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1040x Amended Tax Form

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1040x Amended Tax Form

1040x amended tax form Index Symbols $10,000, pagos en efectivo en exceso de, Introducción A Asistencia (see Ayuda con los impuestos) Ayuda (see Ayuda con los impuestos) Ayuda con los impuestos, Cómo Obtener Ayuda con los Impuestos D Defensor del Contribuyente, Servicio del Defensor del Contribuyente. 1040x amended tax form F Formulario, ¿Quién tiene que presentar el Formulario 8300-SP? 8300-SP, ¿Quién tiene que presentar el Formulario 8300-SP? I Información adicional (see Ayuda con los impuestos) Informe de pagos en efectivo en exceso de $10,000, Introducción P Publicaciones (see Ayuda con los impuestos) Q Qué Hay de Nuevo, Qué Hay de Nuevo S Servicios gratuitos para los impuestos, Servicios gratuitos para los impuestos. 1040x amended tax form T Transacciones en efectivo en exceso de $10,000, Introducción Prev  Up     Home   More Online Publications
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"Slamming" occurs when a phone company illegally switches your phone service without your permission. If you notice a different company name on your bill or see phone charges that are higher than normal, take action:

  • Contact the company that slammed you and ask to be switched back to your original company. Tell the company you are exercising your right to refuse to pay any charges.
  • Report the problem to your original company and ask to be enrolled in your previous calling plan. If you're unable to resolve your complaint, contact the FCC.

"Cramming" occurs when companies add charges to your telephone bill without your permission. These charges may be for services such as voice mail, ringtones, or club memberships. You may not notice these monthly charges because they are relatively small, $5 to $30, and look like your regular phone charges.

Take These Steps to Avoid Slammers and Crammers:

  • Block changes to your phone service. Ask your telephone service provider if they offer a blocking service, which usually requires the company to notify you before making any changes to your service.
  • Read the fine print on contest entry forms and coupons. You could be agreeing to switch your phone service or buy optional services.
  • Watch out for impostors. Companies could falsely claim to be your regular phone company and offer some type of discount plan or change in billing. They might also say they are taking a survey or pretend to be a government agency.
  • Beware of "negative option notices". You can be switched or signed up for optional services unless you say "NO" to telemarketers.
  • Examine your telephone bill carefully, including pages that show the details, and look for suspicious charges.

Your phone service cannot be shut off for refusal to pay for unauthorized services. For help, contact your local or state consumer protection agency, state public utilities commission, or the FCC.

Beware: Caller ID Spoofing

Scammers have adopted the practice of Caller ID spoofing to obtain personal information from consumers. In this fraud, someone calls you using a false name and phone number for the Caller ID screen. During the call, the scammer describes an urgent scenario, such as the cancellation of an account. The caller may say you can avoid the cancellation if you provide your bank account or credit card number to pay the company. If you give the sensitive information, he can use it to steal your identity, or use your bank accounts.
You can prevent being a victim of caller ID spoofing. Don’t give out personal information on an incoming call. Hang up and call the customer service phone number printed on your statement, the company’s website or in the phonebook.
Report caller ID spoofers to the Federal Communications Commission online or 1-888-225-5322.

Beware: GPS Enabled Apps on Your Mobile Phone

GPS enabled apps on mobile phones make it easy to share your fun adventures through social media. Some apps let others know your general vicinity, while others allow you to virtually “check in” at your favorite places so that you can earn free merchandise. Beware: this same information in the wrong hands can make you vulnerable to stalking, home burglary, or worse. Take advantage of the privacy settings on these apps and only share your location with people that you know and trust.

The 1040x Amended Tax Form

1040x amended tax form 12. 1040x amended tax form   Business Deduction for Work-Related Education Table of Contents What's New Introduction Qualifying Work-Related EducationEducation Required by Employer or by Law Education To Maintain or Improve Skills Education To Meet Minimum Requirements Education That Qualifies You for a New Trade or Business What Expenses Can Be DeductedUnclaimed reimbursement. 1040x amended tax form Transportation Expenses Travel Expenses No Double Benefit Allowed How To Treat ReimbursementsAccountable Plans Nonaccountable Plans Deducting Business ExpensesSelf-Employed Persons Employees Performing Artists and Fee-Basis Officials Impairment-Related Work Expenses Recordkeeping Illustrated Example What's New Standard mileage rate. 1040x amended tax form  Generally, if you claim a business deduction for work-related education and you drive your car to and from school, the amount you can deduct for miles driven from January 1, 2013 through December 31, 2013, is 56. 1040x amended tax form 5 cents per mile. 1040x amended tax form For more information, see Transportation Expenses under What Expenses Can Be Deducted, later. 1040x amended tax form Introduction This chapter discusses work-related education expenses that you may be able to deduct as business expenses. 1040x amended tax form To claim such a deduction, you must: Itemize your deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040 or 1040NR) if you are an employee, File Schedule C (Form 1040), Profit or Loss From Business, Schedule C-EZ (Form 1040), Net Profit From Business, or Schedule F (Form 1040), Profit or Loss From Farming if you are self-employed, and Have expenses for education that meet the requirements discussed under Qualifying Work-Related Education , later. 1040x amended tax form What is the tax benefit of taking a business deduction for work-related education. 1040x amended tax form   If you are an employee and can itemize your deductions, you may be able to claim a deduction for the expenses you pay for your work-related education. 1040x amended tax form Your deduction will be the amount by which your qualifying work-related education expenses plus other job and certain miscellaneous expenses (except for impairment-related work expenses of disabled individuals) is greater than 2% of your adjusted gross income. 1040x amended tax form An itemized deduction reduces the amount of your income subject to tax. 1040x amended tax form   If you are self-employed, you deduct your expenses for qualifying work-related education directly from your self-employment income. 1040x amended tax form This reduces the amount of your income subject to both income tax and self-employment tax. 1040x amended tax form   Your work-related education expenses may also qualify you for other tax benefits, such as the American opportunity and lifetime learning credits. 1040x amended tax form You may qualify for these other benefits even if you do not meet the requirements listed above. 1040x amended tax form   Also, your work-related education expenses may qualify you to claim more than one tax benefit. 1040x amended tax form Generally, you may claim any number of benefits as long as you use different expenses to figure each one. 1040x amended tax form Qualifying Work-Related Education You can deduct the costs of qualifying work-related education as business expenses. 1040x amended tax form This is education that meets at least one of the following two tests. 1040x amended tax form The education is required by your employer or the law to keep your present salary, status, or job. 1040x amended tax form The required education must serve a bona fide business purpose of your employer. 1040x amended tax form The education maintains or improves skills needed in your present work. 1040x amended tax form However, even if the education meets one or both of the above tests, it is not qualifying work-related education if it: Is needed to meet the minimum educational requirements of your present trade or business, or Is part of a program of study that will qualify you for a new trade or business. 1040x amended tax form You can deduct the costs of qualifying work-related education as a business expense even if the education could lead to a degree. 1040x amended tax form Use Figure 12-1, Does Your Work-Related Education Qualify as a quick check to see if your education qualifies. 1040x amended tax form Education Required by Employer or by Law Once you have met the minimum educational requirements for your job, your employer or the law may require you to get more education. 1040x amended tax form This additional education is qualifying work-related education if all three of the following requirements are met. 1040x amended tax form It is required for you to keep your present salary, status, or job, The requirement serves a bona fide business purpose of your employer, and The education is not part of a program that will qualify you for a new trade or business. 1040x amended tax form When you get more education than your employer or the law requires, the additional education can be qualifying work-related education only if it maintains or improves skills required in your present work. 1040x amended tax form See Education To Maintain or Improve Skills , later. 1040x amended tax form Example. 1040x amended tax form You are a teacher who has satisfied the minimum requirements for teaching. 1040x amended tax form Your employer requires you to take an additional college course each year to keep your teaching job. 1040x amended tax form If the courses will not qualify you for a new trade or business, they are qualifying work-related education even if you eventually receive a master's degree and an increase in salary because of this extra education. 1040x amended tax form This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. 1040x amended tax form Please click the link to view the image. 1040x amended tax form Figure 12-1 Education To Maintain or Improve Skills If your education is not required by your employer or the law, it can be qualifying work-related education only if it maintains or improves skills needed in your present work. 1040x amended tax form This could include refresher courses, courses on current developments, and academic or vocational courses. 1040x amended tax form Example. 1040x amended tax form You repair televisions, radios, and stereo systems for XYZ Store. 1040x amended tax form To keep up with the latest changes, you take special courses in radio and stereo service. 1040x amended tax form These courses maintain and improve skills required in your work. 1040x amended tax form Maintaining skills vs. 1040x amended tax form qualifying for new job. 1040x amended tax form   Education to maintain or improve skills needed in your present work is not qualifying education if it will also qualify you for a new trade or business. 1040x amended tax form Education during temporary absence. 1040x amended tax form   If you stop working for a year or less in order to get education to maintain or improve skills needed in your present work and then return to the same general type of work, your absence is considered temporary. 1040x amended tax form Education that you get during a temporary absence is qualifying work-related education if it maintains or improves skills needed in your present work. 1040x amended tax form Example. 1040x amended tax form You quit your biology research job to become a full-time biology graduate student for 1 year. 1040x amended tax form If you return to work in biology research after completing the courses, the education is related to your present work even if you do not go back to work with the same employer. 1040x amended tax form Education during indefinite absence. 1040x amended tax form   If you stop work for more than a year, your absence from your job is considered indefinite. 1040x amended tax form Education during an indefinite absence, even if it maintains or improves skills needed in the work from which you are absent, is considered to qualify you for a new trade or business. 1040x amended tax form Therefore, it is not qualifying work-related education. 1040x amended tax form Education To Meet Minimum Requirements Education you need to meet the minimum educational requirements for your present trade or business is not qualifying work-related education. 1040x amended tax form The minimum educational requirements are determined by: Laws and regulations, Standards of your profession, trade, or business, and Your employer. 1040x amended tax form Once you have met the minimum educational requirements that were in effect when you were hired, you do not have to meet any new minimum educational requirements. 1040x amended tax form This means that if the minimum requirements change after you were hired, any education you need to meet the new requirements can be qualifying education. 1040x amended tax form You have not necessarily met the minimum educational requirements of your trade or business simply because you are already doing the work. 1040x amended tax form Example 1. 1040x amended tax form You are a full-time engineering student. 1040x amended tax form Although you have not received your degree or certification, you work part time as an engineer for a firm that will employ you as a full-time engineer after you finish college. 1040x amended tax form Although your college engineering courses improve your skills in your present job, they are also needed to meet the minimum job requirements for a full-time engineer. 1040x amended tax form The education is not qualifying work-related education. 1040x amended tax form Example 2. 1040x amended tax form You are an accountant and you have met the minimum educational requirements of your employer. 1040x amended tax form Your employer later changes the minimum educational requirements and requires you to take college courses to keep your job. 1040x amended tax form These additional courses can be qualifying work-related education because you have already satisfied the minimum requirements that were in effect when you were hired. 1040x amended tax form Requirements for Teachers States or school districts usually set the minimum educational requirements for teachers. 1040x amended tax form The requirement is the college degree or the minimum number of college hours usually required of a person hired for that position. 1040x amended tax form If there are no requirements, you will have met the minimum educational requirements when you become a faculty member. 1040x amended tax form The determination of whether you are a faculty member of an educational institution must be made on the basis of the particular practices of the institution. 1040x amended tax form You generally will be considered a faculty member when one or more of the following occurs. 1040x amended tax form You have tenure. 1040x amended tax form Your years of service count toward obtaining tenure. 1040x amended tax form You have a vote in faculty decisions. 1040x amended tax form Your school makes contributions for you to a retirement plan other than social security or a similar program. 1040x amended tax form Example 1. 1040x amended tax form The law in your state requires beginning secondary school teachers to have a bachelor's degree, including 10 professional education courses. 1040x amended tax form In addition, to keep the job a teacher must complete a fifth year of training within 10 years from the date of hire. 1040x amended tax form If the employing school certifies to the state Department of Education that qualified teachers cannot be found, the school can hire persons with only 3 years of college. 1040x amended tax form However, to keep their jobs, these teachers must get a bachelor's degree and the required professional education courses within 3 years. 1040x amended tax form Under these facts, the bachelor's degree, whether or not it includes the 10 professional education courses, is considered the minimum educational requirement for qualification as a teacher in your state. 1040x amended tax form If you have all the required education except the fifth year, you have met the minimum educational requirements. 1040x amended tax form The fifth year of training is qualifying work-related education unless it is part of a program of study that will qualify you for a new trade or business. 1040x amended tax form Example 2. 1040x amended tax form Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that you have a bachelor's degree and only six professional education courses. 1040x amended tax form The additional four education courses can be qualifying work-related education. 1040x amended tax form Although you do not have all the required courses, you have already met the minimum educational requirements. 1040x amended tax form Example 3. 1040x amended tax form Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that you are hired with only 3 years of college. 1040x amended tax form The courses you take that lead to a bachelor's degree (including those in education) are not qualifying work-related education. 1040x amended tax form They are needed to meet the minimum educational requirements for employment as a teacher. 1040x amended tax form Example 4. 1040x amended tax form You have a bachelor's degree and you work as a temporary instructor at a university. 1040x amended tax form At the same time, you take graduate courses toward an advanced degree. 1040x amended tax form The rules of the university state that you can become a faculty member only if you get a graduate degree. 1040x amended tax form Also, you can keep your job as an instructor only as long as you show satisfactory progress toward getting this degree. 1040x amended tax form You have not met the minimum educational requirements to qualify you as a faculty member. 1040x amended tax form The graduate courses are not qualifying work-related education. 1040x amended tax form Certification in a new state. 1040x amended tax form   Once you have met the minimum educational requirements for teachers for your state, you are considered to have met the minimum educational requirements in all states. 1040x amended tax form This is true even if you must get additional education to be certified in another state. 1040x amended tax form Any additional education you need is qualifying work-related education. 1040x amended tax form You have already met the minimum requirements for teaching. 1040x amended tax form Teaching in another state is not a new trade or business. 1040x amended tax form Example. 1040x amended tax form You hold a permanent teaching certificate in State A and are employed as a teacher in that state for several years. 1040x amended tax form You move to State B and are promptly hired as a teacher. 1040x amended tax form You are required, however, to complete certain prescribed courses to get a permanent teaching certificate in State B. 1040x amended tax form These additional courses are qualifying work-related education because the teaching position in State B involves the same general kind of work for which you were qualified in State A. 1040x amended tax form Education That Qualifies You for a New Trade or Business Education that is part of a program of study that will qualify you for a new trade or business is not qualifying work-related education. 1040x amended tax form This is true even if you do not plan to enter that trade or business. 1040x amended tax form If you are an employee, a change of duties that involves the same general kind of work is not a new trade or business. 1040x amended tax form Example 1. 1040x amended tax form You are an accountant. 1040x amended tax form Your employer requires you to get a law degree at your own expense. 1040x amended tax form You register at a law school for the regular curriculum that leads to a law degree. 1040x amended tax form Even if you do not intend to become a lawyer, the education is not qualifying because the law degree will qualify you for a new trade or business. 1040x amended tax form Example 2. 1040x amended tax form You are a general practitioner of medicine. 1040x amended tax form You take a 2-week course to review developments in several specialized fields of medicine. 1040x amended tax form The course does not qualify you for a new profession. 1040x amended tax form It is qualifying work- related education because it maintains or improves skills required in your present profession. 1040x amended tax form Example 3. 1040x amended tax form While working in the private practice of psychiatry, you enter a program to study and train at an accredited psychoanalytic institute. 1040x amended tax form The program will lead to qualifying you to practice psychoanalysis. 1040x amended tax form The psychoanalytic training does not qualify you for a new profession. 1040x amended tax form It is qualifying work-related education because it maintains or improves skills required in your present profession. 1040x amended tax form Bar or CPA Review Course Review courses to prepare for the bar examination or the certified public accountant (CPA) examination are not qualifying work-related education. 1040x amended tax form They are part of a program of study that can qualify you for a new profession. 1040x amended tax form Teaching and Related Duties All teaching and related duties are considered the same general kind of work. 1040x amended tax form A change in duties in any of the following ways is not considered a change to a new business. 1040x amended tax form Elementary school teacher to secondary school teacher. 1040x amended tax form Teacher of one subject, such as biology, to teacher of another subject, such as art. 1040x amended tax form Classroom teacher to guidance counselor. 1040x amended tax form Classroom teacher to school administrator. 1040x amended tax form What Expenses Can Be Deducted If your education meets the requirements described earlier under Qualifying Work-Related Education you can generally deduct your education expenses as business expenses. 1040x amended tax form If you are not self-employed, you can deduct business expenses only if you itemize your deductions. 1040x amended tax form You cannot deduct expenses related to tax-exempt and excluded income. 1040x amended tax form Deductible expenses. 1040x amended tax form   The following education expenses can be deducted. 1040x amended tax form Tuition, books, supplies, lab fees, and similar items. 1040x amended tax form Certain transportation and travel costs. 1040x amended tax form Other education expenses, such as costs of research and typing when writing a paper as part of an educational program. 1040x amended tax form Nondeductible expenses. 1040x amended tax form   You cannot deduct personal or capital expenses. 1040x amended tax form For example, you cannot deduct the dollar value of vacation time or annual leave you take to attend classes. 1040x amended tax form This amount is a personal expense. 1040x amended tax form Unclaimed reimbursement. 1040x amended tax form   If you do not claim reimbursement that you are entitled to receive from your employer, you cannot deduct the expenses that apply to that unclaimed reimbursement. 1040x amended tax form Example. 1040x amended tax form Your employer agrees to pay your education expenses if you file a voucher showing your expenses. 1040x amended tax form You do not file a voucher and you do not get reimbursed. 1040x amended tax form Because you did not file a voucher, you cannot deduct the expenses on your tax return. 1040x amended tax form Transportation Expenses If your education qualifies, you can deduct local transportation costs of going directly from work to school. 1040x amended tax form If you are regularly employed and go to school on a temporary basis, you can also deduct the costs of returning from school to home. 1040x amended tax form Temporary basis. 1040x amended tax form   You go to school on a temporary basis if either of the following situations applies to you. 1040x amended tax form Your attendance at school is realistically expected to last 1 year or less and does indeed last for 1 year or less. 1040x amended tax form Initially, your attendance at school is realistically expected to last 1 year or less, but at a later date your attendance is reasonably expected to last more than 1 year. 1040x amended tax form Your attendance is temporary up to the date you determine it will last more than 1 year. 1040x amended tax form If you are in either situation (1) or (2) above, your attendance is not temporary if facts and circumstances indicate otherwise. 1040x amended tax form Attendance not on a temporary basis. 1040x amended tax form   You do not go to school on a temporary basis if either of the following situations apply to you. 1040x amended tax form Your attendance at school is realistically expected to last more than 1 year. 1040x amended tax form It does not matter how long you actually attend. 1040x amended tax form Initially, your attendance at school is realistically expected to last 1 year or less, but at a later date your attendance is reasonably expected to last more than 1 year. 1040x amended tax form Your attendance is not temporary after the date you determine it will last more than 1 year. 1040x amended tax form Deductible Transportation Expenses If you are regularly employed and go directly from home to school on a temporary basis, you can deduct the round-trip costs of transportation between your home and school. 1040x amended tax form This is true regardless of the location of the school, the distance traveled, or whether you attend school on nonwork days. 1040x amended tax form Transportation expenses include the actual costs of bus, subway, cab, or other fares, as well as the costs of using your car. 1040x amended tax form Transportation expenses do not include amounts spent for travel, meals, or lodging while you are away from home overnight. 1040x amended tax form Example 1. 1040x amended tax form You regularly work in a nearby town, and go directly from work to home. 1040x amended tax form You also attend school every work night for 3 months to take a course that improves your job skills. 1040x amended tax form Since you are attending school on a temporary basis, you can deduct your daily round-trip transportation expenses in going between home and school. 1040x amended tax form This is true regardless of the distance traveled. 1040x amended tax form Example 2. 1040x amended tax form Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that on certain nights you go directly from work to school and then home. 1040x amended tax form You can deduct your transportation expenses from your regular work site to school and then home. 1040x amended tax form Example 3. 1040x amended tax form Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that you attend the school for 9 months on Saturdays, nonwork days. 1040x amended tax form Since you are attending school on a temporary basis, you can deduct your round-trip transportation expenses in going between home and school. 1040x amended tax form Example 4. 1040x amended tax form Assume the same facts as in Example 1 except that you attend classes twice a week for 15 months. 1040x amended tax form Since your attendance in school is not considered temporary, you cannot deduct your transportation expenses in going between home and school. 1040x amended tax form If you go directly from work to school, you can deduct the one-way transportation expenses of going from work to school. 1040x amended tax form If you go from work to home to school and return home, your transportation expenses cannot be more than if you had gone directly from work to school. 1040x amended tax form Using your car. 1040x amended tax form    If you use your car (whether you own or lease it) for transportation to school, you can deduct your actual expenses or use the standard mileage rate to figure the amount you can deduct. 1040x amended tax form The standard mileage rate for miles driven from January 1, 2013 through December 31, 2013, is 56. 1040x amended tax form 5 cents per mile. 1040x amended tax form Whichever method you use, you can also deduct parking fees and tolls. 1040x amended tax form See Publication 463, chapter 4, for information on deducting your actual expenses of using a car. 1040x amended tax form Travel Expenses You can deduct expenses for travel, meals (see 50% limit on meals , later), and lodging if you travel overnight mainly to obtain qualifying work-related education. 1040x amended tax form Travel expenses for qualifying work-related education are treated the same as travel expenses for other employee business purposes. 1040x amended tax form For more information, see chapter 1 of Publication 463. 1040x amended tax form You cannot deduct expenses for personal activities such as sightseeing, visiting, or entertaining. 1040x amended tax form Mainly personal travel. 1040x amended tax form   If your travel away from home is mainly personal, you cannot deduct all of your expenses for travel, meals, and lodging. 1040x amended tax form You can deduct only your expenses for lodging and 50% of your expenses for meals during the time you attend the qualified educational activities. 1040x amended tax form   Whether a trip's purpose is mainly personal or educational depends upon the facts and circumstances. 1040x amended tax form An important factor is the comparison of time spent on personal activities with time spent on educational activities. 1040x amended tax form If you spend more time on personal activities, the trip is considered mainly educational only if you can show a substantial nonpersonal reason for traveling to a particular location. 1040x amended tax form Example 1. 1040x amended tax form John works in Newark, New Jersey. 1040x amended tax form He traveled to Chicago to take a deductible 1-week course at the request of his employer. 1040x amended tax form His main reason for going to Chicago was to take the course. 1040x amended tax form While there, he took a sightseeing trip, entertained some friends, and took a side trip to Pleasantville for a day. 1040x amended tax form Since the trip was mainly for business, John can deduct his round-trip airfare to Chicago. 1040x amended tax form He cannot deduct his transportation expenses of going to Pleasantville. 1040x amended tax form He can deduct only the meals (subject to the 50% limit) and lodging connected with his educational activities. 1040x amended tax form Example 2. 1040x amended tax form Sue works in Boston. 1040x amended tax form She went to a university in Michigan to take a course for work. 1040x amended tax form The course is qualifying work-related education. 1040x amended tax form She took one course, which is one-fourth of a full course load of study. 1040x amended tax form She spent the rest of the time on personal activities. 1040x amended tax form Her reasons for taking the course in Michigan were all personal. 1040x amended tax form Sue's trip is mainly personal because three-fourths of her time is considered personal time. 1040x amended tax form She cannot deduct the cost of her round-trip train ticket to Michigan. 1040x amended tax form She can deduct one-fourth of the meals (subject to the 50% limit) and lodging costs for the time she attended the university. 1040x amended tax form Example 3. 1040x amended tax form Dave works in Nashville and recently traveled to California to take a 2-week seminar. 1040x amended tax form The seminar is qualifying work-related education. 1040x amended tax form While there, he spent an extra 8 weeks on personal activities. 1040x amended tax form The facts, including the extra 8-week stay, show that his main purpose was to take a vacation. 1040x amended tax form Dave cannot deduct his round-trip airfare or his meals and lodging for the 8 weeks. 1040x amended tax form He can deduct only his expenses for meals (subject to the 50% limit) and lodging for the 2 weeks he attended the seminar. 1040x amended tax form Cruises and conventions. 1040x amended tax form   Certain cruises and conventions offer seminars or courses as part of their itinerary. 1040x amended tax form Even if the seminars or courses are work related, your deduction for travel may be limited. 1040x amended tax form This applies to: Travel by ocean liner, cruise ship, or other form of luxury water transportation, and Conventions outside the North American area. 1040x amended tax form   For a discussion of the limits on travel expense deductions that apply to cruises and conventions, see Luxury Water Travel and Conventions in chapter 1 of Publication 463. 1040x amended tax form 50% limit on meals. 1040x amended tax form   You can deduct only 50% of the cost of your meals while traveling away from home to obtain qualifying work-related education. 1040x amended tax form If you were reimbursed for the meals, see How To Treat Reimbursements , later. 1040x amended tax form   Employees must use Form 2106 or Form 2106-EZ to apply the 50% limit. 1040x amended tax form Travel as Education You cannot deduct the cost of travel as a form of education even if it is directly related to your duties in your work or business. 1040x amended tax form Example. 1040x amended tax form You are a French language teacher. 1040x amended tax form While on sabbatical leave granted for travel, you traveled through France to improve your knowledge of the French language. 1040x amended tax form You chose your itinerary and most of your activities to improve your French language skills. 1040x amended tax form You cannot deduct your travel expenses as education expenses. 1040x amended tax form This is true even if you spent most of your time learning French by visiting French schools and families, attending movies or plays, and engaging in similar activities. 1040x amended tax form No Double Benefit Allowed You cannot do either of the following. 1040x amended tax form Deduct work-related education expenses as business expenses if you benefit from these expenses under any other provision of the law, for example, as a tuition and fees deduction. 1040x amended tax form Deduct work-related education expenses paid with tax-free scholarship, grant, or employer-provided educational assistance. 1040x amended tax form See Adjustments to Qualifying Work-Related Education Expenses, next. 1040x amended tax form Adjustments to Qualifying Work-Related Education Expenses If you pay qualifying work-related education expenses with certain tax-free funds, you cannot claim a deduction for those amounts. 1040x amended tax form You must reduce the qualifying expenses by the amount of such expenses allocable to the tax-free educational assistance. 1040x amended tax form Tax-free educational assistance. 1040x amended tax form   This includes: The tax-free part of scholarships and fellowships (see Tax-Free Scholarships and Fellowships in chapter 1, Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants, and Tuition Reductions), Pell grants (see Pell Grants and Other Title IV Need-Based Education Grants in chapter 1, Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants, and Tuition Reductions). 1040x amended tax form Employer-provided educational assistance (see chapter 11, Employer-Provided Educational Assistance ), Veterans' educational assistance (see Veterans' Benefits in chapter 1, Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants, and Tuition Reductions), and Any other nontaxable (tax-free) payments (other than gifts or inheritances) received as educational assistance. 1040x amended tax form Amounts that do not reduce qualifying work-related education expenses. 1040x amended tax form   Do not reduce the qualifying work-related education expenses by amounts paid with funds the student receives as: Payment for services, such as wages, A loan, A gift, An inheritance, or A withdrawal from the student's personal savings. 1040x amended tax form Also, do not reduce the qualifying work-related education expenses by any scholarship or fellowship reported as income on the student's return or any scholarship which, by its terms, cannot be applied to qualifying work-related education expenses. 1040x amended tax form How To Treat Reimbursements How you treat reimbursements depends on the arrangement you have with your employer. 1040x amended tax form There are two basic types of reimbursement arrangements—accountable plans and nonaccountable plans. 1040x amended tax form You can tell the type of plan you are reimbursed under by the way the reimbursement is reported on your Form W-2. 1040x amended tax form Note. 1040x amended tax form The following rules about reimbursement arrangements also apply to expense allowances received from your employer. 1040x amended tax form Accountable Plans To be an accountable plan, your employer's reimbursement arrangement must require you to meet all three of the following rules. 1040x amended tax form Your expenses must have a business connection. 1040x amended tax form This means your expenses must be deductible under the rules for qualifying work-related education explained earlier. 1040x amended tax form You must adequately account to your employer for your expenses within a reasonable period of time. 1040x amended tax form You must return any reimbursement or allowance in excess of the expenses accounted for within a reasonable period of time. 1040x amended tax form If you are reimbursed under an accountable plan, your employer should not include any reimbursement in your income in box 1 of your Form W-2. 1040x amended tax form If your employer included reimbursements in box 1 of your Form W-2 and you meet all three rules for accountable plans, ask your employer for a corrected Form W-2. 1040x amended tax form Accountable plan rules not met. 1040x amended tax form   Even though you are reimbursed under an accountable plan, some of your expenses may not meet all three rules for accountable plans. 1040x amended tax form Those expenses that fail to meet the three rules are treated as having been reimbursed under a Nonaccountable Plan (discussed later). 1040x amended tax form Expenses equal reimbursement. 1040x amended tax form   Under an accountable plan, if your expenses equal your reimbursement, you do not complete Form 2106 or 2106-EZ. 1040x amended tax form Because your expenses and reimbursements are equal, you do not have a deduction. 1040x amended tax form Excess expenses. 1040x amended tax form   If your expenses are more than your reimbursement, you can deduct your excess expenses. 1040x amended tax form This is discussed later, under Deducting Business Expenses . 1040x amended tax form Allocating your reimbursements for meals. 1040x amended tax form   Because your excess meal expenses are subject to the 50% limit, you must figure them separately from your other expenses. 1040x amended tax form If your employer paid you a single amount to cover both meals and other expenses, you must allocate the reimbursement so that you can figure your excess meal expenses separately. 1040x amended tax form Make the allocation as follows. 1040x amended tax form Divide your meal expenses by your total expenses. 1040x amended tax form Multiply your total reimbursement by the result from (1). 1040x amended tax form This is the allocated reimbursement for your meal expenses. 1040x amended tax form Subtract the amount figured in (2) from your total reimbursement. 1040x amended tax form The difference is the allocated reimbursement for your other expenses of qualifying work-related education. 1040x amended tax form Example. 1040x amended tax form Your employer paid you an expense allowance of $2,000 under an accountable plan. 1040x amended tax form The allowance was to cover all of your expenses of traveling away from home to take a 2-week training course for work. 1040x amended tax form There was no indication of how much of the reimbursement was for each type of expense. 1040x amended tax form Your actual expenses equal $2,500 ($425 for meals + $700 lodging + $150 transportation expenses + $1,225 for books and tuition). 1040x amended tax form Using the steps listed above, allocate the reimbursement between the $425 meal expenses and the $2,075 other expenses. 1040x amended tax form   1. 1040x amended tax form $425 meal expenses  $2,500 total expenses = . 1040x amended tax form 17   2. 1040x amended tax form $2,000 (reimbursement)×. 1040x amended tax form 17     =$340 (allocated reimbursement for meal expenses)   3. 1040x amended tax form $2,000 (reimbursement)−$340 (meals)     = $1,660 (allocated reimbursement for other qualifying work-related education expenses) Your excess meal expenses are $85 ($425 − $340) and your excess other expenses are $415 ($2,075 − $1,660). 1040x amended tax form After you apply the 50% limit to your meals, you have a deduction for work-related education expenses of $458 (($85 × 50%) + $415). 1040x amended tax form Nonaccountable Plans Your employer will combine the amount of any reimbursement or other expense allowance paid to you under a nonaccountable plan with your wages, salary, or other pay and report the total in box 1 of your Form W-2. 1040x amended tax form You can deduct your expenses regardless of whether they are more than, less than, or equal to your reimbursement. 1040x amended tax form This is discussed later under Deducting Business Expenses . 1040x amended tax form An illustrated example of a nonaccountable plan, using Form 2106-EZ, is shown at the end of this chapter. 1040x amended tax form Reimbursements for nondeductible expenses. 1040x amended tax form   Reimbursements you received for nondeductible expenses are treated as paid under a nonaccountable plan. 1040x amended tax form You must include them in your income. 1040x amended tax form For example, you must include in your income reimbursements your employer gave you for expenses of education that: You need to meet the minimum educational requirements for your job, or Is part of a program of study that can qualify you for a new trade or business. 1040x amended tax form   For more information on accountable and nonaccountable plans, see chapter 6 of Publication 463. 1040x amended tax form Deducting Business Expenses Self-employed persons and employees report their business expenses differently. 1040x amended tax form The following information explains what forms you must use to deduct the cost of your qualifying work-related education as a business expense. 1040x amended tax form Self-Employed Persons If you are self-employed, you must report the cost of your qualifying work-related education on the appropriate form used to report your business income and expenses (generally Schedule C (Form 1040), Schedule C-EZ (Form 1040), or Schedule F (Form 1040)). 1040x amended tax form If your education expenses include expenses for a car or truck, travel, or meals, report those expenses the same way you report other business expenses for those items. 1040x amended tax form See the instructions for the form you file for information on how to complete it. 1040x amended tax form Employees If you are an employee, you can deduct the cost of qualifying work-related education only if you: Did not receive (and were not entitled to receive) any reimbursement from your employer, Were reimbursed under a nonaccountable plan (amount is included in box 1 of Form W-2), or Received reimbursement under an accountable plan, but the amount received was less than your expenses for which you claimed reimbursement. 1040x amended tax form If either (1) or (2) applies, you can deduct the total qualifying cost. 1040x amended tax form If (3) applies, you can deduct only the qualifying costs that were more than your reimbursement. 1040x amended tax form In order to deduct the cost of your qualifying work-related education as a business expense, include the amount with your deduction for any other employee business expenses on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 21, or Schedule A (Form 1040NR), line 7. 1040x amended tax form (Special rules for expenses of certain performing artists and fee-basis officials and for impairment-related work expenses are explained later. 1040x amended tax form ) This deduction (except for impairment-related work expenses of disabled individuals) is subject to the 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit that applies to most miscellaneous itemized deductions. 1040x amended tax form Form 2106 or 2106-EZ. 1040x amended tax form   To figure your deduction for employee business expenses, including qualifying work-related education, you generally must complete Form 2106 or 2106-EZ. 1040x amended tax form Form not required. 