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1040x file online 4. 1040x file online   How Income of Aliens Is Taxed Table of Contents Introduction Topics - This chapter discusses: Useful Items - You may want to see: Resident Aliens Nonresident AliensTrade or Business in the United States Effectively Connected Income The 30% Tax Income From Real Property Transportation Tax Interrupted Period of Residence Expatriation TaxExpatriation Before June 4, 2004 Expatriation After June 3, 2004, and Before June 17, 2008 Expatriation After June 16, 2008 Introduction Resident and nonresident aliens are taxed in different ways. 1040x file online Resident aliens are generally taxed in the same way as U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizens. 1040x file online Nonresident aliens are taxed based on the source of their income and whether or not their income is effectively connected with a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business. 1040x file online The following discussions will help you determine if income you receive during the tax year is effectively connected with a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business and how it is taxed. 1040x file online Topics - This chapter discusses: Income that is effectively connected with a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business. 1040x file online Income that is not effectively connected with a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business. 1040x file online Interrupted period of residence. 1040x file online Expatriation tax. 1040x file online Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets 1212 List of Original Issue Discount Instruments Form (and Instructions) 6251 Alternative Minimum Tax—Individuals Schedule D (Form 1040) Capital Gains and Losses See chapter 12 for information about getting these publications and forms. 1040x file online Resident Aliens Resident aliens are generally taxed in the same way as U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizens. 1040x file online This means that their worldwide income is subject to U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online tax and must be reported on their U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online tax return. 1040x file online Income of resident aliens is subject to the graduated tax rates that apply to U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizens. 1040x file online Resident aliens use the Tax Table or Tax Computation Worksheets located in the Form 1040 instructions, which apply to U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizens. 1040x file online Nonresident Aliens A nonresident alien's income that is subject to U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online income tax must be divided into two categories: Income that is effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States, and Income that is not effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States (discussed under The 30% Tax, later). 1040x file online The difference between these two categories is that effectively connected income, after allowable deductions, is taxed at graduated rates. 1040x file online These are the same rates that apply to U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizens and residents. 1040x file online Income that is not effectively connected is taxed at a flat 30% (or lower treaty) rate. 1040x file online If you were formerly a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizen or resident alien, these rules may not apply. 1040x file online See Expatriation Tax, later, in this chapter. 1040x file online Trade or Business in the United States Generally, you must be engaged in a trade or business during the tax year to be able to treat income received in that year as effectively connected with that trade or business. 1040x file online Whether you are engaged in a trade or business in the United States depends on the nature of your activities. 1040x file online The discussions that follow will help you determine whether you are engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online Personal Services If you perform personal services in the United States at any time during the tax year, you usually are considered engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online Certain compensation paid to a nonresident alien by a foreign employer is not included in gross income. 1040x file online For more information, see Services Performed for Foreign Employer in chapter 3. 1040x file online Other Trade or Business Activities Other examples of being engaged in a trade or business in the United States follow. 1040x file online Students and trainees. 1040x file online   You are considered engaged in a trade or business in the United States if you are temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under an “F,” “J,” “M,” or “Q” visa. 1040x file online A nonresident alien temporarily present in the United States under a “J” visa includes a nonresident alien individual admitted to the United States as an exchange visitor under the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961. 1040x file online The taxable part of any scholarship or fellowship grant that is U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source income is treated as effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online Business operations. 1040x file online   If you own and operate a business in the United States selling services, products, or merchandise, you are, with certain exceptions, engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online Partnerships. 1040x file online   If you are a member of a partnership that at any time during the tax year is engaged in a trade or business in the United States, you are considered to be engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online Beneficiary of an estate or trust. 1040x file online   If you are the beneficiary of an estate or trust that is engaged in a trade or business in the United States, you are treated as being engaged in the same trade or business. 1040x file online Trading in stocks, securities, and commodities. 1040x file online   If your only U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online business activity is trading in stocks, securities, or commodities (including hedging transactions) through a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online resident broker or other agent, you are not engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online   For transactions in stocks or securities, this applies to any nonresident alien, including a dealer or broker in stocks and securities. 1040x file online   For transactions in commodities, this applies to commodities that are usually traded on an organized commodity exchange and to transactions that are usually carried out at such an exchange. 1040x file online   This discussion does not apply if you have a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online office or other fixed place of business at any time during the tax year through which, or by the direction of which, you carry out your transactions in stocks, securities, or commodities. 1040x file online Trading for a nonresident alien's own account. 1040x file online   You are not engaged in a trade or business in the United States if trading for your own account in stocks, securities, or commodities is your only U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online business activity. 1040x file online This applies even if the trading takes place while you are present in the United States or is done by your employee or your broker or other agent. 1040x file online   This does not apply to trading for your own account if you are a dealer in stocks, securities, or commodities. 1040x file online This does not necessarily mean, however, that as a dealer you are considered to be engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online Determine that based on the facts and circumstances in each case or under the rules given above in Trading in stocks, securities, and commodities . 1040x file online Effectively Connected Income If you are engaged in a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business, all income, gain, or loss for the tax year that you get from sources within the United States (other than certain investment income) is treated as effectively connected income. 1040x file online This applies whether or not there is any connection between the income and the trade or business being carried on in the United States during the tax year. 1040x file online Two tests, described next under Investment Income, determine whether certain items of investment income (such as interest, dividends, and royalties) are treated as effectively connected with that business. 1040x file online In limited circumstances, some kinds of foreign source income may be treated as effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online For a discussion of these rules, see Foreign Income , later. 1040x file online Investment Income Investment income from U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online sources that may or may not be treated as effectively connected with a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business generally falls into the following three categories. 1040x file online Fixed or determinable income (interest, dividends, rents, royalties, premiums, annuities, etc. 1040x file online ). 1040x file online Gains (some of which are considered capital gains) from the sale or exchange of the following types of property. 1040x file online Timber, coal, or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 1040x file online Patents, copyrights, and similar property on which you receive contingent payments after October 4, 1966. 1040x file online Patents transferred before October 5, 1966. 1040x file online Original issue discount obligations. 1040x file online Capital gains (and losses). 1040x file online Use the two tests, described next, to determine whether an item of U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source income falling in one of the three categories above and received during the tax year is effectively connected with your U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business. 1040x file online If the tests indicate that the item of income is effectively connected, you must include it with your other effectively connected income. 1040x file online If the item of income is not effectively connected, include it with all other income discussed under The 30% Tax later, in this chapter. 1040x file online Asset-use test. 1040x file online   This test usually applies to income that is not directly produced by trade or business activities. 1040x file online Under this test, if an item of income is from assets (property) used in, or held for use in, the trade or business in the United States, it is considered effectively connected. 1040x file online   An asset is used in, or held for use in, the trade or business in the United States if the asset is: Held for the principal purpose of promoting the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, Acquired and held in the ordinary course of the trade or business conducted in the United States (for example, an account receivable or note receivable arising from that trade or business), or Otherwise held to meet the present needs of the trade or business in the United States and not its anticipated future needs. 1040x file online Generally, stock of a corporation is not treated as an asset used in, or held for use in, a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online Business-activities test. 1040x file online   This test usually applies when income, gain, or loss comes directly from the active conduct of the trade or business. 1040x file online The business-activities test is most important when: Dividends or interest are received by a dealer in stocks or securities, Royalties are received in the trade or business of licensing patents or similar property, or Service fees are earned by a servicing business. 1040x file online Under this test, if the conduct of the U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business was a material factor in producing the income, the income is considered effectively connected. 1040x file online Personal Service Income You usually are engaged in a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business when you perform personal services in the United States. 1040x file online Personal service income you receive in a tax year in which you are engaged in a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business is effectively connected with a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business. 1040x file online Income received in a year other than the year you performed the services is also effectively connected if it would have been effectively connected if received in the year you performed the services. 1040x file online Personal service income includes wages, salaries, commissions, fees, per diem allowances, and employee allowances and bonuses. 1040x file online The income may be paid to you in the form of cash, services, or property. 1040x file online If you are engaged in a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business only because you perform personal services in the United States during the tax year, income and gains from assets, and gains and losses from the sale or exchange of capital assets are generally not effectively connected with your trade or business. 1040x file online However, if there is a direct economic relationship between your holding of the asset and your trade or business of performing personal services, the income, gain, or loss is effectively connected. 1040x file online Pensions. 1040x file online   If you were a nonresident alien engaged in a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business after 1986 because you performed personal services in the United States, and you later receive a pension or retirement pay attributable to these services, such payments are effectively connected income in each year you receive them. 1040x file online This is true whether or not you are engaged in a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business in the year you receive the retirement pay. 1040x file online Transportation Income Transportation income (defined in chapter 2) is effectively connected if you meet both of the following conditions. 1040x file online You had a fixed place of business in the United States involved in earning the income. 1040x file online At least 90% of your U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source transportation income is attributable to regularly scheduled transportation. 1040x file online “Fixed place of business” generally means a place, site, structure, or other similar facility through which you engage in a trade or business. 1040x file online “Regularly scheduled transportation” means that a ship or aircraft follows a published schedule with repeated sailings or flights at regular intervals between the same points for voyages or flights that begin or end in the United States. 1040x file online This definition applies to both scheduled and chartered air transportation. 1040x file online If you do not meet the two conditions above, the income is not effectively connected and is taxed at a 4% rate. 1040x file online See Transportation Tax, later, in this chapter. 1040x file online Business Profits and Losses and Sales Transactions All profits or losses from U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online sources that are from the operation of a business in the United States are effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online For example, profit from the sale in the United States of inventory property purchased either in this country or in a foreign country is effectively connected trade or business income. 1040x file online A share of U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source profits or losses of a partnership that is engaged in a trade or business in the United States is also effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online Real Property Gain or Loss Gains and losses from the sale or exchange of U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property interests (whether or not they are capital assets) are taxed as if you are engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online You must treat the gain or loss as effectively connected with that trade or business. 1040x file online U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property interest. 1040x file online   This is any interest in real property located in the United States or the U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online Virgin Islands or any interest (other than as a creditor) in a domestic corporation that is a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property holding corporation. 1040x file online Real property includes the following. 1040x file online Land and unsevered natural products of the land, such as growing crops and timber, and mines, wells, and other natural deposits. 1040x file online Improvements on land, including buildings, other permanent structures, and their structural components. 1040x file online Personal property associated with the use of real property, such as equipment used in farming, mining, forestry, or construction or property used in lodging facilities or rented office space, unless the personal property is: Disposed of more than one year before or after the disposition of the real property, or Separately sold to persons unrelated either to the seller or to the buyer of the real property. 1040x file online U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property holding corporation. 1040x file online   A corporation is a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property holding corporation if the fair market value of the corporation's U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property interests are at least 50% of the total fair market value of: The corporation's U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property interests, plus The corporation's interests in real property located outside the United States, plus The corporation's other assets that are used in, or held for use in, a trade or business. 1040x file online   Gain or loss on the sale of the stock in any domestic corporation is taxed as if you are engaged in a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business unless you establish that the corporation is not a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property holding corporation. 1040x file online   A U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property interest does not include a class of stock of a corporation that is regularly traded on an established securities market, unless you hold more than 5% of the fair market value of that class of stock. 1040x file online An interest in a foreign corporation owning U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property generally is not a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property interest unless the corporation chooses to be treated as a domestic corporation. 1040x file online Qualified investment entities. 1040x file online   Special rules apply to qualified investment entities (QIEs). 1040x file online A QIE is any real estate investment trust (REIT) or any regulated investment company (RIC) that is a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property holding corporation. 1040x file online    Generally, any distribution from a QIE to a shareholder that is attributable to gain from the sale or exchange of a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property interest is treated as a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property gain by the shareholder receiving the distribution. 1040x file online A distribution by a QIE on stock regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States is not treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property interest if you did not own more than 5% of that stock at any time during the 1-year period ending on the date of the distribution. 1040x file online A distribution that you do not treat as gain from the sale or exchange of a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property interest is included in your gross income as a regular dividend. 1040x file online Note. 1040x file online Beginning January 1, 2014 (unless extended by legislation), a RIC that is a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property holding corporation will only be treated as a QIE for certain distributions from the RIC that are directly or indirectly attributable to distributions received by the RIC from a REIT. 1040x file online Domestically controlled QIE. 1040x file online   The sale of an interest in a domestically controlled QIE is not the sale of a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property interest. 1040x file online The entity is domestically controlled if at all times during the testing period less than 50% in value of its stock was held, directly or indirectly, by foreign persons. 1040x file online The testing period is the shorter of (a) the 5-year period ending on the date of disposition, or (b) the period during which the entity was in existence. 1040x file online Wash sale. 1040x file online    If you dispose of an interest in a domestically controlled QIE in an applicable wash sale transaction, special rules apply. 1040x file online An applicable wash sale transaction is one in which you: Dispose of an interest in the domestically controlled QIE during the 30-day period before the ex-dividend date of a distribution that you would (but for the disposition) have treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property interest, and Acquire, or enter into a contract or option to acquire, a substantially identical interest in that entity during the 61-day period that began on the first day of the 30-day period. 1040x file online If this occurs, you are treated as having gain from the sale or exchange of a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property interest in an amount equal to the distribution made after June 15, 2006, that would have been treated as such gain. 1040x file online This also applies to any substitute dividend payment. 1040x file online   A transaction is not treated as an applicable wash sale transaction if: You actually receive the distribution from the domestically controlled QIE related to the interest disposed of, or acquired, in the transaction, or You dispose of any class of stock in a QIE that is regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States but only if you did not own more than 5% of that class of stock at any time during the 1-year period ending on the date of the distribution. 1040x file online Alternative minimum tax. 1040x file online   There may be a minimum tax on your net gain from the disposition of U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property interests. 1040x file online Figure the amount of this tax, if any, on Form 6251. 1040x file online Withholding of tax. 1040x file online   If you dispose of a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property interest, the buyer may have to withhold tax. 1040x file online See the discussion of Tax Withheld on Real Property Sales in chapter 8. 1040x file online Foreign Income You must treat three kinds of foreign source income as effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States if: You have an office or other fixed place of business in the United States to which the income can be attributed, That office or place of business is a material factor in producing the income, and The income is produced in the ordinary course of the trade or business carried on through that office or other fixed place of business. 1040x file online An office or other fixed place of business is a material factor if it significantly contributes to, and is an essential economic element in, the earning of the income. 1040x file online The three kinds of foreign source income are listed below. 1040x file online Rents and royalties for the use of, or for the privilege of using, intangible personal property located outside the United States or from any interest in such property. 1040x file online Included are rents or royalties for the use, or for the privilege of using, outside the United States, patents, copyrights, secret processes and formulas, goodwill, trademarks, trade brands, franchises, and similar properties if the rents or royalties are from the active conduct of a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online Dividends, interest, or amounts received for the provision of a guarantee of indebtedness issued after September 27, 2010, from the active conduct of a banking, financing, or similar business in the United States. 1040x file online A substitute dividend or interest payment received under a securities lending transaction or a sale-repurchase transaction is treated the same as the amounts received on the transferred security. 1040x file online Income, gain, or loss from the sale outside the United States, through the U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online office or other fixed place of business, of: Stock in trade, Property that would be included in inventory if on hand at the end of the tax year, or Property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. 1040x file online Item (3) will not apply if you sold the property for use, consumption, or disposition outside the United States and an office or other fixed place of business in a foreign country was a material factor in the sale. 1040x file online Any foreign source income that is equivalent to any item of income described above is treated as effectively connected with a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business. 1040x file online For example, foreign source interest and dividend equivalents are treated as U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online effectively connected income if the income is derived by a foreign person in the active conduct of a banking, financing, or similar business within the United States. 1040x file online Tax on Effectively Connected Income Income you receive during the tax year that is effectively connected with your trade or business in the United States is, after allowable deductions, taxed at the rates that apply to U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizens and residents. 1040x file online Generally, you can receive effectively connected income only if you are a nonresident alien engaged in trade or business in the United States during the tax year. 1040x file online However, income you receive from the sale or exchange of property, the performance of services, or any other transaction in another tax year is treated as effectively connected in that year if it would have been effectively connected in the year the transaction took place or you performed the services. 1040x file online Example. 1040x file online Ted Richards, a nonresident alien, entered the United States in August 2012, to perform personal services in the U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online office of his overseas employer. 1040x file online He worked in the U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online office until December 25, 2012, but did not leave this country until January 11, 2013. 1040x file online On January 8, 2013, he received his final paycheck for services performed in the United States during 2012. 1040x file online All of Ted's income during his stay here is U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source income. 1040x file online During 2012, Ted was engaged in the trade or business of performing personal services in the United States. 1040x file online Therefore, all amounts paid to him in 2012 for services performed in the United States during 2012 are effectively connected with that trade or business during 2012. 1040x file online The salary payment Ted received in January 2013 is U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source income to him in 2013. 1040x file online It is effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States because he was engaged in a trade or business in the United States during 2012 when he performed the services that earned the income. 1040x file online Real property income. 1040x file online   You may be able to choose to treat all income from real property as effectively connected. 1040x file online See Income From Real Property , later, in this chapter. 1040x file online The 30% Tax Tax at a 30% (or lower treaty) rate applies to certain items of income or gains from U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online sources but only if the items are not effectively connected with your U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business. 1040x file online Fixed or Determinable Income The 30% (or lower treaty) rate applies to the gross amount of U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source fixed or determinable annual or periodic gains, profits, or income. 1040x file online Income is fixed when it is paid in amounts known ahead of time. 1040x file online Income is determinable whenever there is a basis for figuring the amount to be paid. 1040x file online Income can be periodic if it is paid from time to time. 1040x file online It does not have to be paid annually or at regular intervals. 1040x file online Income can be determinable or periodic even if the length of time during which the payments are made is increased or decreased. 1040x file online Items specifically included as fixed or determinable income are interest (other than original issue discount), dividends, dividend equivalent payments (defined in chapter 2), rents, premiums, annuities, salaries, wages, and other compensation. 1040x file online A substitute dividend or interest payment received under a securities lending transaction or a sale-repurchase transaction is treated the same as the amounts received on the transferred security. 1040x file online Other items of income, such as royalties, also may be subject to the 30% tax. 1040x file online Some fixed or determinable income may be exempt from U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online tax. 1040x file online See chapter 3 if you are not sure whether the income is taxable. 1040x file online Original issue discount (OID). 1040x file online   If you sold, exchanged, or received a payment on a bond or other debt instrument that was issued at a discount after March 31, 1972, all or part of the original issue discount (OID) (other than portfolio interest) may be subject to the 30% tax. 1040x file online The amount of OID is the difference between the stated redemption price at maturity and the issue price of the debt instrument. 1040x file online The 30% tax applies in the following circumstances. 1040x file online You received a payment on a debt instrument. 1040x file online In this case, the amount of OID subject to tax is the OID that accrued while you held the debt instrument minus the OID previously taken into account. 1040x file online But the tax on the OID cannot be more than the payment minus the tax on the interest payment on the debt instrument. 1040x file online You sold or exchanged the debt instrument. 1040x file online The amount of OID subject to tax is the OID that accrued while you held the debt instrument minus the amount already taxed in (1) above. 1040x file online   Report on your return the amount of OID shown on Form 1042-S, Foreign Person's U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online Source Income Subject to Withholding, if you bought the debt instrument at original issue. 1040x file online However, you must recompute your proper share of OID shown on Form 1042-S if any of the following apply. 1040x file online You bought the debt instrument at a premium or paid an acquisition premium. 1040x file online The debt instrument is a stripped bond or a stripped coupon (including zero coupon instruments backed by U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online Treasury securities). 1040x file online The debt instrument is a contingent payment or inflation-indexed debt instrument. 1040x file online For the definition of premium and acquisition premium and instructions on how to recompute OID, get Publication 1212. 1040x file online   If you held a bond or other debt instrument that was issued at a discount before April 1, 1972, contact the IRS for further information. 1040x file online See chapter 12. 1040x file online Gambling Winnings In general, nonresident aliens are subject to the 30% tax on the gross proceeds from gambling won in the United States if that income is not effectively connected with a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business and is not exempted by treaty. 1040x file online However, no tax is imposed on nonbusiness gambling income a nonresident alien wins playing blackjack, baccarat, craps, roulette, or big-6 wheel in the United States. 1040x file online Nonresident aliens are taxed at graduated rates on net gambling income won in the United States that is effectively connected with a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business. 1040x file online Social Security Benefits A nonresident alien must include 85% of any U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online social security benefit (and the social security equivalent part of a tier 1 railroad retirement benefit) in U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source fixed or determinable annual or periodic income. 1040x file online Social security benefits include monthly retirement, survivor, and disability benefits. 1040x file online This income is exempt under some tax treaties. 1040x file online See Table 1 in Publication 901, U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online Tax Treaties, for a list of tax treaties that exempt U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online social security benefits from U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online tax. 1040x file online Sales or Exchanges of Capital Assets These rules apply only to those capital gains and losses from sources in the United States that are not effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online They apply even if you are engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online These rules do not apply to the sale or exchange of a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online real property interest or to the sale of any property that is effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online See Real Property Gain or Loss , earlier, under Effectively Connected Income. 1040x file online A capital asset is everything you own except: Inventory. 1040x file online Business accounts or notes receivable. 1040x file online Depreciable property used in a trade or business. 1040x file online Real property used in a trade or business. 1040x file online Supplies regularly used in a trade or business. 1040x file online Certain copyrights, literary or musical or artistic compositions, letters or memoranda, or similar property. 1040x file online Certain U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online government publications. 1040x file online Certain commodities derivative financial instruments held by a commodities derivatives dealer. 1040x file online Hedging transactions. 1040x file online A capital gain is a gain on the sale or exchange of a capital asset. 1040x file online A capital loss is a loss on the sale or exchange of a capital asset. 1040x file online If the sale is in foreign currency, for the purpose of determining gain, the cost and selling price of the property should be expressed in U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online currency at the rate of exchange prevailing as of the date of the purchase and date of the sale, respectively. 1040x file online You may want to read Publication 544. 1040x file online However, use Publication 544 only to determine what is a sale or exchange of a capital asset, or what is treated as such. 1040x file online Specific tax treatment that applies to U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizens or residents generally does not apply to you. 1040x file online The following gains are subject to the 30% (or lower treaty) rate without regard to the 183-day rule, discussed later. 1040x file online Gains on the disposal of timber, coal, or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 1040x file online Gains on contingent payments received from the sale or exchange of patents, copyrights, and similar property after October 4, 1966. 1040x file online Gains on certain transfers of all substantial rights to, or an undivided interest in, patents if the transfers were made before October 5, 1966. 1040x file online Gains on the sale or exchange of original issue discount obligations. 1040x file online Gains in (1) are not subject to the 30% (or lower treaty) rate if you choose to treat the gains as effectively connected with a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business. 1040x file online See Income From Real Property , later. 1040x file online 183-day rule. 1040x file online   If you were in the United States for 183 days or more during the tax year, your net gain from sales or exchanges of capital assets is taxed at a 30% (or lower treaty) rate. 1040x file online For purposes of the 30% (or lower treaty) rate, net gain is the excess of your capital gains from U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online sources over your capital losses from U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online sources. 1040x file online This rule applies even if any of the transactions occurred while you were not in the United States. 1040x file online   To determine your net gain, consider the amount of your gains and losses that would be recognized and taken into account only if, and to the extent that, they would be recognized and taken into account if you were in a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business during the year and the gains and losses were effectively connected with that trade or business during the tax year. 1040x file online   In arriving at your net gain, do not take the following into consideration. 1040x file online The four types of gains listed earlier. 1040x file online The deduction for a capital loss carryover. 1040x file online Capital losses in excess of capital gains. 1040x file online Exclusion for gain from the sale or exchange of qualified small business stock (section 1202 exclusion). 1040x file online Losses from the sale or exchange of property held for personal use. 1040x file online However, losses resulting from casualties or thefts may be deductible on Schedule A (Form 1040NR). 1040x file online See Itemized Deductions in chapter 5. 1040x file online   If you are not engaged in a trade or business in the United States and have not established a tax year for a prior period, your tax year will be the calendar year for purposes of the 183-day rule. 1040x file online Also, you must file your tax return on a calendar-year basis. 1040x file online   If you were in the United States for less than 183 days during the tax year, capital gains (other than gains listed earlier) are tax exempt unless they are effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States during your tax year. 1040x file online Reporting. 1040x file online   Report your gains and losses from the sales or exchanges of capital assets that are not effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States on page 4 of Form 1040NR. 1040x file online Report gains and losses from sales or exchanges of capital assets (including real property) that are effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States on a separate Schedule D (Form 1040), Form 4797, or both. 1040x file online Attach them to Form 1040NR. 1040x file online Income From Real Property If you have income from real property located in the United States that you own or have an interest in and hold for the production of income, you can choose to treat all income from that property as income effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States. 1040x file online The choice applies to all income from real property located in the United States and held for the production of income and to all income from any interest in such property. 1040x file online This includes income from rents, royalties from mines, oil or gas wells, or other natural resources. 1040x file online It also includes gains from the sale or exchange of timber, coal, or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 1040x file online You can make this choice only for real property income that is not otherwise effectively connected with your U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business. 1040x file online If you make the choice, you can claim deductions attributable to the real property income and only your net income from real property is taxed. 1040x file online This choice does not treat a nonresident alien, who is not otherwise engaged in a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business, as being engaged in a trade or business in the United States during the year. 1040x file online Example. 1040x file online You are a nonresident alien and are not engaged in a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business. 1040x file online You own a single-family house in the United States that you rent out. 1040x file online Your rental income for the year is $10,000. 1040x file online This is your only U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source income. 1040x file online As discussed earlier under The 30% Tax, the rental income is subject to a tax at a 30% (or lower treaty) rate. 1040x file online You received a Form 1042-S showing that your tenants properly withheld this tax from the rental income. 1040x file online You do not have to file a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online tax return (Form 1040NR) because your U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online tax liability is satisfied by the withholding of tax. 1040x file online If you make the choice discussed earlier, you can offset the $10,000 income by certain rental expenses. 1040x file online (See Publication 527, Residential Rental Property, for information on rental expenses. 1040x file online ) Any resulting net income is taxed at graduated rates. 1040x file online If you make this choice, report the rental income and expenses on Schedule E (Form 1040) and attach the schedule to Form 1040NR. 1040x file online For the first year you make the choice, also attach the statement discussed next. 1040x file online Making the choice. 1040x file online   Make the initial choice by attaching a statement to your return, or amended return, for the year of the choice. 1040x file online Include the following in your statement. 1040x file online That you are making the choice. 1040x file online Whether the choice is under Internal Revenue Code section 871(d) (explained earlier) or a tax treaty. 1040x file online A complete list of all your real property, or any interest in real property, located in the United States. 1040x file online Give the legal identification of U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online timber, coal, or iron ore in which you have an interest. 1040x file online The extent of your ownership in the property. 1040x file online The location of the property. 1040x file online A description of any major improvements to the property. 1040x file online The dates you owned the property. 1040x file online Your income from the property. 1040x file online Details of any previous choices and revocations of the real property income choice. 1040x file online   This choice stays in effect for all later tax years unless you revoke it. 1040x file online Revoking the choice. 1040x file online   You can revoke the choice without IRS approval by filing Form 1040X, Amended U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online Individual Income Tax Return, for the year you made the choice and for later tax years. 1040x file online You must file Form 1040X within 3 years from the date your return was filed or 2 years from the time the tax was paid, whichever is later. 1040x file online If this time period has expired for the year of choice, you cannot revoke the choice for that year. 1040x file online However, you may revoke the choice for later tax years only if you have IRS approval. 1040x file online For information on how to get IRS approval, see Regulation section 1. 1040x file online 871-10(d)(2). 1040x file online Transportation Tax A 4% tax rate applies to transportation income that is not effectively connected because it does not meet the two conditions listed earlier under Transportation Income . 1040x file online If you receive transportation income subject to the 4% tax, you should figure the tax and show it on line 57 of Form 1040NR. 1040x file online Attach a statement to your return that includes the following information (if applicable). 1040x file online Your name, taxpayer identification number, and tax year. 1040x file online A description of the types of services performed (whether on or off board). 1040x file online Names of vessels or registration numbers of aircraft on which you performed the services. 1040x file online Amount of U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source transportation income derived from each type of service for each vessel or aircraft for the calendar year. 1040x file online Total amount of U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source transportation income derived from all types of services for the calendar year. 1040x file online This 4% tax applies to your U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source gross transportation income. 1040x file online This only includes transportation income that is treated as derived from sources in the United States if the transportation begins or ends in the United States. 1040x file online For transportation income from personal services, the transportation must be between the United States and a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online possession. 1040x file online For personal services of a nonresident alien, this only applies to income derived from, or in connection with, an aircraft. 1040x file online Interrupted Period of Residence You are subject to tax under a special rule if you interrupt your period of U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online residence with a period of nonresidence. 1040x file online The special rule applies if you meet all of the following conditions. 1040x file online You were a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online resident for a period that includes at least 3 consecutive calendar years. 1040x file online You were a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online resident for at least 183 days in each of those years. 1040x file online You ceased to be treated as a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online resident. 1040x file online You then again became a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online resident before the end of the third calendar year after the end of the period described in (1) above. 1040x file online Under this special rule, you are subject to tax on your U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source gross income and gains on a net basis at the graduated rates applicable to individuals (with allowable deductions) for the period you were a nonresident alien, unless you would be subject to a higher tax under the 30% tax (discussed earlier) on income not connected with a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business. 1040x file online For information on how to figure the special tax, see How To Figure the Expatriation Tax (If You Expatriated Before June 17, 2008) under Expatriation Tax , below. 1040x file online Example. 1040x file online John Willow, a citizen of New Zealand, entered the United States on April 1, 2008, as a lawful permanent resident. 1040x file online On August 1, 2010, John ceased to be a lawful permanent resident and returned to New Zealand. 1040x file online During his period of residence, he was present in the United States for at least 183 days in each of three consecutive years (2008, 2009, and 2010). 1040x file online He returned to the United States on October 5, 2013, as a lawful permanent resident. 1040x file online He became a resident before the close of the third calendar year (2013) beginning after the end of his first period of residence (August 1, 2010). 1040x file online Therefore, he is subject to tax under the special rule for the period of nonresidence (August 2, 2010, through October 4, 2013) if it is more than the tax that would normally apply to him as a nonresident alien. 1040x file online Reporting requirements. 1040x file online   If you are subject to this tax for any year in the period you were a nonresident alien, you must file Form 1040NR for that year. 1040x file online The return is due by the due date (including extensions) for filing your U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online income tax return for the year that you again become a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online resident. 1040x file online If you already filed returns for that period, you must file amended returns. 1040x file online You must attach a statement to your return that identifies the source of all of your U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online and foreign gross income and the items of income subject to this special rule. 1040x file online Expatriation Tax The expatriation tax provisions apply to U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizens who have renounced their citizenship and long-term residents who have ended their residency. 1040x file online The rules that apply are based on the dates of expatriation, which are described in the following sections. 1040x file online Expatriation Before June 4, 2004. 1040x file online Expatriation After June 3, 2004, and Before June 17, 2008. 1040x file online Expatriation After June 16, 2008. 1040x file online Long-term resident defined. 1040x file online   You are a long-term resident if you were a lawful permanent resident of the United States in at least 8 of the last 15 tax years ending with the year your residency ends. 1040x file online In determining if you meet the 8-year requirement, do not count any year that you are treated as a resident of a foreign country under a tax treaty and do not waive treaty benefits. 1040x file online Expatriation Before June 4, 2004 If you expatriated before June 4, 2004, the expatriation rules apply if one of the principal purposes of the action is the avoidance of U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online taxes. 1040x file online Unless you received a ruling from the IRS that you did not expatriate to avoid U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online taxes, you are presumed to have tax avoidance as a principal purpose if: Your average annual net income tax for the last 5 tax years ending before the date of your action to relinquish your citizenship or terminate your residency was more than $100,000, or Your net worth on the date of your action was $500,000 or more. 1040x file online The amounts above are adjusted for inflation if your expatriation action is after 1997 (see Table 4-1). 1040x file online Table 4-1. 1040x file online Inflation-Adjusted Amounts for Expatriation Actions Before June 4, 2004 IF you expatriated during . 1040x file online . 1040x file online . 1040x file online   THEN the rules outlined on this page apply if . 1040x file online . 1040x file online . 1040x file online     Your 5-year average annual net income tax was more than . 1040x file online . 1040x file online . 1040x file online OR Your net worth equaled or exceeded . 1040x file online . 1040x file online . 1040x file online 1999   110,000   552,000 2000   112,000   562,000 2001   116,000   580,000 2002   120,000   599,000 2003   122,000   608,000 2004 (before June 4)*   124,000   622,000 *If you expatriated after June 3, 2004, see Expatriation After June 3, 2004, and Before June 17, 2008 or Expatriation After June 16, 2008. 1040x file online Reporting requirements. 1040x file online   If you lost your U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizenship, you should have filed Form 8854 with a consular office or a federal court at the time of loss of citizenship. 1040x file online If you ended your long-term residency, you should have filed Form 8854 with the Internal Revenue Service when you filed your dual-status tax return for the year your residency ended. 1040x file online   Your U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online residency is considered to have ended when you ceased to be a lawful permanent resident or you began to be treated as a resident of another country under a tax treaty and do not waive treaty benefits. 1040x file online Penalties. 1040x file online   If you failed to file Form 8854, you may have to pay a penalty equal to the greater of 5% of the expatriation tax or $1,000. 1040x file online The penalty will be assessed for each year of the 10-year period beginning on the date of expatriation during which your failure to file continues. 1040x file online The penalty will not be imposed if you can show that the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect. 1040x file online Expatriation tax. 1040x file online   The expatriation tax applies to the 10-year period following the date of expatriation or termination of residency. 1040x file online It is figured in the same way as for those expatriating after June 3, 2004, and before June 17, 2008. 1040x file online See How To Figure the Expatriation Tax (If You Expatriated Before June 17, 2008) in the next section. 1040x file online Expatriation After June 3, 2004, and Before June 17, 2008 If you expatriated after June 3, 2004, and before June 17, 2008, the expatriation rules apply to you if any of the following statements apply. 1040x file online Your average annual net income tax for the 5 tax years ending before the date of expatriation or termination of residency is more than: $124,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2004. 1040x file online $127,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2005. 1040x file online $131,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2006. 1040x file online $136,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2007. 1040x file online $139,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2008. 1040x file online Your net worth is $2 million or more on the date of your expatriation or termination of residency. 1040x file online You fail to certify on Form 8854 that you have complied with all U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online federal tax obligations for the 5 tax years preceding the date of your expatriation or termination of residency. 1040x file online Exception for dual-citizens and certain minors. 1040x file online   Certain dual-citizens and certain minors (defined next) are not subject to the expatriation tax even if they meet (1) or (2) earlier. 1040x file online However, they still must provide the certification required in (3). 1040x file online Certain dual-citizens. 1040x file online   You may qualify for the exception described above if all of the following apply. 1040x file online You became at birth a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizen and a citizen of another country and you continue to be a citizen of that other country. 1040x file online You were never a resident alien of the United States (as defined in chapter 1). 1040x file online You never held a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online passport. 1040x file online You were present in the United States for no more than 30 days during any calendar year that is 1 of the 10 calendar years preceding your loss of U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizenship. 1040x file online Certain minors. 1040x file online   You may qualify for the exception described above if you meet all of the following requirements. 1040x file online You became a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizen at birth. 1040x file online Neither of your parents was a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizen at the time of your birth. 1040x file online You expatriated before you were 18½. 1040x file online You were present in the United States for not more than 30 days during any calendar year that is 1 of the 10 calendar years preceding your expatriation. 1040x file online Tax consequences of presence in the United States. 1040x file online   The following rules apply if you do not meet the exception above for dual-citizens and certain minors and the expatriation rules would otherwise apply to you. 1040x file online   The expatriation tax does not apply to any tax year during the 10-year period if you are physically present in the United States for more than 30 days during the calendar year ending in that year. 1040x file online Instead, you are treated as a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizen or resident and taxed on your worldwide income for that tax year. 1040x file online You must file Form 1040, 1040A, or 1040EZ and figure your tax as prescribed in the instructions for those forms. 1040x file online   When counting the number of days of presence during a calendar year, count any day you were physically present in the United States at any time during the day. 1040x file online However, do not count any days (up to a limit of 30 days) on which you performed personal services in the United States for an employer who is not related to you if either of the following apply. 1040x file online You have ties with other countries. 1040x file online You have ties with other countries if: You became (within a reasonable period after your expatriation or termination of residency) a citizen or resident of the country in which you, your spouse, or either of your parents were born, and You became fully liable for income tax in that country. 1040x file online You were physically present in the United States for 30 days or less during each year in the 10-year period ending on the date of expatriation or termination of residency. 1040x file online Do not count any day you were an exempt individual or were unable to leave the United States because of a medical condition that arose while you were in the United States. 1040x file online See Exempt individual and Medical condition in chapter 1 under Substantial Presence Test, but disregard the information about Form 8843. 1040x file online Related employer. 1040x file online   If your employer in the United States is any of the following, then your employer is related to you. 1040x file online You must count any days you performed services in the United States for that employer as days of presence in the United States. 1040x file online Members of your family. 1040x file online This includes only your brothers and sisters, half-brothers and half-sisters, spouse, ancestors (parents, grandparents, etc. 1040x file online ), and lineal descendants (children, grandchildren, etc. 1040x file online ). 1040x file online A partnership in which you directly or indirectly own more than 50% of the capital interest or the profits interest. 1040x file online A corporation in which you directly or indirectly own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock. 1040x file online (See Publication 550, chapter 4, Constructive ownership of stock, for how to determine whether you directly or indirectly own outstanding stock. 1040x file online ) A tax-exempt charitable or educational organization that is directly or indirectly controlled, in any manner or by any method, by you or by a member of your family, whether or not this control is legally enforceable. 1040x file online Date of tax expatriation. 1040x file online   For purposes of U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online tax rules, the date of your expatriation or termination of residency is the later of the dates on which you perform the following actions. 1040x file online You notify either the Department of State or the Department of Homeland Security (whichever is appropriate) of your expatriating act or termination of residency. 1040x file online You file Form 8854 in accordance with the form instructions. 1040x file online Annual return. 1040x file online   If the expatriation tax applies to you, you must file Form 8854 each year during the 10-year period following the date of expatriation. 1040x file online You must file this form even if you owe no U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online tax. 1040x file online Penalty. 1040x file online   If you fail to file Form 8854 for any tax year, fail to include all information required to be shown on the form, or include incorrect information, you may have to pay a penalty of $10,000. 1040x file online You will not have to pay a penalty if you show that the failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect. 1040x file online How To Figure the Expatriation Tax (If You Expatriated Before June 17, 2008) If the expatriation tax applies to you, you are generally subject to tax on your U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source gross income and gains on a net basis at the graduated rates applicable to individuals (with allowable deductions) unless you would be subject to a higher tax under the 30% tax (discussed earlier) on income not connected with a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online trade or business. 1040x file online For this purpose, U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source gross income (defined in chapter 2) includes gains from the sale or exchange of: Property (other than stock or debt obligations) located in the United States, Stock issued by a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online domestic corporation, and Debt obligations of U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online persons or of the United States, a state or political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia. 1040x file online U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source income also includes any income or gain derived from stock in certain controlled foreign corporations if you owned, or were considered to own, at any time during the 2-year period ending on the date of expatriation, more than 50% of: The total combined voting power of all classes of that corporation's stock, or The total value of the stock. 1040x file online The income or gain is considered U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source income only to the extent of your share of earnings and profits earned or accumulated before the date of expatriation and during the periods you met the ownership requirements discussed above. 1040x file online Any exchange of property is treated as a sale of the property at its fair market value on the date of the exchange and any gain is treated as U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source gross income in the tax year of the exchange unless you enter into a gain recognition agreement under Notice 97-19. 1040x file online Other information. 1040x file online   For more information on the expatriation tax provisions, including exceptions to the tax and special U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online source rules, see section 877 of the Internal Revenue Code. 1040x file online Expatriation Tax Return If you expatriated or terminated your U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online residency, or you are subject to the expatriation tax, you must file Form 8854, Initial and Annual Expatriation Statement. 1040x file online Attach it to Form 1040NR if you are required to file that form. 1040x file online If you are present in the United States following your expatriation and are subject to tax as a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizen or resident, file Form 8854 with Form 1040. 1040x file online Expatriation After June 16, 2008 If you expatriated after June 16, 2008, the expatriation rules apply to you if you meet any of the following conditions. 1040x file online Your average annual net income tax for the 5 years ending before the date of expatriation or termination of residency is more than: $139,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2008. 1040x file online $145,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2009 or 2010. 1040x file online $147,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2011. 1040x file online $151,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2012. 1040x file online $155,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2013. 1040x file online Your net worth is $2 million or more on the date of your expatriation or termination of residency. 1040x file online You fail to certify on Form 8854 that you have complied with all U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online federal tax obligations for the 5 years preceding the date of your expatriation or termination of residency. 1040x file online Exception for dual-citizens and certain minors. 1040x file online   Certain dual-citizens and certain minors (defined next) are not subject to the expatriation tax even if they meet (1) or (2) above. 1040x file online However, they still must provide the certification required in (3) above. 1040x file online Certain dual-citizens. 1040x file online   You may qualify for the exception described above if both of the following apply. 1040x file online You became at birth a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizen and a citizen of another country and you continue to be a citizen of, and are taxed as a resident of, that other country. 1040x file online You have been a resident of the United States for not more than 10 years during the 15-year tax period ending with the tax year during which the expatriation occurs. 1040x file online For the purpose of determining U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online residency, use the substantial presence test described in chapter 1. 1040x file online Certain minors. 1040x file online   You may qualify for the exception described earlier if you meet both of the following requirements. 1040x file online You expatriated before you were 18½. 1040x file online You have been a resident of the United States for not more than 10 tax years before the expatriation occurs. 1040x file online For the purpose of determining U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online residency, use the substantial presence test described in chapter 1. 1040x file online Expatriation date. 1040x file online   Your expatriation date is the date you relinquish U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizenship (in the case of a former citizen) or terminate your long-term residency (in the case of a former U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online resident). 1040x file online Former U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizen. 1040x file online   You are considered to have relinquished your U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizenship on the earliest of the following dates. 1040x file online The date you renounced U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online citizenship before a diplomatic or consular officer of the United States (provided that the voluntary renouncement was later confirmed by the issuance of a certificate of loss of nationality). 1040x file online The date you furnished to the State Department a signed statement of voluntary relinquishment of U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online nationality confirming the performance of an expatriating act (provided that the voluntary relinquishment was later confirmed by the issuance of a certificate of loss of nationality). 1040x file online The date the State Department issued a certificate of loss of nationality. 1040x file online The date that a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online court canceled your certificate of naturalization. 1040x file online Former long-term resident. 1040x file online   You are considered to have terminated your long-term residency on the earliest of the following dates. 1040x file online The date you voluntarily relinquished your lawful permanent resident status by filing Department of Homeland Security Form I-407 with a U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online consular or immigration officer, and the Department of Homeland Security determined that you have, in fact, abandoned your lawful permanent resident status. 1040x file online The date you became subject to a final administrative order for your removal from the United States under the Immigration and Nationality Act and you actually left the United States as a result of that order. 1040x file online If you were a dual resident of the United States and a country with which the United States has an income tax treaty, the date you began to be treated as a resident of that country and you determined that, for purposes of the treaty, you are a resident of the treaty country and notify the IRS of that treatment on Forms 8833 and 8854. 1040x file online See Effect of Tax Treaties in chapter 1 for more information about dual residents. 1040x file online How To Figure the Expatriation Tax (If You Expatriate After June 16, 2008) In the year you expatriate, you are subject to income tax on the net unrealized gain (or loss) in your property as if the property had been sold for its fair market value on the day before your expatriation date (“mark-to-market tax”). 1040x file online This applies to most types of property interests you held on the date of relinquishment of citizenship or termination of residency. 1040x file online But see Exceptions , later. 1040x file online Gains arising from deemed sales must be taken into account for the tax year of the deemed sale without regard to other U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online internal revenue laws. 1040x file online Losses from deemed sales must be taken into account to the extent otherwise provided under U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online internal revenue laws. 1040x file online However, Internal Revenue Code section 1091 (relating to the disallowance of losses on wash sales of stock and securities) does not apply. 1040x file online The net gain that you otherwise must include in your income is reduced (but not below zero) by: $600,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency before January 1, 2009. 1040x file online $626,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2009. 1040x file online $627,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2010. 1040x file online $636,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2011. 1040x file online $651,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2012. 1040x file online $668,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2013. 1040x file online Exceptions. 1040x file online   The mark-to-market tax does not apply to the following. 1040x file online Eligible deferred compensation items. 1040x file online Ineligible deferred compensation items. 1040x file online Interests in nongrantor trusts. 1040x file online Specified tax deferred accounts. 1040x file online Instead, items (1) and (3) may be subject to withholding at source. 1040x file online In the case of item (2), you are treated as receiving the present value of your accrued benefit as of the day before the expatriation date. 1040x file online In the case of item (4), you are treated as receiving a distribution of your entire interest in the account on the day before your expatriation date. 1040x file online See paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of section 877A for more information. 1040x file online Expatriation Tax Return If you expatriated or terminated your U. 1040x file online S. 1040x file online residency, or you are subject to the expatriation rules (as discussed earlier in the first paragraph under Expatriation After June 16, 2008), you must file Form 8854. 1040x file online Attach it to Form 1040 or Form 1040NR if you are required to file either of those forms. 1040x file online Deferral of payment of mark-to-market tax. 1040x file online   You can make an irrevocable election to defer payment of the mark-to-market tax imposed on the deemed sale of property. 1040x file online If you make this election, the following rules apply. 1040x file online You can make the election on a property-by-property basis. 1040x file online The deferred tax attributable to a particular property is due on the return for the tax year in which you dispose of the property. 1040x file online Interest is charged for the period the tax is deferred. 1040x file online The due date for the payment of the deferred tax cannot be extended beyond the earlier of the following dates. 1040x file online The due date of the return required for the year of death. 1040x file online The time that the security provided for the property fails to be adequate. 1040x file online See item (6) below. 1040x file online You make the election on Form 8854. 1040x file online You must provide adequate security (such as a bond). 1040x file online You must make an irrevocable waiver of any right under any treaty of the United States which would preclude assessment or collection of the mark-to-market tax. 1040x file online   For more information about the deferral of payment, see the Instructions for Form 8854. 1040x file online Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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The 1040x File Online

1040x file online 7. 1040x file online   Figuring Gross Profit Table of Contents Introduction Items To Check Testing Gross Profit AccuracyExample. 1040x file online Additions to Gross Profit Introduction After you have figured the gross receipts from your business (chapter 5) and the cost of goods sold (chapter 6), you are ready to figure your gross profit. 1040x file online You must determine gross profit before you can deduct any business expenses. 1040x file online These expenses are discussed in chapter 8. 1040x file online If you are filing Schedule C-EZ, your gross profit is your gross receipts plus certain other amounts, explained later under Additions to Gross Profit. 1040x file online Businesses that sell products. 1040x file online   If you are filing Schedule C, figure your gross profit by first figuring your net receipts. 1040x file online Figure net receipts (line 3) on Schedule C by subtracting any returns and allowances (line 2) from gross receipts (line 1). 1040x file online Returns and allowances include cash or credit refunds you make to customers, rebates, and other allowances off the actual sales price. 1040x file online   Next, subtract the cost of goods sold (line 4) from net receipts (line 3). 1040x file online The result is the gross profit from your business. 1040x file online Businesses that sell services. 1040x file online   You do not have to figure the cost of goods sold if the sale of merchandise is not an income-producing factor for your business. 1040x file online Your gross profit is the same as your net receipts (gross receipts minus any refunds, rebates, or other allowances). 1040x file online Most professions and businesses that sell services rather than products can figure gross profit directly from net receipts in this way. 1040x file online Illustration. 1040x file online   This illustration of the gross profit section of the income statement of a retail business shows how gross profit is figured. 1040x file online Income Statement Year Ended December 31, 2013 Gross receipts $400,000 Minus: Returns and allowances 14,940 Net receipts $385,060 Minus: Cost of goods sold 288,140 Gross profit $96,920   The cost of goods sold for this business is figured as follows: Inventory at beginning of year $37,845 Plus: Purchases $285,900   Minus: Items withdrawn for personal use 2,650 283,250 Goods available for sale $321,095 Minus: Inventory at end of year 32,955 Cost of goods sold $288,140 Items To Check Consider the following items before figuring your gross profit. 1040x file online Gross receipts. 1040x file online   At the end of each business day, make sure your records balance with your actual cash and credit receipts for the day. 1040x file online You may find it helpful to use cash registers to keep track of receipts. 1040x file online You should also use a proper invoicing system and keep a separate bank account for your business. 1040x file online Sales tax collected. 1040x file online   Check to make sure your records show the correct sales tax collected. 1040x file online   If you collect state and local sales taxes imposed on you as the seller of goods or services from the buyer, you must include the amount collected in gross receipts. 1040x file online   If you are required to collect state and local taxes imposed on the buyer and turn them over to state or local governments, you generally do not include these amounts in income. 1040x file online Inventory at beginning of year. 1040x file online   Compare this figure with last year's ending inventory. 1040x file online The two amounts should usually be the same. 1040x file online Purchases. 1040x file online   If you take any inventory items for your personal use (use them yourself, provide them to your family, or give them as personal gifts, etc. 1040x file online ) be sure to remove them from the cost of goods sold. 1040x file online For details on how to adjust cost of goods sold, see Merchandise withdrawn from sale in chapter 6. 1040x file online Inventory at end of year. 1040x file online   Check to make sure your procedures for taking inventory are adequate. 1040x file online These procedures should ensure all items have been included in inventory and proper pricing techniques have been used. 1040x file online   Use inventory forms and adding machine tapes as the only evidence for your inventory. 1040x file online Inventory forms are available at office supply stores. 1040x file online These forms have columns for recording the description, quantity, unit price, and value of each inventory item. 1040x file online Each page has space to record who made the physical count, who priced the items, who made the extensions, and who proofread the calculations. 1040x file online These forms will help satisfy you that the total inventory is accurate. 1040x file online They will also provide you with a permanent record to support its validity. 1040x file online   Inventories are discussed in chapter 2. 1040x file online Testing Gross Profit Accuracy If you are in a retail or wholesale business, you can check the accuracy of your gross profit figure. 1040x file online First, divide gross profit by net receipts. 1040x file online The resulting percentage measures the average spread between the merchandise cost of goods sold and the selling price. 1040x file online Next, compare this percentage to your markup policy. 1040x file online Little or no difference between these two percentages shows that your gross profit figure is accurate. 1040x file online A large difference between these percentages may show that you did not accurately figure sales, purchases, inventory, or other items of cost. 1040x file online You should determine the reason for the difference. 1040x file online Example. 1040x file online   Joe Able operates a retail business. 1040x file online On the average, he marks up his merchandise so that he will realize a gross profit of 331/3% on its sales. 1040x file online The net receipts (gross receipts minus returns and allowances) shown on his income statement is $300,000. 1040x file online His cost of goods sold is $200,000. 1040x file online This results in a gross profit of $100,000 ($300,000 − $200,000). 1040x file online To test the accuracy of this year's results, Joe divides gross profit ($100,000) by net receipts ($300,000). 1040x file online The resulting 331/3% confirms his markup percentage of 331/3%. 1040x file online Additions to Gross Profit If your business has income from a source other than its regular business operations, enter the income on line 6 of Schedule C and add it to gross profit. 1040x file online The result is gross business income. 1040x file online If you use Schedule C-EZ, include the income on line 1 of the schedule. 1040x file online Some examples include income from an interest-bearing checking account, income from scrap sales, income from certain fuel tax credits and refunds, and amounts recovered from bad debts. 1040x 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