18. 2011taxes Items included in inventory. 2011taxes   If you are required to account for inventories, include the following items when accounting for your inventory. 2011taxes Merchandise or stock in trade. 2011taxes Raw materials. 2011taxes Work in process. 2011taxes Finished products. 2011taxes Supplies that physically become a part of the item intended for sale. 2011taxes Valuing inventory. 2011taxes   You must value your inventory at the beginning and end of each tax year to determine your cost of goods sold (Schedule C, line 42). 2011taxes To determine the value of your inventory, you need a method for identifying the items in your inventory and a method for valuing these items. 2011taxes   Inventory valuation rules cannot be the same for all kinds of businesses. 2011taxes The method you use to value your inventory must conform to generally accepted accounting principles for similar businesses and must clearly reflect income. 2011taxes Your inventory practices must be consistent from year to year. 2011taxes More information. 2011taxes   For more information about inventories, see Publication 538. 2011taxes Uniform Capitalization Rules Under the uniform capitalization rules, you must capitalize the direct costs and part of the indirect costs for production or resale activities. 2011taxes Include these costs in the basis of property you produce or acquire for resale, rather than claiming them as a current deduction. 2011taxes You recover the costs through depreciation, amortization, or cost of goods sold when you use, sell, or otherwise dispose of the property. 2011taxes Activities subject to the uniform capitalization rules. 2011taxes   You may be subject to the uniform capitalization rules if you do any of the following, unless the property is produced for your use other than in a business or an activity carried on for profit. 2011taxes Produce real or tangible personal property. 2011taxes For this purpose, tangible personal property includes a film, sound recording, video tape, book, or similar property. 2011taxes Acquire property for resale. 2011taxes Exceptions. 2011taxes   These rules do not apply to the following property. 2011taxes Personal property you acquire for resale if your average annual gross receipts are $10 million or less. 2011taxes Property you produce if you meet either of the following conditions. 2011taxes Your indirect costs of producing the property are $200,000 or less. 2011taxes You use the cash method of accounting and do not account for inventories. 2011taxes For more information, see Inventories, earlier. 2011taxes Special Methods There are special methods of accounting for certain items of income or expense. 2011taxes These include the following. 2011taxes Amortization, discussed in chapter 8 of Publication 535, Business Expenses. 2011taxes Bad debts, discussed in chapter 10 of Publication 535. 2011taxes Depletion, discussed in chapter 9 of Publication 535. 2011taxes Depreciation, discussed in Publication 946, How To Depreciate Property. 2011taxes Installment sales, discussed in Publication 537, Installment Sales. 2011taxes Change in Accounting Method Once you have set up your accounting method, you must generally get IRS approval before you can change to another method. 2011taxes A change in your accounting method includes a change in: Your overall method, such as from cash to an accrual method, and Your treatment of any material item. 2011taxes To get approval, you must file Form 3115, Application for Change in Accounting Method. 2011taxes You can get IRS approval to change an accounting method under either the automatic change procedures or the advance consent request procedures. 2011taxes You may have to pay a user fee. 2011taxes For more information, see the form instructions. 2011taxes Automatic change procedures. 2011taxes   Certain taxpayers can presume to have IRS approval to change their method of accounting. 2011taxes The approval is granted for the tax year for which the taxpayer requests a change (year of change), if the taxpayer complies with the provisions of the automatic change procedures. 2011taxes No user fee is required for an application filed under an automatic change procedure generally covered in Revenue Procedure 2002-9. 2011taxes   Generally, you must use Form 3115 to request an automatic change. 2011taxes For more information, see the Instructions for Form 3115. 2011taxes Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications