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2011 Tax Return Form 1040

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2011 Tax Return Form 1040

2011 tax return form 1040 2. 2011 tax return form 1040   Estado Civil para Efectos de la Declaración Table of Contents Qué Hay de Nuevo Introduction Useful Items - You may want to see: Estado CivilPersonas divorciadas. 2011 tax return form 1040 Divorcio y nuevo matrimonio. 2011 tax return form 1040 Matrimonios anulados. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cabeza de familia o viudo que reúne los requisitos con hijo dependiente. 2011 tax return form 1040 Personas consideradas casadas. 2011 tax return form 1040 Matrimonio del mismo sexo. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cónyuge fallecido durante el año. 2011 tax return form 1040 Personas casadas que viven separadas. 2011 tax return form 1040 Soltero Casados que Presentan una Declaración ConjuntaPresentación de una Declaración Conjunta Casados que Presentan la Declaración por SeparadoReglas Especiales Cabeza de FamiliaPersonas Consideradas no Casadas Personas que Mantienen una Vivienda Persona Calificada Viudo que Reúne los Requisitos con Hijo Dependiente Qué Hay de Nuevo Estado civil para efectos de la declaración de parejas del mismo sexo. 2011 tax return form 1040  Si tiene un cónyuge que es del mismo sexo de usted y con quien se casó en un estado (o país extranjero) que reconoce legalmente el matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo, usted y su cónyuge, por lo general, tendrán que utilizar el estado civil para efectos de la declaración de “casado que presenta una declaración conjunta” o “casado que presenta una declaración por separado” en su declaración de impuestos que corresponde al año 2013, aun si usted y su cónyuge viven ahora en un estado (o país extranjero) que no reconoce legalmente el matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea Matrimonio del mismo sexo bajo Estado Civil, más adelante. 2011 tax return form 1040 Introduction Este capítulo le ayuda a determinar qué estado civil debe usar para efectos de la declaración. 2011 tax return form 1040 Hay cinco estados civiles para efectos de la declaración: Soltero. 2011 tax return form 1040 Casado que presenta una declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 Casado que presenta una declaración por separado. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cabeza de familia. 2011 tax return form 1040 Viudo que reúne los requisitos con hijo dependiente. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si reúne los requisitos para más de un estado civil, elija el que le permita pagar menos impuestos. 2011 tax return form 1040 Tiene que determinar su estado civil para efectos de la declaración antes de determinar si tiene que presentar una declaración de impuestos (capítulo 1), su deducción estándar (capítulo 20) y su impuesto correcto (capítulo 30). 2011 tax return form 1040 También utilizará el estado civil para determinar si reúne los requisitos o no para reclamar ciertas deducciones y créditos. 2011 tax return form 1040 Useful Items - You may want to see: Publicación 501 Exemptions, Standard Deduction, and Filing Information (Exenciones, deducción estándar e información para la presentación de la declaración), en inglés 519 U. 2011 tax return form 1040 S. 2011 tax return form 1040 Tax Guide for Aliens (Guía sobre los impuestos federales estadounidenses para extranjeros), en inglés 555 Community Property (Bienes gananciales), en inglés Estado Civil Por lo general, su estado civil para efectos de la declaración depende de si a usted se le considera casado o no casado. 2011 tax return form 1040 Personas no casadas. 2011 tax return form 1040   Se le considera no casado durante todo el año si, en el último día de su año tributario, usted no está casado o está legalmente separado de su cónyuge por decreto de divorcio o de manutención por separación. 2011 tax return form 1040 La ley estatal es la que rige al determinar si está casado o legalmente separado por decreto de divorcio o de manutención por separación. 2011 tax return form 1040 Personas divorciadas. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si está divorciado por decreto final de divorcio para el último día del año, a usted se le considera no casado por todo el año. 2011 tax return form 1040 Divorcio y nuevo matrimonio. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si se divorcian con el fin exclusivo de presentar declaraciones de impuestos como no casados y en el momento de efectuarse el divorcio usted y su cónyuge tienen la intención de volverse a casar, y así lo hicieron en el año tributario siguiente, usted y su cónyuge están obligados a presentar la declaración como casados en los dos años. 2011 tax return form 1040 Matrimonios anulados. 2011 tax return form 1040    Si obtiene de un tribunal un decreto de anulación de matrimonio que establezca que nunca existió matrimonio válido alguno, se le considera no casado aun si ha presentado declaraciones conjuntas en años anteriores. 2011 tax return form 1040 Tiene que presentar una declaración enmendada (Formulario 1040X, Amended U. 2011 tax return form 1040 S. 2011 tax return form 1040 Individual Income Tax Return (Declaración enmendada del impuesto federal sobre el ingreso)), en inglés, declarando su estado civil de soltero o cabeza de familia para todos los años tributarios afectados por la anulación de matrimonio que no estén excluídos por la ley de prescripción para presentar una declaración de impuestos. 2011 tax return form 1040 Por lo general, para un crédito o reembolso, tiene que presentar el Formulario 1040X dentro de 3 años (incluyendo extensiones) después de la fecha en que presentó su declaración original, o dentro de 2 años después de la fecha en que pagó el impuesto, lo que sea más tarde. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si presentó la declaración original con anticipación (por ejemplo, el 1 de marzo), se considera que su declaración se presentó en la fecha de vencimiento (por lo general el 15 de abril). 2011 tax return form 1040 Sin embargo, si tiene una extensión para presentar la declaración (por ejemplo, el 15 de octubre), pero la presentó con anticipación y la recibimos el 1 de julio, se considera que su declaración se presentó el 1 de julio. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cabeza de familia o viudo que reúne los requisitos con hijo dependiente. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si a usted se le considera no casado, podría presentar la declaración como cabeza de familia o como viudo que reúne los requisitos con hijo dependiente. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea Cabeza de Familia y Viudo que Reúne los Requisitos con Hijo Dependiente para saber si reúne los requisitos. 2011 tax return form 1040 Personas casadas. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si se le considera casado, usted y su cónyuge pueden presentar una declaración conjunta o declaraciones por separado. 2011 tax return form 1040 Personas consideradas casadas. 2011 tax return form 1040   A usted se le considera casado si, en el último día de su año tributario, usted y su cónyuge cumplen cualquiera de las siguientes condiciones: Están casados y viven juntos como cónyuges. 2011 tax return form 1040 Viven juntos por matrimonio de hecho reconocido en el estado en que viven o en el estado en que el matrimonio de hecho comenzó. 2011 tax return form 1040 Están casados y viven separados, pero no están legalmente separados por decreto de divorcio o de manutención por separación. 2011 tax return form 1040 Están separados por un decreto provisional (o sea, que no es final) de divorcio. 2011 tax return form 1040 Para propósitos de una declaración conjunta, a usted no se le considera divorciado. 2011 tax return form 1040 Matrimonio del mismo sexo. 2011 tax return form 1040   Para propósitos tributarios federales, se consideran como casadas a las personas del mismo sexo que se casaron legalmente en un estado (o país extranjero) cuyas leyes autorizan el matrimonio entre dos personas del mismo sexo, aun si el estado en el que viven actualmente dichas personas no reconoce el matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo. 2011 tax return form 1040 El término “cónyuge” incluye a un individuo que está casado con una persona de su mismo sexo si la pareja está legalmente casada conforme a la ley estatal (o extranjera). 2011 tax return form 1040 Sin embargo, las personas que están en una sociedad doméstica (“ domestic partnership ”), unión civil u otra relación semejante que no es considerada un matrimonio conforme a las leyes estatales (o extranjeras) no están consideradas como casadas para propósitos tributarios federales. 2011 tax return form 1040 Para más detalles, consulte la Publicación 501, en inglés. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cónyuge fallecido durante el año. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si su cónyuge falleció durante el año, a usted se le considera casado todo el año para efectos del estado civil en la declaración. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si no se ha vuelto a casar antes de terminar el año tributario, puede presentar una declaración conjunta en nombre suyo y de su cónyuge fallecido. 2011 tax return form 1040 También podría tener derecho, durante los 2 años siguientes, a los beneficios especiales que se explican más adelante en la sección titulada Viudo que Reúne los Requisitos con Hijo Dependiente . 2011 tax return form 1040   Si se ha vuelto a casar antes de terminar el año tributario, puede presentar una declaración conjunta con su nuevo cónyuge. 2011 tax return form 1040 El estado civil para efectos de la declaración de su cónyuge fallecido será el de casado que presenta una declaración por separado para dicho año. 2011 tax return form 1040 Personas casadas que viven separadas. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si usted vive separado de su cónyuge y satisface ciertos requisitos quizás pueda presentar la declaración como cabeza de familia aunque no esté divorciado o legalmente separado. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si reúne los requisitos para presentar la declaración como cabeza de familia en vez de casado que presenta la declaración por separado, la cantidad correspondiente a su deducción estándar será mayor. 2011 tax return form 1040 Además, el impuesto correspondiente podría ser menor y es posible que pueda reclamar el crédito por ingreso del trabajo. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea más adelante Cabeza de Familia . 2011 tax return form 1040 Soltero Su estado civil para efectos de la declaración es soltero si se considera que no está casado y no reúne los requisitos para otro estado civil. 2011 tax return form 1040 Para determinar su estado civil vea el apartado anterior titulado Estado Civil . 2011 tax return form 1040 Viudo. 2011 tax return form 1040   Podría declarar el estado civil de soltero si antes del 1 de enero del año 2013 enviudó y no se volvió a casar antes de finalizar el año 2013. 2011 tax return form 1040 No obstante, quizás pueda utilizar otro estado civil que le permita pagar menos impuestos. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea Cabeza de Familia y Viudo que Reúne los Requisitos con Hijo Dependiente , más adelante, para determinar si reúne los requisitos. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cómo presentar la declaración. 2011 tax return form 1040   Puede presentar el Formulario 1040. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si tiene ingresos sujetos a impuestos menores de $100,000, quizá podría presentar el Formulario 1040A. 2011 tax return form 1040 Además, si usted no tiene dependientes y tiene menos de 65 años de edad, no es ciego y cumple otros requisitos, puede presentar el Formulario 1040EZ. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si presenta el Formulario 1040A o el Formulario 1040, indique su estado civil de soltero marcando el recuadro de la línea 1. 2011 tax return form 1040 Utilice la columna de Soltero en la Tabla de Impuestos o la Sección A de la Hoja de Trabajo para el Cálculo del Impuesto, para calcular su impuesto. 2011 tax return form 1040 Casados que Presentan una Declaración Conjunta Puede elegir el estado civil de casado que presenta una declaración conjunta si se le considera casado y usted y su cónyuge deciden presentar una declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 En dicha declaración, usted y su cónyuge incluyen la suma de sus ingresos y deducen la suma de sus gastos permisibles. 2011 tax return form 1040 Puede presentar una declaración conjunta aunque uno de ustedes no tuviera ingresos ni deducciones. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si usted y su cónyuge deciden presentar una declaración conjunta, es posible que sus impuestos sean menores que la suma de los impuestos de los otros estados civiles. 2011 tax return form 1040 Además, su deducción estándar (si no detallan sus deducciones) podría ser mayor y podrían reunir los requisitos para recibir beneficios tributarios no aplicables a otros estados civiles para efectos de la declaración. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si usted y su cónyuge tienen ingresos, quizás les convendría calcular el impuesto en una declaración conjunta y en declaraciones separadas (usando el estado civil de casado que presenta la declaración por separado). 2011 tax return form 1040 Pueden escoger el método que les permita pagar la menor cantidad de impuesto en total. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cómo presentar la declaración. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si está casado y presenta la declaración conjunta, puede utilizar el Formulario 1040. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si usted y su cónyuge tienen ingresos sujetos a impuestos menores de $100,000, quizá podría presentar el Formulario 1040A. 2011 tax return form 1040 Además, si usted o su cónyuge no tienen dependientes, ambos tienen menos de 65 años de edad, no están ciegos y cumplen otros requisitos, pueden presentar el Formulario 1040EZ. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si presenta el Formulario 1040 o el Formulario 1040A, indique este estado civil marcando el recuadro de la línea 2. 2011 tax return form 1040 Para calcular sus impuestos, utilice la columna correspondiente a Casado que presenta una declaración conjunta, la cual aparece en la Tabla de Impuestos o la Sección B de la Hoja de Trabajo para el Cálculo del Impuesto. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cónyuge fallecido. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si su cónyuge falleció durante el año, a usted se le considera casado todo el año y puede elegir el estado civil de casado que presenta una declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea la sección anterior titulada Cónyuge fallecido durante el año , bajo Estado Civil, para más información. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si su cónyuge falleció en 2014 antes de presentar la declaración de 2013, para efectos de la declaración de 2013 puede elegir casado que presenta la declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 Personas divorciadas. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si para el último día del año usted está divorciado conforme a un decreto definitivo de divorcio, se le considerará no casado durante todo el año y no podrá utilizar la clasificación de casado que presenta declaración conjunta como estado civil para efectos de la declaración de impuestos. 2011 tax return form 1040 Presentación de una Declaración Conjunta Usted y su cónyuge tienen que incluir todos sus ingresos, exenciones y deducciones en la declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 Período contable. 2011 tax return form 1040   Usted y su cónyuge tienen que utilizar el mismo período contable, pero pueden usar diferentes métodos contables. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea Períodos Contables y Métodos Contables , en el capítulo 1. 2011 tax return form 1040 Responsabilidad conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040   Usted y su cónyuge pueden ser responsables, individual y conjuntamente, del impuesto y todos los intereses o multas por pagar en su declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 Esto significa que si un cónyuge no paga el impuesto adeudado, el otro puede ser responsable de pagarlo. 2011 tax return form 1040 O, si un cónyuge no informa el impuesto correcto, ambos cónyuges puede que sean responsables por todo impuesto adicional determinado por el IRS. 2011 tax return form 1040 Un cónyuge puede ser responsable de todo el impuesto adeudado, aunque dichos ingresos provengan del trabajo del otro cónyuge. 2011 tax return form 1040   Puede que usted quiera presentar la declaración por separado si: usted cree que su cónyuge no está declarando todo el impuesto de él o ella, o usted no quiere ser responsable de todo el impuesto que su cónyuge adeude si a su cónyuge no se le retiene suficiente impuesto o no paga suficiente impuesto estimado. 2011 tax return form 1040 Contribuyente divorciado. 2011 tax return form 1040   Usted podría ser individual y conjuntamente responsable de todo impuesto, además de todos los intereses y multas adeudados en una declaración conjunta presentada antes de su divorcio. 2011 tax return form 1040 Esta responsabilidad puede ser aplicable aun en el caso en que su decreto de divorcio establezca que su ex cónyuge es responsable de toda cantidad adeudada correspondiente a declaraciones de impuestos conjuntas presentadas anteriormente. 2011 tax return form 1040 Alivio tributario en el caso de obligación conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040   En algunos casos, en una declaración conjunta, uno de los cónyuges puede ser exonerado de la responsabilidad conjunta de pagar impuestos, intereses y multas por cantidades correspondientes al otro cónyuge que fuesen declaradas incorrectamente en una declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 Usted puede solicitar el alivio de dicha obligación, por pequeña que sea la obligación. 2011 tax return form 1040   Hay tres tipos de alivio tributario: Alivio de la responsabilidad tributaria del cónyuge inocente. 2011 tax return form 1040 Separación de la obligación (disponible solamente a las personas que presenten una declaración conjunta y que sean divorciadas, viudas, legalmente separadas o que no hayan vivido juntas durante los 12 meses inmediatamente anteriores a la fecha en que se presente esta solicitud de alivio). 2011 tax return form 1040 Alivio equitativo. 2011 tax return form 1040    Tiene que presentar el Formulario 8857(SP), Solicitud para Alivio del Cónyuge Inocente, para solicitar cualquier alivio tributario de la responsabilidad conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 En la Publicación 971, Innocent Spouse Relief (Alivio del cónyuge inocente), en inglés, puede encontrar información detallada sobre este tema, así como sobre quién reúne los requisitos para recibir dicho alivio. 2011 tax return form 1040 Firma de la declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040   Cada cónyuge está obligado, por lo general, a firmar la declaración. 2011 tax return form 1040 De lo contrario, no se considerará declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si el cónyuge falleció antes de firmar la declaración. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si su cónyuge falleció antes de firmar la declaración, el albacea o administrador tiene que firmar la declaración en nombre de dicho cónyuge. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si ni usted ni otra persona ha sido todavía nombrado albacea o administrador, puede firmar la declaración en nombre de su cónyuge y escribir “ Filing as surviving spouse ” (Declarar como cónyuge sobreviviente) en el espacio donde firma la declaración. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cónyuge ausente del hogar. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si su cónyuge se encuentra ausente del hogar, usted debe preparar la declaración, firmarla y enviarla a su cónyuge para que la firme de manera que pueda presentarla a tiempo. 2011 tax return form 1040 Impedimento para firmar la declaración debido a enfermedad o lesión. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si su cónyuge no puede firmar por razón de enfermedad o lesión y le pide a usted que firme por él o ella, puede firmar el nombre de su cónyuge en el espacio correspondiente en la declaración seguido por las palabras “ By (su nombre), Husband (esposo) o Wife (esposa)”. 2011 tax return form 1040 Asegúrese también de firmar en el espacio correspondiente a su firma. 2011 tax return form 1040 Incluya un escrito fechado y firmado por usted junto con su declaración de impuestos. 2011 tax return form 1040 Este escrito debe incluir el número del formulario que utiliza para presentar la declaración, el año tributario, la razón por la cual su cónyuge no puede firmar dicha declaración y debe especificar el consentimiento de su cónyuge para que firme por él o ella. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si firma como tutor de su cónyuge. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si es tutor de su cónyuge, el cual se encuentra mentalmente incapacitado, usted puede firmar la declaración por esa persona como tutor. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cónyuge en zona de combate. 2011 tax return form 1040   Puede firmar una declaración conjunta si su cónyuge no puede firmar la declaración porque está en una zona de combate (como el área del Golfo Pérsico, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania o Afganistán), aunque usted no tenga un poder legal u otro tipo de autorización escrita. 2011 tax return form 1040 Adjunte a su declaración de impuestos un escrito firmado explicando que su cónyuge está prestando servicios en una zona de combate. 2011 tax return form 1040 Para más información sobre los requisitos tributarios especiales para personas que estén prestando servicios en una zona de combate, o que hayan sido declaradas desaparecidas en una zona de combate, vea la Publicación 3, Armed Forces' Tax Guide (Guía de impuestos para las Fuerzas Armadas), en inglés. 2011 tax return form 1040 Otras razones por las cuales su cónyuge no puede firmar. 2011 tax return form 1040    Si su cónyuge no puede firmar la declaración por cualquier otra razón, usted puede firmarla por él o ella únicamente si se le otorga un poder legal válido (un documento legal en el cual se le autoriza para actuar en nombre de su cónyuge). 2011 tax return form 1040 Adjunte el poder legal (o una copia de éste) a su declaración de impuestos. 2011 tax return form 1040 Para este propósito, puede utilizar el Formulario 2848(SP), Poder Legal y Declaración del Representante. 2011 tax return form 1040 Extranjero no residente o extranjero con doble estado de residencia. 2011 tax return form 1040   Por lo general, un cónyuge no puede presentar una declaración conjunta si uno de los cónyuges es extranjero no residente en cualquier momento durante el año tributario. 2011 tax return form 1040 Sin embargo, si un cónyuge era extranjero no residente o extranjero con doble estado de residencia y estaba casado con un ciudadano o residente de los Estados Unidos al finalizar el año, ambos cónyuges pueden optar por presentar una declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si deciden presentar dicha declaración, a ambos se les considerará residentes de los Estados Unidos durante todo el año tributario. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea el capítulo 1 de la Publicación 519, en inglés. 2011 tax return form 1040 Casados que Presentan la Declaración por Separado Si está casado, usted y su cónyuge pueden optar por usar el estado civil de casados que presentan la declaración por separado. 2011 tax return form 1040 Pueden beneficiarse de este método si quieren responsabilizarse únicamente de su propio impuesto o si dicho impuesto resultara ser menor que el impuesto declarado en una declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si usted y su cónyuge no están de acuerdo en presentar la declaración conjunta, tiene que presentar su declaración por separado a menos que reúna los requisitos para el estado civil de cabeza de familia que se explica más adelante. 2011 tax return form 1040 Puede elegir el estado civil de cabeza de familia si se le considera soltero porque vive separado de su cónyuge y reúne ciertos requisitos (explicados más adelante bajo Cabeza de Familia ). 2011 tax return form 1040 Esto es aplicable a usted aunque no esté divorciado o legalmente separado. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si reúne los requisitos para presentar la declaración como cabeza de familia en vez de casado que presenta la declaración por separado, es posible que pague menos impuestos, que pueda reclamar el crédito por ingreso del trabajo y otros créditos adicionales; además, su deducción estándar será mayor. 2011 tax return form 1040 El estado civil de cabeza de familia le permite escoger la deducción estándar aunque su cónyuge opte por detallar sus deducciones. 2011 tax return form 1040 Para información adicional, vea Cabeza de Familia , más adelante. 2011 tax return form 1040 Usted, por lo general, pagará una suma mayor de impuestos en declaraciones separadas de lo que pagarían en una declaración conjunta por las razones detalladas en la sección Reglas Especiales , que aparece más adelante. 2011 tax return form 1040 Sin embargo, a menos que usted y su cónyuge tengan que presentar declaraciones por separado, deben calcular sus impuestos de las dos maneras (en una declaración conjunta y en declaraciones separadas). 2011 tax return form 1040 De esta manera, pueden asegurarse de utilizar el método mediante el cual paguen la menor cantidad de impuestos entre los dos. 2011 tax return form 1040 Al calcular el monto combinado de los impuestos de ambos cónyuges, usted querrá tener en cuenta los impuestos estatales al igual que los impuestos federales. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cómo presentar la declaración. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si presenta una declaración por separado, normalmente declara únicamente su propio ingreso, exenciones, créditos y deducciones. 2011 tax return form 1040 Puede declarar una exención por su cónyuge solamente si éste no recibe ingresos brutos, no presenta una declaración y no es dependiente de otro contribuyente. 2011 tax return form 1040 Puede presentar el Formulario 1040. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si tiene ingresos sujetos a impuestos menores de $100,000, quizá podría presentar el Formulario 1040A. 2011 tax return form 1040 Elija este estado civil marcando el recuadro de la línea 3 de cualquiera de estos formularios. 2011 tax return form 1040 Anote el nombre completo de su cónyuge y el número de Seguro Social (SSN, por sus siglas en inglés) o el número de identificación del contribuyente individual (ITIN, por sus siglas en inglés) de su cónyuge en los espacios provistos. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si su cónyuge no tiene y no se le requiere tener un SSN o un ITIN, anote “ NRA ” (extranjero no residente, por sus siglas en inglés) en el espacio provisto para el SSN de su cónyuge. 2011 tax return form 1040 Utilice la columna para Casado que presenta una declaración por separado en la Tabla de Impuestos o en la Sección C de la Hoja de Trabajo para el Cálculo del Impuesto para calcular su impuesto. 2011 tax return form 1040 Reglas Especiales Si opta por usar el estado civil de casado que presenta la declaración por separado, corresponden las siguientes reglas especiales. 2011 tax return form 1040 Debido a estas reglas especiales, por lo general usted pagará más impuestos en una declaración por separado de lo que pagaría si utilizara otro estado civil al cual tiene derecho. 2011 tax return form 1040   Su tasa de impuestos generalmente es mayor que la de una declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 La cantidad de la exención para calcular el impuesto mínimo alternativo es la mitad de la cantidad permitida en una declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 No puede tomar el crédito por gastos de cuidado de hijos y dependientes en la mayoría de los casos y la cantidad que puede excluir del ingreso en un programa de ayuda del empleador para el cuidado de dependientes es un máximo de $2,500 (en vez de $5,000). 2011 tax return form 1040 Si está legalmente separado de su cónyuge, o viven separados, quizás pueda presentar la declaración por separado y todavía tomar el crédito. 2011 tax return form 1040 Para más información sobre estos gastos, el crédito y la exclusión, vea el capítulo 32. 2011 tax return form 1040 No puede tomar el crédito por ingreso del trabajo. 2011 tax return form 1040 No puede tomar la exclusión o crédito por gastos de adopción en la mayoría de los casos. 2011 tax return form 1040 No puede tomar los créditos tributarios por enseñanza superior (el crédito de oportunidad para los estadounidenses y el crédito vitalicio por aprendizaje), declarar la deducción por intereses sobre un préstamo de estudios o las deducciones por matrícula y cuotas escolares. 2011 tax return form 1040 No puede excluir ningún ingreso de intereses procedentes de un bono de ahorros de los Estados Unidos calificado que haya utilizado para gastos de enseñanza superior. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si vivió con su cónyuge en algún momento durante el año tributario: No puede reclamar el crédito para ancianos o para personas incapacitadas y Tendrá que incluir en sus ingresos un porcentaje más grande de los beneficios del Seguro Social o beneficios equivalentes de la jubilación ferroviaria que haya recibido (hasta el 85%). 2011 tax return form 1040 Los siguientes créditos y deducciones se reducen en el caso de niveles de ingreso que sean la mitad de lo que serían en una declaración conjunta: El crédito tributario por hijos, El crédito por aportaciones a cuentas de ahorros para la jubilación, La deducción por exenciones personales y Las deducciones detalladas. 2011 tax return form 1040 Su deducción por pérdida de capital se limita a $1,500 (en vez de $3,000 en una declaración conjunta). 2011 tax return form 1040 Si su cónyuge detalla sus deducciones, usted no puede reclamar la deducción estándar. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si usted puede reclamar la deducción estándar, la cantidad básica de su deducción estándar es la mitad de la cantidad permitida en una declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 Límites del ingreso bruto ajustado. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si su ingreso bruto ajustado (AGI, por sus siglas en inglés) en una declaración separada es menor de lo que hubiera podido ser en una declaración conjunta, usted podría deducir una cantidad mayor para ciertas deducciones limitadas por el ingreso bruto ajustado, tales como gastos médicos. 2011 tax return form 1040 Arreglos de ahorros para la jubilación. 2011 tax return form 1040   Es posible que no pueda deducir la totalidad o parte de sus aportaciones a un arreglo de ahorros tradicional para la jubilación (IRA, por sus siglas en inglés) si usted o su cónyuge estuvo cubierto por un plan de jubilación de su trabajo durante el año. 2011 tax return form 1040 Su deducción se reduce o se elimina si sus ingresos sobrepasan cierta cantidad. 2011 tax return form 1040 Esta cantidad es mucho menor para personas casadas que presentan la declaración por separado y que vivieron juntas en algún momento del año. 2011 tax return form 1040 Para más información, vea ¿Cuánto se Puede Deducir? , en el capítulo 17. 2011 tax return form 1040 Pérdidas de actividades de alquiler. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si participó activamente en una actividad pasiva de alquiler de bienes raíces que haya generado una pérdida, normalmente puede deducir la pérdida de su ingreso no pasivo, hasta $25,000. 2011 tax return form 1040 Esto se denomina “descuento especial”. 2011 tax return form 1040 Sin embargo, las personas casadas que presentan declaraciones por separado que vivieron juntas en algún momento del año no pueden reclamar este descuento especial. 2011 tax return form 1040 Las personas casadas que presentan declaraciones por separado que vivieron separadas en todo momento durante el año pueden obtener cada una por separado un descuento máximo especial de $12,500 por pérdidas de actividades pasivas de bienes raíces. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea Límites sobre las Pérdidas de Alquiler , en el capítulo 9. 2011 tax return form 1040 Estados donde rige la ley de los bienes gananciales. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si vive en Arizona, California, Idaho, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Washington o Wisconsin y presenta una declaración por separado, es posible que sus ingresos se consideren ingresos por separado o ingresos como bienes gananciales para efectos del impuesto sobre el ingreso. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea la Publicación 555, en inglés. 2011 tax return form 1040 Declaración Conjunta Después de Presentar Declaraciones por Separado Puede cambiar su estado civil para efectos de la declaración después de presentar una declaración por separado a una declaración conjunta presentando una declaración enmendada, utilizando el Formulario 1040X. 2011 tax return form 1040 Por lo general, puede cambiar a una declaración conjunta en cualquier momento dentro de un plazo de 3 años a partir de la fecha límite para presentar la declaración o declaraciones separadas. 2011 tax return form 1040 Este plazo no incluye prórroga alguna. 2011 tax return form 1040 Una declaración separada incluye una declaración que usted o su cónyuge haya presentado con uno de los tres estados civiles siguientes: casado que presenta la declaración por separado, soltero o cabeza de familia. 2011 tax return form 1040 Declaración por Separado Después de Presentar una Declaración Conjunta Una vez que hayan presentado una declaración conjunta, no podrán optar por presentar declaraciones por separado para ese año después de la fecha límite para presentar dicha declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 Excepción. 2011 tax return form 1040   El representante personal de un fallecido puede cambiar la opción del cónyuge sobreviviente de presentar una declaración conjunta, presentando en su lugar una declaración por separado en nombre del fallecido. 2011 tax return form 1040 El representante personal tiene hasta 1 año a partir de la fecha de vencimiento del plazo de entrega de la declaración (incluidas prórrogas) para hacer el cambio. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea la Publicación 559, Survivors, Executors, and Administrators (Sobrevivientes, albaceas y administradores), en inglés, para más información sobre la presentación de la declaración final para un fallecido. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cabeza de Familia Puede presentar la declaración como cabeza de familia si cumple todos los requisitos siguientes: No está casado o “se le consideraba no casado” en el último día del año. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea Estado Civil , anteriormente y Personas Consideradas no Casadas , más adelante. 2011 tax return form 1040 Pagó más de la mitad del costo de mantener una vivienda durante el año. 2011 tax return form 1040 Una persona calificada vivió con usted en la vivienda durante más de la mitad del año (excepto por ausencias temporales, como para cursar estudios). 2011 tax return form 1040 Sin embargo, si la “persona calificada” es su padre o madre dependiente, él o ella no tiene que vivir con usted. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea Regla especial para los padres , más adelante, en la sección titulada Persona Calificada. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si reúne los requisitos para presentar la declaración como cabeza de familia, su tasa de impuesto será, por lo general, menor que las tasas para solteros o casados que presentan declaraciones por separado. 2011 tax return form 1040 Usted recibirá, además, una deducción estándar mayor de la que recibiría si se basara en el estado civil de soltero o de casado que presenta una declaración por separado. 2011 tax return form 1040 Hijos secuestrados. 2011 tax return form 1040   Usted podría reunir los requisitos para presentar la declaración como cabeza de familia, aun cuando su hijo haya sido secuestrado. 2011 tax return form 1040 Para más información, vea la Publicación 501, en inglés. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cómo presentar la declaración. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si presenta la declaración como cabeza de familia, puede utilizar el Formulario 1040. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si tiene ingresos sujetos a impuestos menores de $100,000, quizá podría presentar el Formulario 1040A. 2011 tax return form 1040 Indique su estado civil para efectos de la declaración marcando el recuadro de la línea 4 en cualquiera de estos formularios. 2011 tax return form 1040 Utilice la columna Cabeza de familia en la Tabla de Impuestos o la Sección D de la Hoja de Trabajo para el Cálculo del Impuesto, para calcular su impuesto. 2011 tax return form 1040 Personas Consideradas no Casadas Para tener derecho al estado civil de cabeza de familia, tiene que ser no casado o considerado no casado el último día del año. 2011 tax return form 1040 Se le considera no casado el último día del año tributario si reúne todos los requisitos siguientes: Presenta una declaración separada, definida anteriormente en la sección titulada Declaración Conjunta Después de Presentar Declaraciones por Separado . 2011 tax return form 1040 Pagó más de la mitad de los costos de mantenimiento de su vivienda durante el año tributario. 2011 tax return form 1040 Su cónyuge no vivió con usted en la vivienda durante los últimos 6 meses del año tributario. 2011 tax return form 1040 Se considera que su cónyuge ha vivido en la vivienda aun si él o ella se ausenta temporalmente debido a circunstancias especiales. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea más adelante Ausencias temporales , bajo Persona Calificada. 2011 tax return form 1040 Su vivienda fue la residencia principal de su hijo, hijastro o hijo de crianza durante más de la mitad del año. 2011 tax return form 1040 (Vea Vivienda de una persona calificada , bajo Persona Calificada, más adelante, para los requisitos aplicables al nacimiento, fallecimiento o ausencia temporal de un hijo durante el año). 2011 tax return form 1040 Tiene que tener derecho a reclamar una exención por el hijo. 2011 tax return form 1040 No obstante, usted cumple este requisito si no puede reclamar una exención por su hijo solamente porque el padre que no tiene la custodia puede declararlo basándose en los requisitos que se describen en Hijos de padres divorciados o separados (o padres que no viven juntos) bajo Hijo Calificado en el capítulo 3 o en Requisito de Manutención para Hijos de Padres Divorciados o Separados (o padres que no viven juntos) bajo Pariente Calificado en el capítulo 3. 2011 tax return form 1040 Los requisitos generales para reclamar la exención por un dependiente se explican en el capítulo 3 bajo Exenciones por Dependientes . 2011 tax return form 1040 Si se le considera casado por parte del año y vivió en un estado donde rige la ley de los bienes gananciales (indicado anteriormente bajo la sección titulada Casados que Presentan la Declaración por Separado), es posible que correspondan requisitos especiales para determinar su ingreso y sus gastos. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea la Publicación 555, en inglés, para más información. 2011 tax return form 1040 Hoja de Trabajo 2-1. 2011 tax return form 1040 Costo de Mantenimiento de la Vivienda   Cantidad que Usted Pagó Costo Total Impuestos sobre la propiedad $ $ Gastos por intereses hipotecarios     Alquiler     Gastos de servicios públicos     Mantenimiento y reparaciones     Seguro de la propiedad     Alimentos consumidos  en la vivienda     Otros gastos del hogar     Totales $ $ Menos la cantidad total que usted pagó   () Cantidad que otras personas pagaron   $ Si el total de lo que usted pagó es más de lo que otros pagaron, usted reúne el requisito de pagar más de la mitad del mantenimiento de la vivienda. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cónyuge extranjero no residente. 2011 tax return form 1040   Se le considera no casado para propósitos del estado civil de cabeza de familia si su cónyuge fue extranjero no residente en alguna parte del año y usted no opta por incluir a su cónyuge no residente en la declaración como extranjero residente. 2011 tax return form 1040 No obstante, su cónyuge no es una persona calificada para fines del estado civil de cabeza de familia. 2011 tax return form 1040 Usted tiene que tener otra persona calificada y reunir los demás requisitos necesarios para poder presentar la declaración como cabeza de familia. 2011 tax return form 1040 Elección de incluir al cónyuge en la declaración como residente. 2011 tax return form 1040   Se le considera casado si ha optado por incluir a su cónyuge en la declaración como extranjero residente. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea la Publicación 519, U. 2011 tax return form 1040 S. 2011 tax return form 1040 Tax Guide for Aliens (Guía sobre los impuestos estadounidenses para extranjeros), en inglés. 2011 tax return form 1040 Personas que Mantienen una Vivienda Para tener derecho al estado civil de cabeza de familia para la declaración, tiene que pagar más de la mitad de los gastos de mantener la vivienda durante el año. 2011 tax return form 1040 Para determinar si usted pagó más de la mitad del costo de mantener una vivienda, puede usar la Hoja de Trabajo 2-1, anteriormente. 2011 tax return form 1040 Costos que se incluyen. 2011 tax return form 1040   Incluya en los costos de mantenimiento de la vivienda, gastos como alquiler, intereses hipotecarios, impuestos sobre bienes raíces, seguro de la vivienda, reparaciones, servicios públicos y alimentos consumidos en la vivienda. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si usó pagos recibidos bajo el programa Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (Asistencia Temporal para Familias Necesitadas (TANF, por sus siglas en inglés)) u otros programas de asistencia pública para pagar parte del costo de mantener su vivienda, no los puede incluir como dinero pagado. 2011 tax return form 1040 No obstante, debe incluirlos en la totalidad del costo de mantener su vivienda para calcular si pagó más de la mitad del costo. 2011 tax return form 1040 Costos que no se incluyen. 2011 tax return form 1040   No incluya los costos de ropa, educación, tratamiento médico, vacaciones, seguro de vida o transporte. 2011 tax return form 1040 Tampoco incluya el valor del alquiler de una vivienda de la cual usted es dueño ni el valor de los servicios prestados por usted o por un miembro de su hogar. 2011 tax return form 1040 Persona Calificada Vea la Tabla 2-1 más adelante, para determinar quién es una persona calificada. 2011 tax return form 1040 Toda persona no descrita en la Tabla 2-1 no es una persona calificada. 2011 tax return form 1040 Ejemplo 1: hijo. 2011 tax return form 1040 Su hijo, no casado, vivió con usted durante todo el año y tenía 18 años de edad al final del año. 2011 tax return form 1040 Él no aportó más de la mitad de su propia manutención, ni cumple los requisitos para ser hijo calificado de otro contribuyente. 2011 tax return form 1040 Por lo tanto, es el hijo calificado de usted (vea Hijo Calificado en el capítulo 3), ya que es soltero, es una persona calificada en la que usted puede basarse para presentar la declaración de impuestos como cabeza de familia. 2011 tax return form 1040 Ejemplo 2: hijo no considerado persona calificada. 2011 tax return form 1040 Los datos son iguales a los del Ejemplo 1, excepto que su hijo tenía 25 años de edad al finalizar el año y su ingreso bruto fue $5,000. 2011 tax return form 1040 Debido a que su hijo no satisface el Requisito de Edad (explicado en el capítulo 3 bajo Hijo Calificado), su hijo no es considerado hijo calificado. 2011 tax return form 1040 Debido a que él no satisface el Requisito del Ingreso Bruto (explicado bajo Pariente Calificado en el capítulo 3), él no es el pariente calificado de usted. 2011 tax return form 1040 Por lo tanto, él no es una persona calificada en la que usted pueda basarse para presentar la declaración de impuestos como cabeza de familia. 2011 tax return form 1040 Ejemplo 3: novia. 2011 tax return form 1040 Su novia vivió con usted durante todo el año. 2011 tax return form 1040 Aunque ella podría ser el pariente calificado de usted si reúne el requisito del ingreso bruto y el requisito de manutención (explicados en el capítulo 3), ella no es una persona calificada en la que usted pueda basarse para presentar la declaración de impuestos como cabeza de familia debido a que ella no está emparentada con usted en una de las maneras mencionadas bajo Parientes que no tienen que vivir con usted , en el capítulo 3. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea la Tabla 2-1 . 2011 tax return form 1040 Ejemplo 4: el hijo de su novia. 2011 tax return form 1040 Los datos son iguales a los del Ejemplo 3 , excepto que el hijo de su novia, el cual tiene 10 años de edad, también vivió con usted durante todo el año. 2011 tax return form 1040 No es el hijo calificado de usted y, ya que es el hijo calificado de su novia, tampoco es el pariente calificado de usted (vea el Requisito de no ser Hijo Calificado en el capítulo 3). 2011 tax return form 1040 Por lo tanto, no es una persona calificada en la que usted pueda basarse para presentar la declaración de impuestos como cabeza de familia. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vivienda de una persona calificada. 2011 tax return form 1040   Por lo general, la persona calificada tiene que vivir con usted durante más de la mitad del año. 2011 tax return form 1040 Regla especial para los padres. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si la persona calificada es su padre o su madre, podría tener derecho al estado civil de cabeza de familia al presentar la declaración, aunque su padre o su madre no viva con usted. 2011 tax return form 1040 Sin embargo, tiene que poder reclamar una exención por su padre o su madre. 2011 tax return form 1040 También tiene que pagar más de la mitad de los gastos de mantener una vivienda que fue la vivienda principal de su madre o su padre durante todo el año. 2011 tax return form 1040   Usted mantiene la vivienda principal para su padre o su madre si paga más de la mitad de los gastos de mantenimiento de su padre o su madre en un asilo o residencia para ancianos. 2011 tax return form 1040 Fallecimiento o nacimiento. 2011 tax return form 1040   Es posible que pueda presentar la declaración como cabeza de familia aun cuando la persona que le da derecho a este estado civil nazca o muera durante el año. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si esa persona es su hijo calificado, el hijo tiene que haber vivido con usted por más de la mitad de la parte del año en que él o ella estaba vivo. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si la persona es cualquier otra persona que no sea su hijo calificado, consulte la Publicación 501. 2011 tax return form 1040 Ausencias temporales. 2011 tax return form 1040   Se considera que usted y la persona calificada residen en la misma vivienda aun en el caso de una ausencia temporal suya, de la otra persona o de ambas, debido a circunstancias especiales, como enfermedad, educación, negocios, vacaciones o servicio militar. 2011 tax return form 1040 Tiene que ser razonable suponer que la persona ausente volverá a la vivienda después de la ausencia temporal. 2011 tax return form 1040 Usted tiene que continuar manteniendo la vivienda durante la ausencia. 2011 tax return form 1040 Viudo que Reúne los Requisitos con Hijo Dependiente Si su cónyuge falleció en el año 2013, usted puede utilizar el estado civil de casado que presenta una declaración conjunta para el año 2013 si satisface los demás requisitos para utilizar dicho estado civil para efectos de la declaración. 2011 tax return form 1040 El año de fallecimiento es el último año para el cual puede presentar una declaración conjunta con su cónyuge fallecido. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea la sección anterior, Casados que Presentan una Declaración Conjunta . 2011 tax return form 1040 Es posible que pueda presentar su declaración utilizando el estado civil de viudo que reúne los requisitos con hijo dependiente durante los 2 años siguientes al año del fallecimiento de su cónyuge. 2011 tax return form 1040 Por ejemplo, si su cónyuge falleció en el año 2012 y usted no se ha vuelto a casar, quizás pueda utilizar este estado civil para efectos de la declaración para los años 2013 y 2014. 2011 tax return form 1040 Este estado civil le da el derecho de usar las tasas impositivas para la declaración conjunta y la deducción estándar máxima (si no detalla las deducciones). 2011 tax return form 1040 Sin embargo, dicho estado civil no le da el derecho de presentar una declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cómo presentar la declaración. 2011 tax return form 1040   Si usted presenta la declaración como viudo que reúne los requisitos con hijo dependiente, puede usar el Formulario 1040. 2011 tax return form 1040 Además, si tiene ingresos sujetos a impuestos menores de $100,000 y cumple con ciertas condiciones, quizá podría presentar el Formulario 1040A. 2011 tax return form 1040 Marque el recuadro en la línea 5 de cualquiera de los dos formularios. 2011 tax return form 1040 Para calcular su impuesto, utilice la columna correspondiente a Casado que presenta una declaración conjunta, la cual aparece en la Tabla de Impuestos o la Sección B de la Hoja de Trabajo para el Cálculo del Impuesto. 2011 tax return form 1040 Tabla 2-1. 2011 tax return form 1040 ¿Quién le Da Derecho a Presentar la Declaración como Cabeza de Familia?1 Precaución: En este capítulo encontrará los demás requisitos que tiene que reunir para reclamar el estado civil de cabeza de familia para efectos de la declaración. 2011 tax return form 1040 SI la persona es su . 2011 tax return form 1040 . 2011 tax return form 1040 . 2011 tax return form 1040   Y . 2011 tax return form 1040 . 2011 tax return form 1040 . 2011 tax return form 1040   ENTONCES esa persona . 2011 tax return form 1040 . 2011 tax return form 1040 . 2011 tax return form 1040 hijo calificado (como un hijo, hija o nieto que vivió con usted durante más de la mitad del año y reúne ciertos otros requisitos)2   él o ella es soltero   es una persona calificada, independientemente de si usted puede o no reclamar una exención por dicha persona. 2011 tax return form 1040   él o ella está casado y usted puede reclamar una exención por él o ella   es una persona calificada. 2011 tax return form 1040   él o ella está casado y usted no puede reclamar una exención por él o ella   no es una persona calificada. 2011 tax return form 1040 3 pariente calificado4 que sea su padre o madre   usted puede reclamar una exención por él o ella5   es una persona calificada. 2011 tax return form 1040 6   usted no puede reclamar una exención por él o ella   no es una persona calificada. 2011 tax return form 1040 pariente calificado4 que no sea su padre o madre (como un abuelo, hermano o hermana que reúne ciertos requisitos)   él o ella vivió con usted durante más de la mitad del año y él o ella es uno de los parientes mencionados en Parientes que no tienen que vivir con usted en el capítulo 3 y usted puede reclamar una exención por él o ella5   es una persona calificada. 2011 tax return form 1040   él o ella no vivió con usted durante más de la mitad del año   no es una persona calificada. 2011 tax return form 1040   él o ella no es uno de los parientes mencionados en Parientes que no tienen que vivir con usted en el capítulo 3 y es su pariente calificado sólo por vivir con usted todo el año como miembro de su unidad familiar   no es una persona calificada. 2011 tax return form 1040   usted no puede reclamar una exención por él o ella   no es una persona calificada. 2011 tax return form 1040 1Una persona no puede darle a más de un contribuyente el derecho de usar el estado civil de cabeza de familia para la declaración en el año. 2011 tax return form 1040 2El término hijo calificado se define en el capítulo 3. 2011 tax return form 1040 Nota: Si usted es padre o madre sin custodia, el término “hijo calificado” para el estado civil de cabeza de familia no incluye a un hijo que sea su hijo calificado para propósitos de una exención tributaria debido solamente a las reglas descritas bajo Hijos de padres divorciados o separados (o padres que no viven juntos) bajo Hijo Calificado en el capítulo 3. 2011 tax return form 1040 Si usted es el padre o la madre que tiene custodia y le corresponden estas reglas, el hijo generalmente es su hijo calificado para el estado civil de cabeza de familia aunque el hijo no sea un hijo calificado por el cual usted pueda reclamar una exención. 2011 tax return form 1040 3Esta persona es una persona calificada si la única razón por la cual usted no puede tener derecho a la exención es que usted puede ser reclamado como dependiente en la declaración de otra persona. 2011 tax return form 1040 4El término “ pariente calificado ” se define en el capítulo 3. 2011 tax return form 1040 5Si usted puede reclamar una exención por una persona sólo porque existe un acuerdo de manutención múltiple, dicha persona no es una persona calificada. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea la sección titulada Acuerdo de Manutención Múltiple , en el capítulo 3. 2011 tax return form 1040 6Vea Regla especial para los padres . 2011 tax return form 1040   Requisitos. 2011 tax return form 1040   Tiene derecho a presentar la declaración del año 2013 como viudo que reúne los requisitos con hijo dependiente si cumple todas las condiciones siguientes: Tenía derecho a presentar una declaración conjunta con su cónyuge para el año en que éste falleció. 2011 tax return form 1040 No importa si usted de hecho llegó a presentar una declaración conjunta. 2011 tax return form 1040 Su cónyuge falleció en el año 2011 o en el año 2012 y usted no se volvió a casar antes de terminar el año 2013. 2011 tax return form 1040 Tiene un hijo o hijastro por el cual usted puede reclamar una exención. 2011 tax return form 1040 Esto no incluye a un hijo de crianza. 2011 tax return form 1040 Este hijo vivió en su vivienda durante todo el año, a excepción de ausencias temporales. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea Ausencias temporales , anteriormente, bajo Cabeza de Familia. 2011 tax return form 1040 También hay excepciones, las cuales se describen más adelante, que corresponden a un hijo que nació o falleció durante el año y a un hijo secuestrado. 2011 tax return form 1040 Pagó más de la mitad del costo de mantener una vivienda durante el año. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vea Personas que Mantienen una Vivienda , anteriormente, bajo Cabeza de Familia. 2011 tax return form 1040 Ejemplo. 2011 tax return form 1040 La esposa de Juan falleció en el año 2011. 2011 tax return form 1040 Él no se ha vuelto a casar. 2011 tax return form 1040 Durante los años 2012 y 2013, continuó manteniendo una vivienda para él y su hijo (que vive con él y por el cual puede reclamar una exención). 2011 tax return form 1040 En el año 2011, tenía derecho a presentar una declaración conjunta para él y su esposa fallecida. 2011 tax return form 1040 En los años tributarios 2012 y 2013 tiene derecho a presentar una declaración como viudo que reúne los requisitos con hijo dependiente. 2011 tax return form 1040 Después de 2013, puede presentar la declaración usando el estado civil de cabeza de familia si reúne los requisitos para dicho estado civil. 2011 tax return form 1040 Fallecimiento o nacimiento. 2011 tax return form 1040    Puede satisfacer las condiciones para presentar una declaración como viudo que reúne los requisitos con hijo dependiente si el hijo que le da derecho a este estado civil nace o fallece durante el año. 2011 tax return form 1040 Tiene que haber provisto más de la mitad del costo de mantener una vivienda que fuera la residencia principal del hijo durante toda la parte del año durante el cual el hijo estuvo vivo. 2011 tax return form 1040 Hijos secuestrados. 2011 tax return form 1040   Aunque su hijo haya sido secuestrado, dicho hijo podría darle derecho al estado civil de viudo calificado con hijo dependiente que reúne los requisitos. 2011 tax return form 1040 Para más información, vea la Publicación 501, en inglés. 2011 tax return form 1040 Como se menciona anteriormente, este estado civil se puede utilizar solamente durante los 2 años siguientes al año del fallecimiento de su cónyuge. 2011 tax return form 1040 Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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Understanding Your CP169 Notice

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What you need to do

  • Read the notice carefully to determine the required form needed.
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  • Fill out the Contact Information section of the notice, detach, and send it to us with your re-signed copy or completed form so we receive it by the date indicated on the notice.

You may want to

  • Review your records and ensure the original return wasn't sent back because of missing signatures or missing information.

Answers to Common Questions

Q. What happens if I don't respond by the due date?

A. If you don't respond by the due date of this notice, we may consider your return delinquent and begin collection enforcement to secure the return.

Q. Who do I call for assistance?

A. For assistance with your business return, call 1-800-829-0115 or, for assistance with Form 990-T, call 1-877-829-5500.

 

Page Last Reviewed or Updated: 11-Feb-2014

Printable samples of this notice (PDF)

 

 

How to get help

  • Call the 1-800 number listed on the top right corner of your notice.
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The 2011 Tax Return Form 1040

2011 tax return form 1040 Publication 538 - Main Content Table of Contents Accounting PeriodsCalendar Year Fiscal Year Short Tax Year Improper Tax Year Change in Tax Year Individuals Partnerships, S Corporations, and Personal Service Corporations (PSCs) Corporations (Other Than S Corporations and PSCs) Accounting MethodsSpecial methods. 2011 tax return form 1040 Hybrid method. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cash Method Accrual Method Inventories Change in Accounting Method How To Get Tax HelpLow Income Taxpayer Clinics (LITCs). 2011 tax return form 1040 Accounting Periods You must use a tax year to figure your taxable income. 2011 tax return form 1040 A tax year is an annual accounting period for keeping records and reporting income and expenses. 2011 tax return form 1040 An annual accounting period does not include a short tax year (discussed later). 2011 tax return form 1040 You can use the following tax years: A calendar year; or A fiscal year (including a 52-53-week tax year). 2011 tax return form 1040 Unless you have a required tax year, you adopt a tax year by filing your first income tax return using that tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 A required tax year is a tax year required under the Internal Revenue Code or the Income Tax Regulations. 2011 tax return form 1040 You cannot adopt a tax year by merely: Filing an application for an extension of time to file an income tax return; Filing an application for an employer identification number (Form SS-4); or Paying estimated taxes. 2011 tax return form 1040 This section discusses: A calendar year. 2011 tax return form 1040 A fiscal year (including a period of 52 or 53 weeks). 2011 tax return form 1040 A short tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 An improper tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 A change in tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Special situations that apply to individuals. 2011 tax return form 1040 Restrictions that apply to the accounting period of a partnership, S corporation, or personal service corporation. 2011 tax return form 1040 Special situations that apply to corporations. 2011 tax return form 1040 Calendar Year A calendar year is 12 consecutive months beginning on January 1st and ending on December 31st. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you adopt the calendar year, you must maintain your books and records and report your income and expenses from January 1st through December 31st of each year. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you file your first tax return using the calendar tax year and you later begin business as a sole proprietor, become a partner in a partnership, or become a shareholder in an S corporation, you must continue to use the calendar year unless you obtain approval from the IRS to change it, or are otherwise allowed to change it without IRS approval. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Change in Tax Year, later. 2011 tax return form 1040 Generally, anyone can adopt the calendar year. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, you must adopt the calendar year if: You keep no books or records; You have no annual accounting period; Your present tax year does not qualify as a fiscal year; or You are required to use a calendar year by a provision in the Internal Revenue Code or the Income Tax Regulations. 2011 tax return form 1040 Fiscal Year A fiscal year is 12 consecutive months ending on the last day of any month except December 31st. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you are allowed to adopt a fiscal year, you must consistently maintain your books and records and report your income and expenses using the time period adopted. 2011 tax return form 1040 52-53-Week Tax Year You can elect to use a 52-53-week tax year if you keep your books and records and report your income and expenses on that basis. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you make this election, your 52-53-week tax year must always end on the same day of the week. 2011 tax return form 1040 Your 52-53-week tax year must always end on: Whatever date this same day of the week last occurs in a calendar month, or Whatever date this same day of the week falls that is nearest to the last day of the calendar month. 2011 tax return form 1040 For example, if you elect a tax year that always ends on the last Monday in March, your 2012 tax year will end on March 25, 2013. 2011 tax return form 1040 Election. 2011 tax return form 1040   To make the election for the 52-53-week tax year, attach a statement with the following information to your tax return. 2011 tax return form 1040 The month in which the new 52-53-week tax year ends. 2011 tax return form 1040 The day of the week on which the tax year always ends. 2011 tax return form 1040 The date the tax year ends. 2011 tax return form 1040 It can be either of the following dates on which the chosen day: Last occurs in the month in (1), above, or Occurs nearest to the last day of the month in (1), above. 2011 tax return form 1040   When you figure depreciation or amortization, a 52-53-week tax year is generally considered a year of 12 calendar months. 2011 tax return form 1040   To determine an effective date (or apply provisions of any law) expressed in terms of tax years beginning, including, or ending on the first or last day of a specified calendar month, a 52-53-week tax year is considered to: Begin on the first day of the calendar month beginning nearest to the first day of the 52-53-week tax year, and End on the last day of the calendar month ending nearest to the last day of the 52-53-week tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example. 2011 tax return form 1040 Assume a tax provision applies to tax years beginning on or after July 1, 2012, which happens to be a Sunday. 2011 tax return form 1040 For this purpose, a 52-53-week tax year that begins on the last Tuesday of June, which falls on June 26, 2012, is treated as beginning on July 1, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 Short Tax Year A short tax year is a tax year of less than 12 months. 2011 tax return form 1040 A short period tax return may be required when you (as a taxable entity): Are not in existence for an entire tax year, or Change your accounting period. 2011 tax return form 1040 Tax on a short period tax return is figured differently for each situation. 2011 tax return form 1040 Not in Existence Entire Year Even if a taxable entity was not in existence for the entire year, a tax return is required for the time it was in existence. 2011 tax return form 1040 Requirements for filing the return and figuring the tax are generally the same as the requirements for a return for a full tax year (12 months) ending on the last day of the short tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example 1. 2011 tax return form 1040 XYZ Corporation was organized on July 1, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 It elected the calendar year as its tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Therefore, its first tax return was due March 15, 2013. 2011 tax return form 1040 This short period return will cover the period from July 1, 2012, through December 31, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example 2. 2011 tax return form 1040 A calendar year corporation dissolved on July 23, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 Its final return is due by October 15, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 It will cover the short period from January 1, 2012, through July 23, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 Death of individual. 2011 tax return form 1040   When an individual dies, a tax return must be filed for the decedent by the 15th day of the 4th month after the close of the individual's regular tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 The decedent's final return will be a short period tax return that begins on January 1st, and ends on the date of death. 2011 tax return form 1040 In the case of a decedent who dies on December 31st, the last day of the regular tax year, a full calendar-year tax return is required. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example. 2011 tax return form 1040   Agnes Green was a single, calendar year taxpayer. 2011 tax return form 1040 She died on March 6, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 Her final income tax return must be filed by April 15, 2013. 2011 tax return form 1040 It will cover the short period from January 1, 2012, to March 6, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 Figuring Tax for Short Year If the IRS approves a change in your tax year or you are required to change your tax year, you must figure the tax and file your return for the short tax period. 2011 tax return form 1040 The short tax period begins on the first day after the close of your old tax year and ends on the day before the first day of your new tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Figure tax for a short year under the general rule, explained below. 2011 tax return form 1040 You may then be able to use a relief procedure, explained later, and claim a refund of part of the tax you paid. 2011 tax return form 1040 General rule. 2011 tax return form 1040   Income tax for a short tax year must be annualized. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, self-employment tax is figured on the actual self-employment income for the short period. 2011 tax return form 1040 Individuals. 2011 tax return form 1040   An individual must figure income tax for the short tax year as follows. 2011 tax return form 1040 Determine your adjusted gross income (AGI) for the short tax year and then subtract your actual itemized deductions for the short tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 You must itemize deductions when you file a short period tax return. 2011 tax return form 1040 Multiply the dollar amount of your exemptions by the number of months in the short tax year and divide the result by 12. 2011 tax return form 1040 Subtract the amount in (2) from the amount in (1). 2011 tax return form 1040 The result is your modified taxable income. 2011 tax return form 1040 Multiply the modified taxable income in (3) by 12, then divide the result by the number of months in the short tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 The result is your annualized income. 2011 tax return form 1040 Figure the total tax on your annualized income using the appropriate tax rate schedule. 2011 tax return form 1040 Multiply the total tax by the number of months in the short tax year and divide the result by 12. 2011 tax return form 1040 The result is your tax for the short tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Relief procedure. 2011 tax return form 1040   Individuals and corporations can use a relief procedure to figure the tax for the short tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 It may result in less tax. 2011 tax return form 1040 Under this procedure, the tax is figured by two separate methods. 2011 tax return form 1040 If the tax figured under both methods is less than the tax figured under the general rule, you can file a claim for a refund of part of the tax you paid. 2011 tax return form 1040 For more information, see section 443(b)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code. 2011 tax return form 1040 Alternative minimum tax. 2011 tax return form 1040   To figure the alternative minimum tax (AMT) due for a short tax year: Figure the annualized alternative minimum taxable income (AMTI) for the short tax period by completing the following steps. 2011 tax return form 1040 Multiply the AMTI by 12. 2011 tax return form 1040 Divide the result by the number of months in the short tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Multiply the annualized AMTI by the appropriate rate of tax under section 55(b)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code. 2011 tax return form 1040 The result is the annualized AMT. 2011 tax return form 1040 Multiply the annualized AMT by the number of months in the short tax year and divide the result by 12. 2011 tax return form 1040   For information on the AMT for individuals, see the Instructions for Form 6251, Alternative Minimum Tax–Individuals. 2011 tax return form 1040 For information on the AMT for corporations, see the Instructions to Form 4626, Alternative Minimum Tax–Corporations. 2011 tax return form 1040 Tax withheld from wages. 2011 tax return form 1040   You can claim a credit against your income tax liability for federal income tax withheld from your wages. 2011 tax return form 1040 Federal income tax is withheld on a calendar year basis. 2011 tax return form 1040 The amount withheld in any calendar year is allowed as a credit for the tax year beginning in the calendar year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Improper Tax Year Taxpayers that have adopted an improper tax year must change to a proper tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 For example, if a taxpayer began business on March 15 and adopted a tax year ending on March 14 (a period of exactly 12 months), this would be an improper tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Accounting Periods, earlier, for a description of permissible tax years. 2011 tax return form 1040 To change to a proper tax year, you must do one of the following. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you are requesting a change to a calendar tax year, file an amended income tax return based on a calendar tax year that corrects the most recently filed tax return that was filed on the basis of an improper tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Attach a completed Form 1128 to the amended tax return. 2011 tax return form 1040 Write “FILED UNDER REV. 2011 tax return form 1040 PROC. 2011 tax return form 1040 85-15” at the top of Form 1128 and file the forms with the Internal Revenue Service Center where you filed your original return. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you are requesting a change to a fiscal tax year, file Form 1128 in accordance with the form instructions to request IRS approval for the change. 2011 tax return form 1040 Change in Tax Year Generally, you must file Form 1128 to request IRS approval to change your tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 See the Instructions for Form 1128 for exceptions. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you qualify for an automatic approval request, a user fee is not required. 2011 tax return form 1040 Individuals Generally, individuals must adopt the calendar year as their tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 An individual can adopt a fiscal year provided that the individual maintains his or her books and records on the basis of the adopted fiscal year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Partnerships, S Corporations, and Personal Service Corporations (PSCs) Generally, partnerships, S corporations (including electing S corporations), and PSCs must use a required tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 A required tax year is a tax year that is required under the Internal Revenue Code and Income Tax Regulations. 2011 tax return form 1040 The entity does not have to use the required tax year if it receives IRS approval to use another permitted tax year or makes an election under section 444 of the Internal Revenue Code (discussed later). 2011 tax return form 1040 The following discussions provide the rules for partnerships, S corporations, and PSCs. 2011 tax return form 1040 Partnership A partnership must conform its tax year to its partners' tax years unless any of the following apply. 2011 tax return form 1040 The partnership makes an election under section 444 of the Internal Revenue Code to have a tax year other than a required tax year by filing Form 8716. 2011 tax return form 1040 The partnership elects to use a 52-53-week tax year that ends with reference to either its required tax year or a tax year elected under section 444. 2011 tax return form 1040 The partnership can establish a business purpose for a different tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 The rules for the required tax year for partnerships are as follows. 2011 tax return form 1040 If one or more partners having the same tax year own a majority interest (more than 50%) in partnership profits and capital, the partnership must use the tax year of those partners. 2011 tax return form 1040 If there is no majority interest tax year, the partnership must use the tax year of all its principal partners. 2011 tax return form 1040 A principal partner is one who has a 5% or more interest in the profits or capital of the partnership. 2011 tax return form 1040 If there is no majority interest tax year and the principal partners do not have the same tax year, the partnership generally must use a tax year that results in the least aggregate deferral of income to the partners. 2011 tax return form 1040 If a partnership changes to a required tax year because of these rules, it can get automatic approval by filing Form 1128. 2011 tax return form 1040 Least aggregate deferral of income. 2011 tax return form 1040   The tax year that results in the least aggregate deferral of income is determined as follows. 2011 tax return form 1040 Figure the number of months of deferral for each partner using one partner's tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Find the months of deferral by counting the months from the end of that tax year forward to the end of each other partner's tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Multiply each partner's months of deferral figured in step (1) by that partner's share of interest in the partnership profits for the year used in step (1). 2011 tax return form 1040 Add the amounts in step (2) to get the aggregate (total) deferral for the tax year used in step (1). 2011 tax return form 1040 Repeat steps (1) through (3) for each partner's tax year that is different from the other partners' years. 2011 tax return form 1040   The partner's tax year that results in the lowest aggregate (total) number is the tax year that must be used by the partnership. 2011 tax return form 1040 If the calculation results in more than one tax year qualifying as the tax year with the least aggregate deferral, the partnership can choose any one of those tax years as its tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, if one of the tax years that qualifies is the partnership's existing tax year, the partnership must retain that tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example. 2011 tax return form 1040 A and B each have a 50% interest in partnership P, which uses a fiscal year ending June 30. 2011 tax return form 1040 A uses the calendar year and B uses a fiscal year ending November 30. 2011 tax return form 1040 P must change its tax year to a fiscal year ending November 30 because this results in the least aggregate deferral of income to the partners, as shown in the following table. 2011 tax return form 1040 Year End 12/31: Year End Profits Interest Months of Deferral Interest × Deferral A 12/31 0. 2011 tax return form 1040 5 -0- -0- B 11/30 0. 2011 tax return form 1040 5 11 5. 2011 tax return form 1040 5 Total Deferral 5. 2011 tax return form 1040 5 Year End 11/30: Year End Profits Interest Months of Deferral Interest × Deferral A 12/31 0. 2011 tax return form 1040 5 1 0. 2011 tax return form 1040 5 B 11/30 0. 2011 tax return form 1040 5 -0- -0- Total Deferral 0. 2011 tax return form 1040 5 When determination is made. 2011 tax return form 1040   The determination of the tax year under the least aggregate deferral rules must generally be made at the beginning of the partnership's current tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, the IRS can require the partnership to use another day or period that will more accurately reflect the ownership of the partnership. 2011 tax return form 1040 This could occur, for example, if a partnership interest was transferred for the purpose of qualifying for a particular tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Short period return. 2011 tax return form 1040   When a partnership changes its tax year, a short period return must be filed. 2011 tax return form 1040 The short period return covers the months between the end of the partnership's prior tax year and the beginning of its new tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040   If a partnership changes to the tax year resulting in the least aggregate deferral, it must file a Form 1128 with the short period return showing the computations used to determine that tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 The short period return must indicate at the top of page 1, “FILED UNDER SECTION 1. 2011 tax return form 1040 706-1. 2011 tax return form 1040 ” More information. 2011 tax return form 1040   For more information about changing a partnership's tax year, and information about ruling requests, see the Instructions for Form 1128. 2011 tax return form 1040 S Corporation All S corporations, regardless of when they became an S corporation, must use a permitted tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 A permitted tax year is any of the following. 2011 tax return form 1040 The calendar year. 2011 tax return form 1040 A tax year elected under section 444 of the Internal Revenue Code. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Section 444 Election, below for details. 2011 tax return form 1040 A 52-53-week tax year ending with reference to the calendar year or a tax year elected under section 444. 2011 tax return form 1040 Any other tax year for which the corporation establishes a business purpose. 2011 tax return form 1040 If an electing S corporation wishes to adopt a tax year other than a calendar year, it must request IRS approval using Form 2553, instead of filing Form 1128. 2011 tax return form 1040 For information about changing an S corporation's tax year and information about ruling requests, see the Instructions for Form 1128. 2011 tax return form 1040 Personal Service Corporation (PSC) A PSC must use a calendar tax year unless any of the following apply. 2011 tax return form 1040 The corporation makes an election under section 444 of the Internal Revenue Code. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Section 444 Election, below for details. 2011 tax return form 1040 The corporation elects to use a 52-53-week tax year ending with reference to the calendar year or a tax year elected under section 444. 2011 tax return form 1040 The corporation establishes a business purpose for a fiscal year. 2011 tax return form 1040 See the Instructions for Form 1120 for general information about PSCs. 2011 tax return form 1040 For information on adopting or changing tax years for PSCs and information about ruling requests, see the Instructions for Form 1128. 2011 tax return form 1040 Section 444 Election A partnership, S corporation, electing S corporation, or PSC can elect under section 444 of the Internal Revenue Code to use a tax year other than its required tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Certain restrictions apply to the election. 2011 tax return form 1040 A partnership or an S corporation that makes a section 444 election must make certain required payments and a PSC must make certain distributions (discussed later). 2011 tax return form 1040 The section 444 election does not apply to any partnership, S corporation, or PSC that establishes a business purpose for a different period, explained later. 2011 tax return form 1040 A partnership, S corporation, or PSC can make a section 444 election if it meets all the following requirements. 2011 tax return form 1040 It is not a member of a tiered structure (defined in section 1. 2011 tax return form 1040 444-2T of the regulations). 2011 tax return form 1040 It has not previously had a section 444 election in effect. 2011 tax return form 1040 It elects a year that meets the deferral period requirement. 2011 tax return form 1040 Deferral period. 2011 tax return form 1040   The determination of the deferral period depends on whether the partnership, S corporation, or PSC is retaining its tax year or adopting or changing its tax year with a section 444 election. 2011 tax return form 1040 Retaining tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040   Generally, a partnership, S corporation, or PSC can make a section 444 election to retain its tax year only if the deferral period of the new tax year is 3 months or less. 2011 tax return form 1040 This deferral period is the number of months between the beginning of the retained year and the close of the first required tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Adopting or changing tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040   If the partnership, S corporation, or PSC is adopting or changing to a tax year other than its required year, the deferral period is the number of months from the end of the new tax year to the end of the required tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 The IRS will allow a section 444 election only if the deferral period of the new tax year is less than the shorter of: Three months, or The deferral period of the tax year being changed. 2011 tax return form 1040 This is the tax year immediately preceding the year for which the partnership, S corporation, or PSC wishes to make the section 444 election. 2011 tax return form 1040 If the partnership, S corporation, or PSC's tax year is the same as its required tax year, the deferral period is zero. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example 1. 2011 tax return form 1040 BD Partnership uses a calendar year, which is also its required tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 BD cannot make a section 444 election because the deferral period is zero. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example 2. 2011 tax return form 1040 E, a newly formed partnership, began operations on December 1. 2011 tax return form 1040 E is owned by calendar year partners. 2011 tax return form 1040 E wants to make a section 444 election to adopt a September 30 tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 E's deferral period for the tax year beginning December 1 is 3 months, the number of months between September 30 and December 31. 2011 tax return form 1040 Making the election. 2011 tax return form 1040   Make a section 444 election by filing Form 8716 with the Internal Revenue Service Center where the entity will file its tax return. 2011 tax return form 1040 Form 8716 must be filed by the earlier of: The due date (not including extensions) of the income tax return for the tax year resulting from the section 444 election, or The 15th day of the 6th month of the tax year for which the election will be effective. 2011 tax return form 1040 For this purpose, count the month in which the tax year begins, even if it begins after the first day of that month. 2011 tax return form 1040 Note. 2011 tax return form 1040 If the due date falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, file on the next business day. 2011 tax return form 1040   Attach a copy of Form 8716 to Form 1065, Form 1120S, or Form 1120 for the first tax year for which the election is made. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example 1. 2011 tax return form 1040 AB, a partnership, begins operations on September 13, 2012, and is qualified to make a section 444 election to use a September 30 tax year for its tax year beginning September 13, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 AB must file Form 8716 by January 15, 2013, which is the due date of the partnership's tax return for the period from September 13, 2012, to September 30, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example 2. 2011 tax return form 1040 The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that AB begins operations on October 21, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 AB must file Form 8716 by March 17, 2013. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example 3. 2011 tax return form 1040 B is a corporation that first becomes a PSC for its tax year beginning September 1, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 B qualifies to make a section 444 election to use a September 30 tax year for its tax year beginning September 1, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 B must file Form 8716 by December 17, 2012, the due date of the income tax return for the short period from September 1, 2012, to September 30, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 Note. 2011 tax return form 1040 The due dates in Examples 2 and 3 are adjusted because the dates fall on a Saturday, Sunday or legal holiday. 2011 tax return form 1040 Extension of time for filing. 2011 tax return form 1040   There is an automatic extension of 12 months to make this election. 2011 tax return form 1040 See the Form 8716 instructions for more information. 2011 tax return form 1040 Terminating the election. 2011 tax return form 1040   The section 444 election remains in effect until it is terminated. 2011 tax return form 1040 If the election is terminated, another section 444 election cannot be made for any tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040   The election ends when any of the following applies to the partnership, S corporation, or PSC. 2011 tax return form 1040 The entity changes to its required tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 The entity liquidates. 2011 tax return form 1040 The entity becomes a member of a tiered structure. 2011 tax return form 1040 The IRS determines that the entity willfully failed to comply with the required payments or distributions. 2011 tax return form 1040   The election will also end if either of the following events occur. 2011 tax return form 1040 An S corporation's S election is terminated. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, if the S corporation immediately becomes a PSC, the PSC can continue the section 444 election of the S corporation. 2011 tax return form 1040 A PSC ceases to be a PSC. 2011 tax return form 1040 If the PSC elects to be an S corporation, the S corporation can continue the election of the PSC. 2011 tax return form 1040 Required payment for partnership or S corporation. 2011 tax return form 1040   A partnership or an S corporation must make a required payment for any tax year: The section 444 election is in effect. 2011 tax return form 1040 The required payment for that year (or any preceding tax year) is more than $500. 2011 tax return form 1040    This payment represents the value of the tax deferral the owners receive by using a tax year different from the required tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040   Form 8752, Required Payment or Refund Under Section 7519, must be filed each year the section 444 election is in effect, even if no payment is due. 2011 tax return form 1040 If the required payment is more than $500 (or the required payment for any prior year was more than $500), the payment must be made when Form 8752 is filed. 2011 tax return form 1040 If the required payment is $500 or less and no payment was required in a prior year, Form 8752 must be filed showing a zero amount. 2011 tax return form 1040 Applicable election year. 2011 tax return form 1040   Any tax year a section 444 election is in effect, including the first year, is called an applicable election year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Form 8752 must be filed and the required payment made (or zero amount reported) by May 15th of the calendar year following the calendar year in which the applicable election year begins. 2011 tax return form 1040 Required distribution for PSC. 2011 tax return form 1040   A PSC with a section 444 election in effect must distribute certain amounts to employee-owners by December 31 of each applicable year. 2011 tax return form 1040 If it fails to make these distributions, it may be required to defer certain deductions for amounts paid to owner-employees. 2011 tax return form 1040 The amount deferred is treated as paid or incurred in the following tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040   For information on the minimum distribution, see the instructions for Part I of Schedule H (Form 1120), Section 280H Limitations for a Personal Service Corporation (PSC). 2011 tax return form 1040 Back-up election. 2011 tax return form 1040   A partnership, S corporation, or PSC can file a back-up section 444 election if it requests (or plans to request) permission to use a business purpose tax year, discussed later. 2011 tax return form 1040 If the request is denied, the back-up section 444 election must be activated (if the partnership, S corporation, or PSC otherwise qualifies). 2011 tax return form 1040 Making back-up election. 2011 tax return form 1040   The general rules for making a section 444 election, as discussed earlier, apply. 2011 tax return form 1040 When filing Form 8716, type or print “BACK-UP ELECTION” at the top of the form. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, if Form 8716 is filed on or after the date Form 1128 (or Form 2553) is filed, type or print “FORM 1128 (or FORM 2553) BACK-UP ELECTION” at the top of Form 8716. 2011 tax return form 1040 Activating election. 2011 tax return form 1040   A partnership or S corporation activates its back-up election by filing the return required and making the required payment with Form 8752. 2011 tax return form 1040 The due date for filing Form 8752 and making the payment is the later of the following dates. 2011 tax return form 1040 May 15 of the calendar year following the calendar year in which the applicable election year begins. 2011 tax return form 1040 60 days after the partnership or S corporation has been notified by the IRS that the business year request has been denied. 2011 tax return form 1040   A PSC activates its back-up election by filing Form 8716 with its original or amended income tax return for the tax year in which the election is first effective and printing on the top of the income tax return, “ACTIVATING BACK-UP ELECTION. 2011 tax return form 1040 ” 52-53-Week Tax Year A partnership, S corporation, or PSC can use a tax year other than its required tax year if it elects a 52-53-week tax year (discussed earlier) that ends with reference to either its required tax year or a tax year elected under section 444 (discussed earlier). 2011 tax return form 1040 A newly formed partnership, S corporation, or PSC can adopt a 52-53-week tax year ending with reference to either its required tax year or a tax year elected under section 444 without IRS approval. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, if the entity wishes to change to a 52-53-week tax year or change from a 52-53-week tax year that references a particular month to a non-52-53-week tax year that ends on the last day of that month, it must request IRS approval by filing Form 1128. 2011 tax return form 1040 Business Purpose Tax Year A partnership, S corporation, or PSC establishes the business purpose for a tax year by filing Form 1128. 2011 tax return form 1040 See the Instructions for Form 1128 for details. 2011 tax return form 1040 Corporations (Other Than S Corporations and PSCs) A new corporation establishes its tax year when it files its first tax return. 2011 tax return form 1040 A newly reactivated corporation that has been inactive for a number of years is treated as a new taxpayer for the purpose of adopting a tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 An S corporation or a PSC must use the required tax year rules, discussed earlier, to establish a tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Generally, a corporation that wants to change its tax year must obtain approval from the IRS under either the: (a) automatic approval procedures; or (b) ruling request procedures. 2011 tax return form 1040 See the Instructions for Form 1128 for details. 2011 tax return form 1040 Accounting Methods An accounting method is a set of rules used to determine when income and expenses are reported on your tax return. 2011 tax return form 1040 Your accounting method includes not only your overall method of accounting, but also the accounting treatment you use for any material item. 2011 tax return form 1040 You choose an accounting method when you file your first tax return. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you later want to change your accounting method, you must get IRS approval. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Change in Accounting Method, later. 2011 tax return form 1040 No single accounting method is required of all taxpayers. 2011 tax return form 1040 You must use a system that clearly reflects your income and expenses and you must maintain records that will enable you to file a correct return. 2011 tax return form 1040 In addition to your permanent accounting books, you must keep any other records necessary to support the entries on your books and tax returns. 2011 tax return form 1040 You must use the same accounting method from year to year. 2011 tax return form 1040 An accounting method clearly reflects income only if all items of gross income and expenses are treated the same from year to year. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you do not regularly use an accounting method that clearly reflects your income, your income will be refigured under the method that, in the opinion of the IRS, does clearly reflect income. 2011 tax return form 1040 Methods you can use. 2011 tax return form 1040   In general, you can compute your taxable income under any of the following accounting methods. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cash method. 2011 tax return form 1040 Accrual method. 2011 tax return form 1040 Special methods of accounting for certain items of income and expenses. 2011 tax return form 1040 A hybrid method which combines elements of two or more of the above accounting methods. 2011 tax return form 1040 The cash and accrual methods of accounting are explained later. 2011 tax return form 1040 Special methods. 2011 tax return form 1040   This publication does not discuss special methods of accounting for certain items of income or expenses. 2011 tax return form 1040 For information on reporting income using one of the long-term contract methods, see section 460 of the Internal Revenue Code and the related regulations. 2011 tax return form 1040 The following publications also discuss special methods of reporting income or expenses. 2011 tax return form 1040 Publication 225, Farmer's Tax Guide. 2011 tax return form 1040 Publication 535, Business Expenses. 2011 tax return form 1040 Publication 537, Installment Sales. 2011 tax return form 1040 Publication 946, How To Depreciate Property. 2011 tax return form 1040 Hybrid method. 2011 tax return form 1040   Generally, you can use any combination of cash, accrual, and special methods of accounting if the combination clearly reflects your income and you use it consistently. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, the following restrictions apply. 2011 tax return form 1040 If an inventory is necessary to account for your income, you must use an accrual method for purchases and sales. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Exceptions under Inventories, later. 2011 tax return form 1040 Generally, you can use the cash method for all other items of income and expenses. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Inventories, later. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you use the cash method for reporting your income, you must use the cash method for reporting your expenses. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you use an accrual method for reporting your expenses, you must use an accrual method for figuring your income. 2011 tax return form 1040 Any combination that includes the cash method is treated as the cash method for purposes of section 448 of the Internal Revenue Code. 2011 tax return form 1040 Business and personal items. 2011 tax return form 1040   You can account for business and personal items using different accounting methods. 2011 tax return form 1040 For example, you can determine your business income and expenses under an accrual method, even if you use the cash method to figure personal items. 2011 tax return form 1040 Two or more businesses. 2011 tax return form 1040   If you operate two or more separate and distinct businesses, you can use a different accounting method for each business. 2011 tax return form 1040 No business is separate and distinct, unless a complete and separate set of books and records is maintained for each business. 2011 tax return form 1040 Note. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you use different accounting methods to create or shift profits or losses between businesses (for example, through inventory adjustments, sales, purchases, or expenses) so that income is not clearly reflected, the businesses will not be considered separate and distinct. 2011 tax return form 1040 Cash Method Most individuals and many small businesses use the cash method of accounting. 2011 tax return form 1040 Generally, if you produce, purchase, or sell merchandise, you must keep an inventory and use an accrual method for sales and purchases of merchandise. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Inventories, later, for exceptions to this rule. 2011 tax return form 1040 Income Under the cash method, you include in your gross income all items of income you actually or constructively receive during the tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you receive property and services, you must include their fair market value (FMV) in income. 2011 tax return form 1040 Constructive receipt. 2011 tax return form 1040   Income is constructively received when an amount is credited to your account or made available to you without restriction. 2011 tax return form 1040 You need not have possession of it. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you authorize someone to be your agent and receive income for you, you are considered to have received it when your agent receives it. 2011 tax return form 1040 Income is not constructively received if your control of its receipt is subject to substantial restrictions or limitations. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example. 2011 tax return form 1040 You are a calendar year taxpayer. 2011 tax return form 1040 Your bank credited, and made available, interest to your bank account in December 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 You did not withdraw it or enter it into your books until 2013. 2011 tax return form 1040 You must include the amount in gross income for 2012, the year you constructively received it. 2011 tax return form 1040 You cannot hold checks or postpone taking possession of similar property from one tax year to another to postpone paying tax on the income. 2011 tax return form 1040 You must report the income in the year the property is received or made available to you without restriction. 2011 tax return form 1040 Expenses Under the cash method, generally, you deduct expenses in the tax year in which you actually pay them. 2011 tax return form 1040 This includes business expenses for which you contest liability. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, you may not be able to deduct an expense paid in advance. 2011 tax return form 1040 Instead, you may be required to capitalize certain costs, as explained later under Uniform Capitalization Rules. 2011 tax return form 1040 Expense paid in advance. 2011 tax return form 1040   An expense you pay in advance is deductible only in the year to which it applies, unless the expense qualifies for the 12-month rule. 2011 tax return form 1040   Under the 12-month rule, a taxpayer is not required to capitalize amounts paid to create certain rights or benefits for the taxpayer that do not extend beyond the earlier of the following. 2011 tax return form 1040 12 months after the right or benefit begins, or The end of the tax year after the tax year in which payment is made. 2011 tax return form 1040   If you have not been applying the general rule (an expense paid in advance is deductible only in the year to which it applies) and/or the 12-month rule to the expenses you paid in advance, you must obtain approval from the IRS before using the general rule and/or the 12-month rule. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Change in Accounting Method, later. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example 1. 2011 tax return form 1040 You are a calendar year taxpayer and pay $3,000 in 2012 for a business insurance policy that is effective for three years (36 months), beginning on July 1, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 The general rule that an expense paid in advance is deductible only in the year to which it applies is applicable to this payment because the payment does not qualify for the 12-month rule. 2011 tax return form 1040 Therefore, only $500 (6/36 x $3,000) is deductible in 2012, $1,000 (12/36 x $3,000) is deductible in 2013, $1,000 (12/36 x $3,000) is deductible in 2014, and the remaining $500 is deductible in 2015. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example 2. 2011 tax return form 1040 You are a calendar year taxpayer and pay $10,000 on July 1, 2012, for a business insurance policy that is effective for only one year beginning on July 1, 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 The 12-month rule applies. 2011 tax return form 1040 Therefore, the full $10,000 is deductible in 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 Excluded Entities The following entities cannot use the cash method, including any combination of methods that includes the cash method. 2011 tax return form 1040 (See Special rules for farming businesses, later. 2011 tax return form 1040 ) A corporation (other than an S corporation) with average annual gross receipts exceeding $5 million. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Gross receipts test, below. 2011 tax return form 1040 A partnership with a corporation (other than an S corporation) as a partner, and with the partnership having average annual gross receipts exceeding $5 million. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Gross receipts test, below. 2011 tax return form 1040 A tax shelter. 2011 tax return form 1040 Exceptions The following entities are not prohibited from using the cash method of accounting. 2011 tax return form 1040 Any corporation or partnership, other than a tax shelter, that meets the gross receipts test for all tax years after 1985. 2011 tax return form 1040 A qualified personal service corporation (PSC). 2011 tax return form 1040 Gross receipts test. 2011 tax return form 1040   A corporation or partnership, other than a tax shelter, that meets the gross receipts test can generally use the cash method. 2011 tax return form 1040 A corporation or a partnership meets the test if, for each prior tax year beginning after 1985, its average annual gross receipts are $5 million or less. 2011 tax return form 1040    An entity's average annual gross receipts for a prior tax year is determined by: Adding the gross receipts for that tax year and the 2 preceding tax years; and Dividing the total by 3. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Gross receipts test for qualifying taxpayers, for more information. 2011 tax return form 1040 Generally, a partnership applies the test at the partnership level. 2011 tax return form 1040 Gross receipts for a short tax year are annualized. 2011 tax return form 1040 Aggregation rules. 2011 tax return form 1040   Organizations that are members of an affiliated service group or a controlled group of corporations treated as a single employer for tax purposes are required to aggregate their gross receipts to determine whether the gross receipts test is met. 2011 tax return form 1040 Change to accrual method. 2011 tax return form 1040   A corporation or partnership that fails to meet the gross receipts test for any tax year is prohibited from using the cash method and must change to an accrual method of accounting, effective for the tax year in which the entity fails to meet this test. 2011 tax return form 1040 Special rules for farming businesses. 2011 tax return form 1040   Generally, a taxpayer engaged in the trade or business of farming is allowed to use the cash method for its farming business. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, certain corporations (other than S corporations) and partnerships that have a partner that is a corporation must use an accrual method for their farming business. 2011 tax return form 1040 For this purpose, farming does not include the operation of a nursery or sod farm or the raising or harvesting of trees (other than fruit and nut trees). 2011 tax return form 1040   There is an exception to the requirement to use an accrual method for corporations with gross receipts of $1 million or less for each prior tax year after 1975. 2011 tax return form 1040 For family corporations engaged in farming, the exception applies if gross receipts were $25 million or less for each prior tax year after 1985. 2011 tax return form 1040 See chapter 2 of Publication 225, Farmer's Tax Guide, for more information. 2011 tax return form 1040 Qualified PSC. 2011 tax return form 1040   A PSC that meets the following function and ownership tests can use the cash method. 2011 tax return form 1040 Function test. 2011 tax return form 1040   A corporation meets the function test if at least 95% of its activities are in the performance of services in the fields of health, veterinary services, law, engineering (including surveying and mapping), architecture, accounting, actuarial science, performing arts, or consulting. 2011 tax return form 1040 Ownership test. 2011 tax return form 1040   A corporation meets the ownership test if at least 95% of its stock is owned, directly or indirectly, at all times during the year by one or more of the following. 2011 tax return form 1040 Employees performing services for the corporation in a field qualifying under the function test. 2011 tax return form 1040 Retired employees who had performed services in those fields. 2011 tax return form 1040 The estate of an employee described in (1) or (2). 2011 tax return form 1040 Any other person who acquired the stock by reason of the death of an employee referred to in (1) or (2), but only for the 2-year period beginning on the date of death. 2011 tax return form 1040   Indirect ownership is generally taken into account if the stock is owned indirectly through one or more partnerships, S corporations, or qualified PSCs. 2011 tax return form 1040 Stock owned by one of these entities is considered owned by the entity's owners in proportion to their ownership interest in that entity. 2011 tax return form 1040 Other forms of indirect stock ownership, such as stock owned by family members, are generally not considered when determining if the ownership test is met. 2011 tax return form 1040   For purposes of the ownership test, a person is not considered an employee of a corporation unless that person performs more than minimal services for the corporation. 2011 tax return form 1040 Change to accrual method. 2011 tax return form 1040   A corporation that fails to meet the function test for any tax year; or fails to meet the ownership test at any time during any tax year must change to an accrual method of accounting, effective for the year in which the corporation fails to meet either test. 2011 tax return form 1040 A corporation that fails to meet the function test or the ownership test is not treated as a qualified PSC for any part of that tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Accrual Method Under the accrual method of accounting, generally you report income in the year it is earned and deduct or capitalize expenses in the year incurred. 2011 tax return form 1040 The purpose of an accrual method of accounting is to match income and expenses in the correct year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Income Generally, you include an amount in gross income for the tax year in which all events that fix your right to receive the income have occurred and you can determine the amount with reasonable accuracy. 2011 tax return form 1040 Under this rule, you report an amount in your gross income on the earliest of the following dates. 2011 tax return form 1040 When you receive payment. 2011 tax return form 1040 When the income amount is due to you. 2011 tax return form 1040 When you earn the income. 2011 tax return form 1040 When title has passed. 2011 tax return form 1040 Estimated income. 2011 tax return form 1040   If you include a reasonably estimated amount in gross income and later determine the exact amount is different, take the difference into account in the tax year you make that determination. 2011 tax return form 1040 Change in payment schedule. 2011 tax return form 1040   If you perform services for a basic rate specified in a contract, you must accrue the income at the basic rate, even if you agree to receive payments at a reduced rate. 2011 tax return form 1040 Continue this procedure until you complete the services, then account for the difference. 2011 tax return form 1040 Advance Payment for Services Generally, you report an advance payment for services to be performed in a later tax year as income in the year you receive the payment. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, if you receive an advance payment for services you agree to perform by the end of the next tax year, you can elect to postpone including the advance payment in income until the next tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, you cannot postpone including any payment beyond that tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Service agreement. 2011 tax return form 1040   You can postpone reporting income from an advance payment you receive for a service agreement on property you sell, lease, build, install, or construct. 2011 tax return form 1040 This includes an agreement providing for incidental replacement of parts or materials. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, this applies only if you offer the property without a service agreement in the normal course of business. 2011 tax return form 1040 Postponement not allowed. 2011 tax return form 1040   Generally, one cannot postpone including an advance payment in income for services if either of the following applies. 2011 tax return form 1040 You are to perform any part of the service after the end of the tax year immediately following the year you receive the advance payment. 2011 tax return form 1040 You are to perform any part of the service at any unspecified future date that may be after the end of the tax year immediately following the year you receive the advance payment. 2011 tax return form 1040 Examples. 2011 tax return form 1040   In each of the following examples, assume the tax year is a calendar year and that the accrual method of accounting is used. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example 1. 2011 tax return form 1040 You manufacture, sell, and service computers. 2011 tax return form 1040 You received payment in 2012 for a one-year contingent service contract on a computer you sold. 2011 tax return form 1040 You can postpone including in income the part of the payment you did not earn in 2012 if, in the normal course of your business, you offer computers for sale without a contingent service contract. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example 2. 2011 tax return form 1040 You are in the television repair business. 2011 tax return form 1040 You received payments in 2012 for one-year contracts under which you agree to repair or replace certain parts that fail to function properly in television sets manufactured and sold by unrelated parties. 2011 tax return form 1040 You include the payments in gross income as you earn them. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example 3. 2011 tax return form 1040 You own a dance studio. 2011 tax return form 1040 On October 1, 2012, you receive payment for a one-year contract for 48 one-hour lessons beginning on that date. 2011 tax return form 1040 You give eight lessons in 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 Under this method of including advance payments, you must include one-sixth (8/48) of the payment in income for 2012, and five-sixths (40/48) of the payment in 2013, even if you do not give all the lessons by the end of 2013. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example 4. 2011 tax return form 1040 Assume the same facts as in Example 3, except the payment is for a two-year contract for 96 lessons. 2011 tax return form 1040 You must include the entire payment in income in 2012 since part of the services may be performed after the following year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Guarantee or warranty. 2011 tax return form 1040   Generally, you cannot postpone reporting income you receive under a guarantee or warranty contract. 2011 tax return form 1040 Prepaid rent. 2011 tax return form 1040   You cannot postpone reporting income from prepaid rent. 2011 tax return form 1040 Prepaid rent does not include payment for the use of a room or other space when significant service is also provided for the occupant. 2011 tax return form 1040 You provide significant service when you supply space in a hotel, boarding house, tourist home, motor court, motel, or apartment house that furnishes hotel services. 2011 tax return form 1040 Books and records. 2011 tax return form 1040   Any advance payment you include in gross receipts on your tax return for the year you receive payment must not be less than the payment you include in income for financial reports under the method of accounting used for those reports. 2011 tax return form 1040 Financial reports include reports to shareholders, partners, beneficiaries, and other proprietors for credit purposes and consolidated financial statements. 2011 tax return form 1040 IRS approval. 2011 tax return form 1040   You must file Form 3115 to obtain IRS approval to change your method of accounting for advance payment for services. 2011 tax return form 1040 Advance Payment for Sales Special rules apply to including income from advance payments on agreements for future sales or other dispositions of goods held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of your trade or business. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, the rules do not apply to a payment (or part of a payment) for services that are not an integral part of the main activities covered under the agreement. 2011 tax return form 1040 An agreement includes a gift certificate that can be redeemed for goods. 2011 tax return form 1040 Amounts due and payable are considered received. 2011 tax return form 1040 How to report payments. 2011 tax return form 1040   Generally, include an advance payment in income in the year in which you receive it. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, you can use the alternative method, discussed next. 2011 tax return form 1040 Alternative method of reporting. 2011 tax return form 1040   Under the alternative method, generally include an advance payment in income in the earlier tax year in which you: Include advance payments in gross receipts under the method of accounting you use for tax purposes, or Include any part of advance payments in income for financial reports under the method of accounting used for those reports. 2011 tax return form 1040 Financial reports include reports to shareholders, partners, beneficiaries, and other proprietors for credit purposes and consolidated financial statements. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example 1. 2011 tax return form 1040 You are a retailer. 2011 tax return form 1040 You use an accrual method of accounting and account for the sale of goods when you ship the goods. 2011 tax return form 1040 You use this method for both tax and financial reporting purposes. 2011 tax return form 1040 You can include advance payments in gross receipts for tax purposes in either: (a) the tax year in which you receive the payments; or (b) the tax year in which you ship the goods. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, see Exception for inventory goods, later. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example 2. 2011 tax return form 1040 You are a calendar year taxpayer. 2011 tax return form 1040 You manufacture household furniture and use an accrual method of accounting. 2011 tax return form 1040 Under this method, you accrue income for your financial reports when you ship the furniture. 2011 tax return form 1040 For tax purposes, you do not accrue income until the furniture has been delivered and accepted. 2011 tax return form 1040 In 2012, you received an advance payment of $8,000 for an order of furniture to be manufactured for a total price of $20,000. 2011 tax return form 1040 You shipped the furniture to the customer in December 2012, but it was not delivered and accepted until January 2013. 2011 tax return form 1040 For tax purposes, you include the $8,000 advance payment in gross income for 2012; and include the remaining $12,000 of the contract price in gross income for 2013. 2011 tax return form 1040 Information schedule. 2011 tax return form 1040   If you use the alternative method of reporting advance payments, you must attach a statement with the following information to your tax return each year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Total advance payments received in the current tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Total advance payments received in earlier tax years and not included in income before the current tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Total payments received in earlier tax years included in income for the current tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Exception for inventory goods. 2011 tax return form 1040   If you have an agreement to sell goods properly included in inventory, you can postpone including the advance payment in income until the end of the second tax year following the year you receive an advance payment if, on the last day of the tax year, you meet the following requirements. 2011 tax return form 1040 You account for the advance payment under the alternative method (discussed earlier). 2011 tax return form 1040 You have received a substantial advance payment on the agreement (discussed next). 2011 tax return form 1040 You have enough substantially similar goods on hand, or available through your normal source of supply, to satisfy the agreement. 2011 tax return form 1040 These rules also apply to an agreement, such as a gift certificate, that can be satisfied with goods that cannot be identified in the tax year you receive an advance payment. 2011 tax return form 1040   If you meet these conditions, all advance payments you receive by the end of the second tax year, including payments received in prior years but not reported, must be included in income by the second tax year following the tax year of receipt of substantial advance payments. 2011 tax return form 1040 You must also deduct in that second year all actual or estimated costs for the goods required to satisfy the agreement. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you estimated the cost, you must take into account any difference between the estimate and the actual cost when the goods are delivered. 2011 tax return form 1040 Note. 2011 tax return form 1040 You must report any advance payments you receive after the second year in the year received. 2011 tax return form 1040 No further deferral is allowed. 2011 tax return form 1040 Substantial advance payments. 2011 tax return form 1040   Under an agreement for a future sale, you have substantial advance payments if, by the end of the tax year, the total advance payments received during that year and preceding tax years are equal to or more than the total costs reasonably estimated to be includible in inventory because of the agreement. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example. 2011 tax return form 1040 You are a calendar year, accrual method taxpayer who accounts for advance payments under the alternative method. 2011 tax return form 1040 In 2008, you entered into a contract for the sale of goods properly includible in your inventory. 2011 tax return form 1040 The total contract price is $50,000 and you estimate that your total inventoriable costs for the goods will be $25,000. 2011 tax return form 1040 You receive the following advance payments under the contract. 2011 tax return form 1040 2009 $17,500 2010 10,000 2011 7,500 2012 5,000 2013 5,000 2014 5,000 Total contract price $50,000   Your customer asked you to deliver the goods in 2015. 2011 tax return form 1040 In your 2010 closing inventory, you had on hand enough of the type of goods specified in the contract to satisfy the contract. 2011 tax return form 1040 Since the advance payments you had received by the end of 2010 were more than the costs you estimated, the payments are substantial advance payments. 2011 tax return form 1040   For 2012, include in income all payments you received by the end of 2012, the second tax year following the tax year in which you received substantial advance payments. 2011 tax return form 1040 You must include $40,000 in sales for 2012 (the total amounts received from 2009 through 2012) and include in inventory the cost of the goods (or similar goods) on hand. 2011 tax return form 1040 If no such goods are on hand, then estimate the cost necessary to satisfy the contract. 2011 tax return form 1040   No further deferral is allowed. 2011 tax return form 1040 You must include in gross income the advance payment you receive each remaining year of the contract. 2011 tax return form 1040 Take into account the difference between any estimated cost of goods sold and the actual cost when you deliver the goods in 2015. 2011 tax return form 1040 IRS approval. 2011 tax return form 1040   You must file Form 3115 to obtain IRS approval to change your method of accounting for advance payments for sales. 2011 tax return form 1040 Expenses Under an accrual method of accounting, you generally deduct or capitalize a business expense when both the following apply. 2011 tax return form 1040 The all-events test has been met. 2011 tax return form 1040 The test is met when: All events have occurred that fix the fact of liability, and The liability can be determined with reasonable accuracy. 2011 tax return form 1040 Economic performance has occurred. 2011 tax return form 1040 Economic Performance Generally, you cannot deduct or capitalize a business expense until economic performance occurs. 2011 tax return form 1040 If your expense is for property or services provided to you, or for your use of property, economic performance occurs as the property or services are provided or the property is used. 2011 tax return form 1040 If your expense is for property or services you provide to others, economic performance occurs as you provide the property or services. 2011 tax return form 1040 Example. 2011 tax return form 1040 You are a calendar year taxpayer. 2011 tax return form 1040 You buy office supplies in December 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 You receive the supplies and the bill in December, but you pay the bill in January 2013. 2011 tax return form 1040 You can deduct the expense in 2012 because all events have occurred to fix the liability, the amount of the liability can be determined, and economic performance occurred in 2012. 2011 tax return form 1040 Your office supplies may qualify as a recurring item, discussed later. 2011 tax return form 1040 If so, you can deduct them in 2012, even if the supplies are not delivered until 2013 (when economic performance occurs). 2011 tax return form 1040 Workers' compensation and tort liability. 2011 tax return form 1040   If you are required to make payments under workers' compensation laws or in satisfaction of any tort liability, economic performance occurs as you make the payments. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you are required to make payments to a special designated settlement fund established by court order for a tort liability, economic performance occurs as you make the payments. 2011 tax return form 1040 Taxes. 2011 tax return form 1040   Economic performance generally occurs as estimated income tax, property taxes, employment taxes, etc. 2011 tax return form 1040 are paid. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, you can elect to treat taxes as a recurring item, discussed later. 2011 tax return form 1040 You can also elect to ratably accrue real estate taxes. 2011 tax return form 1040 See chapter 5 of Publication 535 for information about real estate taxes. 2011 tax return form 1040 Other liabilities. 2011 tax return form 1040   Other liabilities for which economic performance occurs as you make payments include liabilities for breach of contract (to the extent of incidental, consequential, and liquidated damages), violation of law, rebates and refunds, awards, prizes, jackpots, insurance, and warranty and service contracts. 2011 tax return form 1040 Interest. 2011 tax return form 1040   Economic performance occurs with the passage of time (as the borrower uses, and the lender forgoes use of, the lender's money) rather than as payments are made. 2011 tax return form 1040 Compensation for services. 2011 tax return form 1040   Generally, economic performance occurs as an employee renders service to the employer. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, deductions for compensation or other benefits paid to an employee in a year subsequent to economic performance are subject to the rules governing deferred compensation, deferred benefits, and funded welfare benefit plans. 2011 tax return form 1040 For information on employee benefit programs, see Publication 15-B, Employer's Tax Guide to Fringe Benefits. 2011 tax return form 1040 Vacation pay. 2011 tax return form 1040   You can take a current deduction for vacation pay earned by your employees if you pay it during the year or, if the amount is vested, within 2½ months after the end of the year. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you pay it later than this, you must deduct it in the year actually paid. 2011 tax return form 1040 An amount is vested if your right to it cannot be nullified or cancelled. 2011 tax return form 1040 Exception for recurring items. 2011 tax return form 1040   An exception to the economic performance rule allows certain recurring items to be treated as incurred during the tax year even though economic performance has not occurred. 2011 tax return form 1040 The exception applies if all the following requirements are met. 2011 tax return form 1040 The all-events test, discussed earlier, is met. 2011 tax return form 1040 Economic performance occurs by the earlier of the following dates. 2011 tax return form 1040 8½ months after the close of the year. 2011 tax return form 1040 The date you file a timely return (including extensions) for the year. 2011 tax return form 1040 The item is recurring in nature and you consistently treat similar items as incurred in the tax year in which the all-events test is met. 2011 tax return form 1040 Either: The item is not material, or Accruing the item in the year in which the all-events test is met results in a better match against income than accruing the item in the year of economic performance. 2011 tax return form 1040 This exception does not apply to workers' compensation or tort liabilities. 2011 tax return form 1040 Amended return. 2011 tax return form 1040   You may be able to file an amended return and treat a liability as incurred under the recurring item exception. 2011 tax return form 1040 You can do so if economic performance for the liability occurs after you file your tax return for the year, but within 8½ months after the close of the tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 Recurrence and consistency. 2011 tax return form 1040   To determine whether an item is recurring and consistently reported, consider the frequency with which the item and similar items are incurred (or expected to be incurred) and how you report these items for tax purposes. 2011 tax return form 1040 A new expense or an expense not incurred every year can be treated as recurring if it is reasonable to expect that it will be incurred regularly in the future. 2011 tax return form 1040 Materiality. 2011 tax return form 1040   Factors to consider in determining the materiality of a recurring item include the size of the item (both in absolute terms and in relation to your income and other expenses) and the treatment of the item on your financial statements. 2011 tax return form 1040   An item considered material for financial statement purposes is also considered material for tax purposes. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, in certain situations an immaterial item for financial accounting purposes is treated as material for purposes of economic performance. 2011 tax return form 1040 Matching expenses with income. 2011 tax return form 1040   Costs directly associated with the revenue of a period are properly allocable to that period. 2011 tax return form 1040 To determine whether the accrual of an expense in a particular year results in a better match with the income to which it relates, generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP; visit www. 2011 tax return form 1040 fasab. 2011 tax return form 1040 gov/accepted. 2011 tax return form 1040 html) are an important factor. 2011 tax return form 1040   For example, if you report sales income in the year of sale, but you do not ship the goods until the following year, the shipping costs are more properly matched to income in the year of sale than the year the goods are shipped. 2011 tax return form 1040 Expenses that cannot be practically associated with income of a particular period, such as advertising costs, should be assigned to the period the costs are incurred. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, the matching requirement is considered met for certain types of expenses. 2011 tax return form 1040 These expenses include taxes, payments under insurance, warranty, and service contracts, rebates, refunds, awards, prizes, and jackpots. 2011 tax return form 1040 Expenses Paid in Advance An expense you pay in advance is deductible only in the year to which it applies, unless the expense qualifies for the 12-month rule. 2011 tax return form 1040 Under the 12-month rule, a taxpayer is not required to capitalize amounts paid to create certain rights or benefits for the taxpayer that do not extend beyond the earlier of the following. 2011 tax return form 1040 12 months after the right or benefit begins, or The end of the tax year after the tax year in which payment is made. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you have not been applying the general rule (an expense paid in advance is deductible only in the year to which it applies) and/or the 12-month rule to the expenses you paid in advance, you must get IRS approval before using the general rule and/or the 12-month rule. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Change in Accounting Method, later, for information on how to get IRS approval. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Expense paid in advance under Cash Method, earlier, for examples illustrating the application of the general and 12-month rules. 2011 tax return form 1040 Related Persons Business expenses and interest owed to a related person who uses the cash method of accounting are not deductible until you make the payment and the corresponding amount is includible in the related person's gross income. 2011 tax return form 1040 Determine the relationship for this rule as of the end of the tax year for which the expense or interest would otherwise be deductible. 2011 tax return form 1040 See section 267 of the Internal Revenue Code and Publication 542, Corporations, for the definition of related person. 2011 tax return form 1040 Inventories An inventory is necessary to clearly show income when the production, purchase, or sale of merchandise is an income-producing factor. 2011 tax return form 1040 If you must account for an inventory in your business, you must use an accrual method of accounting for your purchases and sales. 2011 tax return form 1040 However, see Exceptions, next. 2011 tax return form 1040 See also Accrual Method, earlier. 2011 tax return form 1040 To figure taxable income, you must value your inventory at the beginning and end of each tax year. 2011 tax return form 1040 To determine the value, you need a method for identifying the items in your inventory and a method for valuing these items. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Identifying Cost and Valuing Inventory, later. 2011 tax return form 1040 The rules for valuing inventory are not the same for all businesses. 2011 tax return form 1040 The method you use must conform to generally accepted accounting principles for similar businesses and must clearly reflect income. 2011 tax return form 1040 Your inventory practices must be consistent from year to year. 2011 tax return form 1040 The rules discussed here apply only if they do not conflict with the uniform capitalization rules of section 263A and the mark-to-market rules of section 475. 2011 tax return form 1040 Exceptions The following taxpayers can use the cash method of accounting even if they produce, purchase, or sell merchandise. 2011 tax return form 1040 These taxpayers can also account for inventoriable items as materials and supplies that are not incidental (discussed later). 2011 tax return form 1040 A qualifying taxpayer under Revenue Procedure 2001-10 on page 272 of Internal Revenue Bulletin 2001-2, available at www. 2011 tax return form 1040 irs. 2011 tax return form 1040 gov/pub/irs-irbs/irb01–02. 2011 tax return form 1040 pdf. 2011 tax return form 1040 A qualifying small business taxpayer under Revenue Procedure 2002-28, on page 815 of Internal Revenue Bulletin 2002-18, available at www. 2011 tax return form 1040 irs. 2011 tax return form 1040 gov/pub/irs-irbs/irb02–18. 2011 tax return form 1040 pdf. 2011 tax return form 1040 In addition to the information provided in this publication, you should see the revenue procedures referenced in the list, above, and the instructions for Form 3115 for information you will need to adopt or change to these accounting methods (see Changing methods, later). 2011 tax return form 1040 Qualifying taxpayer. 2011 tax return form 1040   You are a qualifying taxpayer under Revenue Procedure 2001-10 only if: You satisfy the gross receipts test for each prior tax year ending on or after December 17, 1998 (see Gross receipts test for qualifying taxpayers, next). 2011 tax return form 1040 Your average annual gross receipts for each test year (explained in Step 1, listed next) must be $1 million or less. 2011 tax return form 1040 You are not a tax shelter as defined under section 448(d)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. 2011 tax return form 1040 Gross receipts test for qualifying taxpayers. 2011 tax return form 1040   To determine if you meet the gross receipts test for qualifying taxpayers, use the following steps: Step 1. 2011 tax return form 1040 List each of the test years. 2011 tax return form 1040 For qualifying taxpayers under Revenue Procedure 2001-10, the test years are each prior tax year ending on or after December 17, 1998. 2011 tax return form 1040 Step 2. 2011 tax return form 1040 Determine your average annual gross receipts for each test year listed in Step 1. 2011 tax return form 1040 Your average annual gross receipts for a tax year is determined by adding the gross receipts for that tax year and the 2 preceding tax years and dividing the total by 3. 2011 tax return form 1040 Step 3. 2011 tax return form 1040 You meet the gross receipts test for qualifying taxpayers if your average annual gross receipts for each test year listed in Step 1 is $1 million or less. 2011 tax return form 1040 Qualifying small business taxpayer. 2011 tax return form 1040   You are a qualifying small business taxpayer under Revenue Procedure 2002-28 only if: You satisfy the gross receipts test for each prior tax year ending on or after December 31, 2000 (see Gross receipts test for qualifying small business taxpayers, next). 2011 tax return form 1040 Your average annual gross receipts for each test year (explained in Step 1, listed next) must be $10 million or less. 2011 tax return form 1040 You are not prohibited from using the cash method under section 448 of the Internal Revenue Code. 2011 tax return form 1040 Your principle business activity is an eligible business. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Eligible business, later. 2011 tax return form 1040 You have not changed (or have not been required to change) from the cash method because you became ineligible to use the cash method under Revenue Procedure 2002-28. 2011 tax return form 1040 Note. 2011 tax return form 1040 Revenue Procedure 2002-28 does not apply to a farming business of a qualifying small business taxpayer. 2011 tax return form 1040 A taxpayer engaged in the trade or business of farming generally is allowed to use the cash method for any farming business. 2011 tax return form 1040 See Special rules for farming businesses under Cash Method, earlier. 2011 tax return form 1040 Gross receipts test for qualifying small business taxpayers. 2011 tax return form 1040   To determine if you meet the gross receipts test for qualifying small business taxpayers, use the following steps: Step 1. 2011 tax return form 1040 List each of the test years. 2011 tax return form 1040 For qualifying small business taxpayers under Revenue Procedure 2002-28, the test years are each prior tax year ending on or after December 31, 2000. 2011 tax return form 1040 Step 2. 2011 tax return form 1040 Determine your average annual gross receipts for each test year listed in Step 1. 2011 tax return form 1040 Your average annual gross receipts for a tax year is determined by adding the gross receipts for that tax year and the 2 preceding tax years and dividing the total by 3. 2011 tax return form 1040 Step 3. 2011 tax return form 1040 You meet the gross receipts test for qualifying small business taxpayers if your average annual gross receipts for each test year listed in Step 1 is $10 million or less. 2011 tax return form 1040 Eligible business. 2011 tax return form 1040   An eligible business is any business for which a qualified small business taxpayer can use the cash method and choose to not keep an inventory. 2011 tax return form 1040 You have an eligible business if you meet any of the following requirements. 2011 tax return form 1040 Your principal business activity is described in a North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code other than any of the following NAICS subsector codes: NAICS codes 211 and 212 (mining activities). 2011 tax return form 1040 NAICS codes 31-33 (manufacturing). 2011 tax return form 1040 NAICS code 42 (wholesale trade). 2011 tax return form 1040 NAICS codes 44-45 (retail trade). 2011 tax return form 1040 NAICS codes 5111 and 5122 (information industries). 2011 tax return form 1040 Your principal business activity is the provision of services, including the provision of property incident to those services. 2011 tax return form 1040 Your principal business activity is the fabrication or modification of tangible personal property upon demand in accordance with customer design or specifications. 2011 tax return form 1040   Information about the NAICS codes can be found at http://www. 2011 tax return form 1040 census. 2011 tax return form 1040 gov/naics or in the instructions for your federal income tax return. 2011 tax return form 1040 Gross receipts. 2011 tax return form 1040   In general, gross receipts must include all receipts from all your trades or businesses that must be recognized under the method of accounting you used for that tax year for federal income tax purposes. 2011 tax return form 1040 See the definit