1040x amended tax form   Do not complete either Form 2106 or 2106-EZ if: All reimbursements, if any, are included in box 1 of your Form W-2, and You are not claiming travel, transportation, meal, or entertainment expenses. 1040x amended tax form   If you meet both of these requirements, enter the expenses directly on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 21, or Schedule A (Form 1040NR), line 7. 1040x amended tax form (Special rules for expenses of certain Performing Artists and Fee-Basis Officials and for Impairment-Related Work Expenses are explained later. 1040x amended tax form ) Using Form 2106-EZ. 1040x amended tax form   This form is shorter and easier to use than Form 2106. 1040x amended tax form Generally, you can use this form if: All reimbursements, if any, are included in box 1 of your Form W-2, and You are using the standard mileage rate if you are claiming vehicle expenses. 1040x amended tax form   If you do not meet both of these requirements, use Form 2106. 1040x amended tax form Performing Artists and Fee-Basis Officials If you are a qualified performing artist, or a state (or local) government official who is paid in whole or in part on a fee basis, you can deduct the cost of your qualifying work-related education as an adjustment to gross income rather than as an itemized deduction. 1040x amended tax form Include the cost of your qualifying work-related education with any other employee business expenses on Form 1040, line 24, or Form 1040NR, line 35. 1040x amended tax form You do not have to itemize your deductions on Schedule A (Form 1040 or 1040NR), and, therefore, the deduction is not subject to the 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit. 1040x amended tax form You must complete Form 2106 or 2106-EZ to figure your deduction even if you meet the requirements described earlier under Form not required . 1040x amended tax form For more information on qualified performing artists, see chapter 6 of Publication 463. 1040x amended tax form Impairment-Related Work Expenses If you are disabled and have impairment-related work expenses that are necessary for you to be able to get qualifying work-related education, you can deduct these expenses on Schedule A (Form 1040), line 28, or Schedule A (Form 1040NR), line 14. 1040x amended tax form They are not subject to the 2%-of-adjusted-gross-income limit. 1040x amended tax form To deduct these expenses, you must complete Form 2106 or 2106-EZ even if you meet the requirements described earlier under Form not required . 1040x amended tax form For more information on impairment-related work expenses, see chapter 6 of Publication 463. 1040x amended tax form Recordkeeping You must keep records as proof of any deduction claimed on your tax return. 1040x amended tax form Generally, you should keep your records for 3 years from the date of filing the tax return and claiming the deduction. 1040x amended tax form If you are an employee who is reimbursed for expenses and you give your records and documentation to your employer, you do not have to keep duplicate copies of this information. 1040x amended tax form However, you should keep your records for a 3-year period if: You claim deductions for expenses that are more than your reimbursement, Your employer does not use adequate accounting procedures to verify expense accounts, You are related to your employer, or Your expenses are reimbursed under a nonaccountable plan. 1040x amended tax form Examples of records to keep. 1040x amended tax form   If any of the above cases apply to you, you must be able to prove that your expenses are deductible. 1040x amended tax form You should keep adequate records or have sufficient evidence that will support your expenses. 1040x amended tax form Estimates or approximations do not qualify as proof of an expense. 1040x amended tax form Some examples of what can be used to help prove your expenses are: Documents, such as transcripts, course descriptions, catalogs, etc. 1040x amended tax form , showing periods of enrollment in educational institutions, principal subjects studied, and descriptions of educational activity. 1040x amended tax form Canceled checks and receipts to verify amounts you spent for: Tuition and books, Meals and lodging while away from home overnight for educational purposes, Travel and transportation, and Other education expenses. 1040x amended tax form Statements from your employer explaining whether the education was necessary for you to keep your job, salary, or status; how the education helped maintain or improve skills needed in your job; how much reimbursement you received; and, if you are a teacher, the type of certificate and subjects taught. 1040x amended tax form Complete information about any scholarship or fellowship grants, including amounts you received during the year. 1040x amended tax form Illustrated Example Victor Jones teaches math at a private high school in North Carolina. 1040x amended tax form He was selected to attend a 3-week math seminar at a university in California. 1040x amended tax form The seminar will improve his skills in his current job and is qualifying work-related education. 1040x amended tax form He was reimbursed for his expenses under his employer's nonaccountable plan, so his reimbursement of $2,100 is included in the wages shown in box 1 of his Form W-2. 1040x amended tax form Victor will file Form 1040. 1040x amended tax form His actual expenses for the seminar are as follows:   Lodging   $1,050     Meals   526     Airfare   550     Taxi fares   50     Tuition and books   400     Total Expenses   $2,576   Victor files Form 2106-EZ with his tax return. 1040x amended tax form He shows his expenses for the seminar in Part I of the form. 1040x amended tax form He enters $1,650 ($1,050 + $550 + $50) on line 3 to account for his lodging, airfare, and taxi fares. 1040x amended tax form He enters $400 on line 4 for his tuition and books. 1040x amended tax form On the line provided for total meals and entertainment expenses, Victor enters $526 for meal expenses. 1040x amended tax form He multiplies that amount by 50% and enters the result, $263, on line 5. 1040x amended tax form On line 6, Victor totals the amounts from lines 3 through 5. 1040x amended tax form He carries the total, $2,313, to Schedule A (Form 1040), line 21. 1040x amended tax form Since he does not claim any vehicle expenses, Victor leaves Part II blank. 1040x amended tax form His filled-in form is shown on the next page. 1040x amended tax form This image is too large to be displayed in the current screen. 1040x amended tax form Please click the link to view the image. 1040x amended tax form Form 2106-EZ for V. 1040x amended tax form Jones Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications