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10 40 ez 16. 10 40 ez   Cómo Declarar Ganancias y Pérdidas Table of Contents Qué Hay de Nuevo Introduction Useful Items - You may want to see: Cómo Declarar Ganancias y Pérdidas de CapitalExcepción 1. 10 40 ez Excepción 2. 10 40 ez Presente el Formulario 1099-B o el Formulario 1099-S al IRS. 10 40 ez Pérdidas de Capital Tasas Impositivas sobre Ganancias de Capital Qué Hay de Nuevo Tasas máximas de ganancias de capital. 10 40 ez  Para el año 2013, las tasas máximas de ganancias de capital son del 0%, 15%, 20%, 25% y 28%. 10 40 ez Introduction En este capítulo se explica cómo declarar ganancias y pérdidas de capital provenientes de ventas, intercambios y otras enajenaciones de bienes de inversión en el Formulario 8949 y el Anexo D (Formulario 1040). 10 40 ez Esta explicación abarca los siguientes temas: Cómo declarar ganancias y pérdidas a corto plazo. 10 40 ez Cómo declarar ganancias y pérdidas a largo plazo. 10 40 ez Cómo calcular pérdidas de capital que se van a trasladar al año siguiente. 10 40 ez Cómo calcular los impuestos sobre una ganancia neta de capital. 10 40 ez Si vende o de otro modo enajena bienes utilizados en una ocupación o negocio o en la producción de ingresos, vea la Publicación 544, Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets (Ventas y otras enajenaciones de activos), en inglés, antes de completar el Anexo D (Formulario 1040). 10 40 ez Useful Items - You may want to see: Publicación 537 Installment Sales (Ventas a plazos), en inglés 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets (Ventas y otras enajenaciones de activos), en inglés 550 Investment Income and Expenses (Ingresos y gastos de inversión), en inglés Formulario (e Instrucciones) 4797 Sales of Business Property (Ventas de bienes comerciales), en inglés 6252 Installment Sale Income (Ingresos de ventas a plazos), en inglés 8582 Passive Activity Loss Limitations (Limitaciones de pérdidas en actividades pasivas), en inglés 8949 Sales and Other Dispositions of Capital Assets (Ventas y otras enajenaciones de activos de capital, en inglés) Anexo D (Formulario 1040) Capital Gains and Losses (Ganancias y pérdidas de capital), en inglés Cómo Declarar Ganancias y Pérdidas de Capital Declare sus ganancias y pérdidas de capital en el Formulario 8949. 10 40 ez Complete el Formulario 8949 antes de completar las líneas 1b, 2, 3, 8b, 9 ó 10 del Anexo D (Formulario 1040). 10 40 ez Use el Formulario 8949 para declarar: La venta o intercambio de un activo de capital, la cual no se declaró en ningún otro formulario o anexo, Ganancias por canjes involuntarios (aparte de cuando se deba a un hecho fortuito o un robo) de activos de capital que no sirven para propósitos de negocio o lucro y Deudas incobrables que no provienen del negocio. 10 40 ez Use el Anexo D (Formulario 1040): Para calcular la ganancia o pérdida total de las transacciones declaradas en el Formulario 8949; Para declarar una ganancia proveniente del Formulario 6252 o de la Parte I del Formulario 4797; Para declarar una ganancia o pérdida proveniente del Formulario 4684, 6781 u 8824; Para declarar distribuciones de ganancias de capital no declaradas directamente en el Formulario 1040 o en el Formulario 1040A; Para declarar una pérdida de capital trasladada del año tributario anterior al año tributario actual; Para declarar su parte de una ganancia (o pérdida) de una sociedad colectiva, sociedad anónima de tipo S, caudal hereditario o fideicomiso; Para declarar las transacciones informadas a usted en el Formulario 1099-B (o documento sustitutivo), el cual muestra las bases informadas al IRS y al cual no corresponde ninguno de los ajustes o códigos del Formulario 8949; y Para declarar ganancias de capital a largo plazo no distribuidas provenientes del Formulario 2439. 10 40 ez Anote en el Formulario 8949 todas las ventas e intercambios de activos de capital (incluyendo acciones, bonos, etc. 10 40 ez ) y de bienes raíces (si no se declararon en el Formulario 4684, 4797, 6252, 6781 u 8824 o la línea 1a u 8a del Anexo D). 10 40 ez Declare estas transacciones aun si usted no recibió un Formulario 1099-B o 1099-S (u otra declaración sustitutiva) para la transacción. 10 40 ez Declare las ganancias o pérdidas a corto plazo en la Parte I. 10 40 ez Declare ganancias y pérdidas a largo plazo en la Parte II. 10 40 ez Use cuantos Formularios 8949 sean necesarios. 10 40 ez Excepciones a la presentación del Formulario 8949 y el Anexo D (Formulario 1040). 10 40 ez   Hay ciertas circunstancias bajo las cuales usted tal vez no tenga que presentar el Formulario 8949 ni el Anexo D (Formulario 1040). 10 40 ez Excepción 1. 10 40 ez   Usted no tiene que presentar el Formulario 8949 ni el Anexo D (Formulario 1040) si no tiene pérdidas de capital y sus únicas ganancias de capital son distribuciones de ganancia de capital correspondientes al (los) recuadro(s) 2a del (de los) Formulario(s) 1099-DIV (o declaraciones sustitutivas). 10 40 ez (Si alguno de los Formularios 1099-DIV (o declaraciones sustitutivas) que usted recibe indica una cifra en el recuadro 2b (ganancias no recuperadas conforme a la sección 1250), el recuadro 2c (ganancias conforme a la sección 1202) o el recuadro 2d (ganancias (tasas de 28%) por la venta de objetos coleccionables, usted no reúne los requisitos para esta excepción). 10 40 ez Si reúne los requisitos para esta excepción, declare sus distribuciones de ganancia de capital directamente en la línea 13 del Formulario 1040 y marque el recuadro en la línea 13. 10 40 ez También debe utillizar la Qualified Dividends and Capital Gain Tax Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo para impuestos sobre dividendos y ganancias de capital), que encontrará en las Instrucciones del Formulario 1040, para calcular su impuesto. 10 40 ez Usted pede declarar sus distribuciones de ganancias de capital en la línea 10 del Formulario 1040A, en vez del Formulario 1040, si ninguno de los Formularios 1099-DIV (o declaraciones sustitutivas) que usted recibió indica una cifra en los recuadros 2b, 2c o 2d y usted no tiene que presentar el Formulario 1040. 10 40 ez Excepción 2. 10 40 ez   Usted tiene que presentar el Anexo D (Formulario 1040), pero por lo general no tiene que presentar el Formulario 8949 si la Excepción 1 no le corresponde y sus únicas ganancias y pérdidas de capital son: Distribuciones de ganancias de capital; Una pérdida de capital trasladada de un año anterior; Una ganancia correspondiente al Formulario 2439 ó 6252, o de la Parte I del Formulario 4797; Una ganancia o pérdida correspondiente al Formulario 4684, 6781 u 8824; Una ganancia o pérdida de una sociedad colectiva, sociedad anónima de tipo S, un caudal hereditario o fideicomiso; Ganancias y pérdidas de transacciones por las cuales usted recibió el Formulario 1099-B (o un documento sustitutivo), el cual muestra las bases informadas al IRS y por lo cual no necesita hacer ningún ajuste en la columna (g) del Formulario 8949 ni anotar ningún código en la columna (f) del Formulario 8949. 10 40 ez Ventas a plazos. 10 40 ez   No puede utilizar el método de pago a plazos para declarar una ganancia proveniente de la venta de acciones o valores bursátiles cotizados en un mercado de valores bursátiles establecido. 10 40 ez Tiene que declarar la totalidad de la ganancia en el año de la venta (el año en el que ocurra la fecha de canje). 10 40 ez Ganancias y pérdidas provenientes de una actividad pasiva. 10 40 ez    Si tiene pérdidas o ganancias provenientes de una actividad pasiva, es posible que tenga que declararlas también en el Formulario 8582. 10 40 ez En ciertos casos, la pérdida puede ser limitada conforme a las reglas de actividad pasiva. 10 40 ez Consulte el Formulario 8582 y sus instrucciones correspondientes por separado para obtener información adicional sobre la declaración de ganancias y pérdidas de capital producto de una actividad pasiva. 10 40 ez Transacciones que se declaran en el Formulario 1099-B. 10 40 ez   Si vendió bienes, como acciones, bonos o ciertos productos de consumo bursátiles, a través de un agente corredor bursátil, éste debe entregarle un Formulario 1099-B o documento sustitutivo. 10 40 ez Utilice el Formulario 1099-B o el documento sustitutivo para completar el Formulario 8949. 10 40 ez Si usted vendió un valor bursátil garantizado en 2013, su agente corredor bursátil le mandará un Formulario 1099-B (o declaración sustitutiva) que le indica la base. 10 40 ez Esto le ayudará a completar el Formulario 8949. 10 40 ez Por lo general, los valores bursátiles garantizados son aquéllos que usted adquirió después del año 2010. 10 40 ez   Declare las ganancias brutas que aparezcan en el recuadro 2a del Formulario 1099-B como el precio de venta en la columna (d) de la Parte I o la Parte II del Formulario 8949, según le corresponda a su caso. 10 40 ez No obstante, si el agente corredor bursátil indica, en el recuadro 2a del Formulario 1099-B, haber declarado al IRS las ganancias brutas (precio de venta) menos comisiones y primas de opciones, anote el precio neto de venta resultante en la columna (d) de la Parte I o de la Parte II del Formulario 8949, según le corresponda a su caso. 10 40 ez   Incluya en la columna (g) todo gasto de venta, tal como honorarios de agente corredor bursátil, comisiones, impuestos de traspaso locales y estatales y primas de opciones, a menos que usted haya declarado el precio neto de venta en la columna (d). 10 40 ez Si incluye un gasto de venta en la columna (g), anote “E” en la columna (f). 10 40 ez Transacciones que se declaran en el Formulario 1099-CAP. 10 40 ez   Si es dueño de acciones de una sociedad anónima en cuyo control o estructura de capital haya habido cambios importantes, dicha sociedad debe enviarle el Formulario 1099-CAP o documento sustitutivo. 10 40 ez Utilice el Formulario 1099-CAP o documento sustitutivo para completar el Formulario 8949. 10 40 ez Si sus cálculos indican que, debido al cambio, usted tendría una pérdida, no anote ninguna cantidad en el Formulario 8949 ni en el Anexo D (Formulario 1040). 10 40 ez Esta transacción no le da la posibilidad de declarar una pérdida en el Anexo D (Formulario 1040). 10 40 ez   Declare el total de la cantidad recibida indicado en el recuadro 2 del Formulario 1099-CAP como el precio de venta en la columna (d) de la Parte I o de la Parte II del Formulario 8949, según le corresponda a su caso. 10 40 ez Transacciones que se declaran en el Formulario 1099-S. 10 40 ez   Si vendió o canjeó bienes raíces que han de declararse, normalmente la persona encargada de comunicar transacciones de bienes raíces debe entregarle un Formulario 1099-S en el que se indiquen las ganancias brutas. 10 40 ez    “Bienes raíces que han de declararse” son toda participación en una propiedad actual o futura en cualesquiera de los siguientes casos: Terrenos con o sin mejoras, incluido el espacio aéreo; Estructuras intrínsecamente permanentes, incluido todo edificio residencial, comercial o industrial; Una unidad de condominio y sus instalaciones accesorias y elementos comunes, incluido el terreno; y Acciones de cooperativa de viviendas en sociedad anónima (como se define en la sección 216 del Código de Impuestos Internos). 10 40 ez   Una “persona encargada de comunicar transacciones de bienes raíces” puede ser el abogado del comprador, el abogado de usted, una compañía de escrituras de propiedad o de cuentas en depósito, un prestamista hipotecario, el agente corredor bursátil de usted, el agente corredor bursátil del comprador o la persona que adquiera la mayor participación en la propiedad. 10 40 ez   El Formulario 1099-S indicará las ganancias brutas de la venta o el intercambio en el recuadro 2. 10 40 ez Consulte las Instrucciones para el Formulario 8949 y las Instrucciones para el Anexo D (Formulario 1040) para saber cómo se declaran estas transacciones e incluirlas en la Parte I o Parte II del Formulario 8949, tal como le corresponda a su caso. 10 40 ez No obstante, declare los intercambios por bienes del mismo tipo en el Formulario 8824. 10 40 ez   Es ilegal que una persona encargada de comunicar transacciones de bienes raíces le cobre un cargo por separado por cumplir con el requisito de presentación del Formulario 1099-S. 10 40 ez Nominatarios. 10 40 ez   Si recibe ganancias brutas como nominatario (es decir, las ganancias brutas están a nombre suyo pero en realidad pertenecen a otra persona), vea las Instrucciones para el Formulario 8949, para saber cómo declarar estas cantidades en el Formulario 8949. 10 40 ez Presente el Formulario 1099-B o el Formulario 1099-S al IRS. 10 40 ez   Si recibió ganancias brutas en calidad de nominatario en 2013, tiene que presentar al IRS el Formulario 1099-B o el Formulario 1099-S correspondiente a dichas ganancias. 10 40 ez Envíe el Formulario 1099-B o el Formulario 1099-S junto con el Formulario 1096, Annual Summary and Transmittal of U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez Information Returns (Resumen e informe anual de declaraciones informativas de los Estados Unidos), en inglés, al Centro de Servicio del Servicio de Impuestos Internos que le corresponda a más tardar el 28 de febrero de 2014 (31 de marzo de 2014, si presenta el Formulario 1099-B o el Formulario 1099-S por vía electrónica). 10 40 ez Entregue la Copia B del Formulario 1099-B o del Formulario 1099-S al verdadero dueño de dichas ganancias a más tardar el 18 de febrero de 2014. 10 40 ez En el Formulario 1099-B, usted debe constar como “Payer” (Pagador). 10 40 ez El otro dueño debe constar como “Recipient” (Destinatario). 10 40 ez En el Formulario 1099-S, usted debe constar como “Filer” (Declarante). 10 40 ez El otro dueño debe constar como “Transferor” (Cesionista). 10 40 ez No obstante, usted no tiene que presentar el Formulario 1099-B ni el Formulario 1099-S para mostrar las ganancias de su cónyuge. 10 40 ez Para más información acerca de los requisitos de presentación de ciertas declaraciones informativas y las multas por no presentar (o facilitar) dichas declaraciones, vea las General Instructions for Certain Information Returns (Instrucciones generales para determinadas declaraciones informativas), en inglés. 10 40 ez Si presenta la declaración electrónicamente, vea la Publicación 1220, en inglés. 10 40 ez Venta de bienes comprados en diferentes ocasiones. 10 40 ez   Si vende un paquete de acciones u otros bienes que haya comprado en diferentes ocasiones, declare la pérdida o ganancia a corto plazo procedente de la venta en una fila de la Parte I del Formulario 8949 y anote la pérdida o ganancia a largo plazo en una fila de la Parte II del Formulario 8949. 10 40 ez Escriba “Various” (Varios) en la columna (b) para la “Date acquired” (Fecha de adquisición). 10 40 ez Gastos de venta. 10 40 ez    En la columna (g) del Formulario 8949, incluya todo gasto de venta, como honorarios de agentes corredores bursátiles, comisiones, impuestos estatales y locales sobre traspasos y primas de opciones, a menos que usted haya declarado el precio neto de ventas en la columna (d). 10 40 ez Si usted incluyó un gasto de venta en la columna (g), anote “E” en la columna (f). 10 40 ez   Para más información sobre los ajustes a la base, vea el capítulo 13. 10 40 ez Ganancias y pérdidas a corto plazo. 10 40 ez   Las ganancias o pérdidas de capital sobre la venta o canje de bienes de inversión que haya tenido por 1 año o menos se consideran pérdidas o ganancias de capital a corto plazo. 10 40 ez Declárelas en la Parte I del Formulario 8949. 10 40 ez   Sume su parte de pérdidas o ganancias de capital a corto plazo provenientes de sociedades colectivas, sociedades anónimas de tipo S, caudales hereditarios y fideicomisos, además de toda pérdida de capital a corto plazo que se haya trasladado de un año anterior, con las demás ganancias y pérdidas de capital a corto plazo para calcular la pérdida o ganancia de capital neta a corto plazo en la línea 7 del Anexo D (Formulario 1040). 10 40 ez Ganancias y pérdidas a largo plazo. 10 40 ez    Una ganancia o pérdida de capital sobre la venta o canje de bienes de inversión que haya tenido durante más de 1 año se considera ganancia o pérdida de capital a largo plazo. 10 40 ez Declárela en la Parte II del Formulario 8949. 10 40 ez   Usted debe declarar lo siguiente en la Parte II del Anexo D (Formulario 1040): Ganancias de capital a largo plazo de un fondo mutuo (u otra sociedad inversionista reglamentada) o de una sociedad de inversión inmobiliaria (REIT, por sus siglas en inglés) que no hayan sido distribuidas; Su participación de las ganancias y pérdidas de capital a largo plazo de sociedades colectivas, sociedades anónimas de tipo S, caudales hereditarios y fideicomisos; Toda distribución de ganancia de capital proveniente de fondos mutuos y sociedades de inversión inmobiliaria (REIT) que no se haya declarado directamente en la línea 10 del Formulario 1040A o la línea 13 del Formulario 1040; y Pérdidas de capital a largo plazo trasladadas de un año anterior. 10 40 ez    El resultado que se dé después de sumar dichas cantidades con las demás ganancias de capital a largo plazo y restar las pérdidas de capital a largo plazo es la ganancia o pérdida de capital neta a largo plazo (línea 15 del Anexo D (Formulario 1040)). 10 40 ez Total de la ganancia o pérdida neta. 10 40 ez   Para calcular el total de la ganancia o pérdida neta, sume la ganancia o pérdida de capital neta a corto plazo (línea 7 del Anexo D (Formulario 1040)) con la pérdida o ganancia de capital neta a largo plazo (línea 15 del Anexo D (Formulario 1040)). 10 40 ez Anote el resultado en la línea 16 de la Parte III del Anexo D (Formulario 1040). 10 40 ez Si tiene pérdidas que sobrepasen las ganancias, vea Pérdidas de Capital , que se encuentra a continuación. 10 40 ez Si las líneas 15 y 16 del Anexo D (Formulario 1040) son ganancias y el ingreso sujeto a impuestos en su Formulario 1040 es mayor de cero, vea Tasas Impositivas sobre Ganancias de Capital , más adelante. 10 40 ez Pérdidas de Capital Si las pérdidas de capital son mayores que las ganancias de capital, se puede declarar una deducción por pérdida de capital. 10 40 ez Declare la cantidad de la deducción en la línea 13 del Formulario 1040, anotándola entre paréntesis. 10 40 ez Límite sobre la deducción. 10 40 ez   La deducción por ganancia de capital permisible, calculada en el Anexo D (Formulario 1040), es la cantidad que sea menor de las siguientes: $3,000 ($1,500 si es casado y presenta una declaración por separado) o El total de la pérdida neta tal como aparece en la línea 16 del Anexo D (Formulario 1040). 10 40 ez   Puede usar el total de la pérdida neta para reducir sus ingresos en una cantidad equivalente, hasta el límite de $3,000. 10 40 ez Traslado de pérdida de capital. 10 40 ez   Si el total de la pérdida neta en la línea 16 del Anexo D (Formulario 1040) sobrepasa el límite anual de las deducciones de pérdida de capital, puede trasladar al año siguiente la parte sobrante y tratarla como si hubiera incurrido en la misma durante ese próximo año. 10 40 ez Si una parte de la pérdida sigue sin usarse, puede trasladarla a años posteriores hasta que se agote. 10 40 ez   Cuando calcule una cantidad de pérdida de capital que se trasladará al año siguiente, tiene que tener en cuenta la deducción permisible del año en curso, la haya reclamado o no, e independientemente de si presentó o no una declaración correspondiente al año en curso. 10 40 ez   Cuando traslade una pérdida a un año posterior, ésta sigue siendo una pérdida a largo plazo o corto plazo. 10 40 ez Una pérdida de capital a largo plazo que usted traslade al año tributario siguiente reducirá las ganancias de capital a largo plazo de dicho año antes de reducir las ganancias de capital a corto plazo de dicho año. 10 40 ez Cálculo de la cantidad trasladada al año siguiente. 10 40 ez   La cantidad de la pérdida de capital a trasladarse al año siguiente es la cantidad de pérdida neta total que sea mayor que la cantidad menor entre: La deducción por pérdida de capital permisible durante el año o Sus ingresos sujetos a impuestos aumentados por la deducción por pérdida de capital permisible durante el año y la deducción por exenciones personales. 10 40 ez   Si las deducciones son mayores que sus ingresos brutos del año tributario, utilice los ingresos negativos sujetos a impuestos al calcular la cantidad en el punto (2). 10 40 ez    Complete la Capital Loss Carryover Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo para calcular la pérdida de capital a trasladarse a años posteriores) en las Instrucciones del Anexo D o la Publicación 550, en inglés, para calcular la parte de la pérdida de capital que se pueda trasladar. 10 40 ez Ejemplo. 10 40 ez Roberto y Gloria vendieron valores bursátiles en 2013. 10 40 ez Las ventas dieron por resultado una pérdida de capital de $7,000. 10 40 ez No hicieron otras transacciones de capital. 10 40 ez Sus ingresos sujetos a impuestos fueron $26,000. 10 40 ez En la declaración conjunta de 2013, pueden deducir $3,000. 10 40 ez La parte de la pérdida que no usaron, $4,000 ($7,000 − $3,000), se puede trasladar a 2014. 10 40 ez Si la pérdida de capital hubiera sido $2,000, la deducción por pérdida de capital también habría sido $2,000. 10 40 ez No tendrían cantidad alguna a trasladar al año siguiente. 10 40 ez Utilice primero las pérdidas a corto plazo. 10 40 ez   Cuando calcule la cantidad a trasladarse al año siguiente, utilice primero las pérdidas de capital a corto plazo, aunque haya incurrido en las mismas después de una pérdida de capital a largo plazo. 10 40 ez Si no ha alcanzado el límite de la deducción por pérdidas de capital después de haber utilizado las pérdidas de capital a corto plazo, utilice las pérdidas de capital a largo plazo hasta alcanzar el límite. 10 40 ez Pérdida de capital de un difunto. 10 40 ez    Una pérdida de capital sufrida por una persona en su último año tributario antes de fallecer (o que se haya traspasado de un año anterior a dicho año) se puede deducir sólo en la última declaración del impuesto sobre el ingreso personal que se presente a nombre del difunto. 10 40 ez Los límites de pérdida de capital explicados anteriormente aún corresponden en este caso. 10 40 ez El caudal hereditario (patrimonio) del difunto no puede deducir ninguna parte de la pérdida ni trasladarla a años posteriores. 10 40 ez Declaraciones conjuntas y separadas. 10 40 ez   Si antes usted y su cónyuge presentaban declaraciones por separado y ahora presentan una declaración conjunta, sume las cantidades de pérdida de capital que cada uno de ustedes haya trasladado a un año siguiente. 10 40 ez No obstante, si antes usted y su cónyuge presentaban una declaración conjunta y ahora presentan declaraciones por separado, toda pérdida de capital que se haya trasladado a un año siguiente se puede deducir sólo en la declaración del cónyuge que de hecho sufrió la pérdida. 10 40 ez Tasas Impositivas sobre Ganancias de Capital Las tasas impositivas correspondientes a una ganancia neta de capital suelen ser más bajas que las que corresponden a otros ingresos. 10 40 ez Estas tasas reducidas se conocen como las “tasas máximas de ganancias de capital”. 10 40 ez El término “ganancia neta de capital” designa la cantidad por la que la ganancia neta de capital a largo plazo del año supera la pérdida de capital neta a corto plazo. 10 40 ez Para el año 2013, las tasas máximas correspondientes a ganancias de capital son 0%, 15%, 20%, 25% y 28%. 10 40 ez Vea la Tabla 16-1, para obtener información detallada. 10 40 ez Si para calcular el impuesto utiliza las tasas máximas correspondientes a ganancias de capital y el cálculo normal de impuestos le resulta en unos impuestos más bajos, el cálculo normal de impuestos es el que le corresponde. 10 40 ez Ejemplo. 10 40 ez Su ganancia neta de capital proviene en su totalidad de la venta de artículos coleccionables, por lo tanto, la tasa correspondiente a la ganancia de capital es 28%. 10 40 ez Si de otro modo está sujeto a una tasa menor del 28%, la tasa del 28% no corresponde. 10 40 ez Deducción de los intereses de inversiones. 10 40 ez   Si declara una deducción de intereses de inversiones, tal vez tenga que reducir la cantidad de su ganancia neta de capital que reúna los requisitos para las tasas impositivas sobre ganancias de capital. 10 40 ez Réstele la cantidad de la ganancia neta de capital que opte por incluir en los ingresos de inversiones al calcular el límite de la deducción de los mismos. 10 40 ez Para hacer esto, se utiliza la Schedule D Tax Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo para los impuestos del Anexo D) en las Instrucciones para el Anexo D (Formulario 1040), en inglés, o la Qualified Dividends and Capital Gain Tax Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo para los impuestos sobre dividendos calificados y ganancias de capital), que se encuentra en las instrucciones por separado correspondientes a los Formularios 1040 y 1040A, en inglés. 10 40 ez Para más información acerca del límite de los intereses procedentes de inversiones, vea Interest Expenses (Gastos de intereses) en el capítulo 3 de la Publicación 550, en inglés. 10 40 ez Tabla 16-1. 10 40 ez ¿Cuál es la Tasa Máxima de Ganancias de Capital que le Corresponde? SI la ganancia neta de capital se deriva de . 10 40 ez . 10 40 ez . 10 40 ez ENTONCES la  tasa máxima de  ganancia de capital es . 10 40 ez . 10 40 ez . 10 40 ez una ganancia producto de artículos coleccionables 28% una ganancia, la cual reúne los requisitos, sobre acciones de pequeños negocios calificados menos la exclusión conforme a la sección 1202 28% una ganancia conforme a la sección 1250 no recuperada 25% otra ganancia1 y la tasa impositiva normal correspondiente es 39. 10 40 ez 6% 20% otra ganancia1 y la tasa impositiva normal correspondiente es 25%, 28%, 33% o 35% 15% otra ganancia1 y la tasa impositiva normal correspondiente es 10% o 15% 0% 1 El término “otra ganancia” significa toda ganancia que no sea una ganancia procedente de artículos coleccionables, ganancia sobre acciones de pequeños negocios calificados o una ganancia conforme a la sección 1250 no recuperada. 10 40 ez     Ganancia o pérdida procedente de artículos coleccionables. 10 40 ez   Ésta es una ganancia o pérdida que se deriva de la venta o canje de una obra de arte, alfombra, antigüedad, metal (como oro, plata y platino en barras), piedra preciosa, estampilla o sello, moneda o bebida alcohólica que haya tenido más de 1 año. 10 40 ez   Se considera que una ganancia procedente de artículos coleccionables abarca las ganancias resultantes de la venta de una participación en una sociedad colectiva, sociedad anónima de tipo S o fideicomiso, generadas por una plusvalía no realizada de dichos artículos coleccionables. 10 40 ez Ganancia sobre acciones de pequeños negocios calificados. 10 40 ez    Si obtuvo una ganancia de acciones de pequeños negocios calificados y fue dueño de dichas acciones durante más de 5 años, normalmente puede excluir de los ingresos una parte o la totalidad de su ganancia bajo la sección 1202. 10 40 ez La ganancia que cumple los requisitos, menos la exclusión conforme a la sección 1202, es una ganancia con una tasa de 28%. 10 40 ez Vea Gains on Qualified Small Business Stock (Ganancias de acciones de pequeños negocios calificados) en el capítulo 4 de la Publicación 550, en inglés. 10 40 ez Ganancia conforme a la sección 1250 no recuperada. 10 40 ez    Por lo general, ésta es toda parte de la ganancia de capital que se haya originado por la venta de bienes conforme a la sección 1250 (bienes raíces) debido a depreciación (pero no más que la ganancia neta conforme a la sección 1231) menos toda pérdida neta en el grupo del 28%. 10 40 ez Use la Unrecaptured Section 1250 Gain Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo de ganancias no recuperadas conforme a la sección 1250) de las Instrucciones del Anexo D (Formulario 1040), en inglés, para calcular la ganancia no recuperada conforme a la sección 1250. 10 40 ez Para más información sobre bienes conforme a la sección 1250 y ganancias conforme a la sección 1231, vea el capítulo 3 de la Publicación 544, en inglés. 10 40 ez Cálculo de los impuestos a base de las tasas máximas de ganancias de capital. 10 40 ez   Utilice la Qualified Dividends and Capital Gain Tax Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo para los impuestos sobre dividendos calificados y ganancias de capital) o la Schedule D Tax Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo para los impuestos del Anexo D), la que corresponda, para calcular su impuesto si ha recibido dividendos calificados o ganancia neta de capital. 10 40 ez Tiene ganancia neta de capital si las cantidades de las líneas 15 y 16 del Anexo D ambas son ganancias. 10 40 ez Hoja de trabajo para los impuestos del Anexo D. 10 40 ez   Utilice la Schedule D Tax Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo para los impuestos del Anexo D) que se encuentra en las Instrucciones del Anexo D (Formulario 1040) para calcular el impuesto si se dan las siguientes condiciones: Tiene que presentar el Anexo D (Formulario 1040) y La cantidad de la línea 18 (ganancia a una tasa de 28%) o la línea 19 (ganancia no recuperada conforme a la sección 1250) del Anexo D (Formulario 1040) es mayor de cero. 10 40 ez Hoja de trabajo para el impuesto sobre dividendos calificados y ganancias de capital. 10 40 ez   Utilice la Qualified Dividends and Capital Gain Tax Worksheet (Hoja de trabajo para el impuesto sobre los dividendos calificados y ganancias de capital) de las instrucciones del Formulario 1040 o Formulario 1040A (el que presente) para calcular el impuesto si no tiene que utilizar la Hoja de trabajo para los impuestos del Anexo D (como se explica anteriormente) y corresponde cualquiera de los siguientes puntos: Recibió dividendos calificados. 10 40 ez (Vea Dividendos Calificados en el capítulo 8). 10 40 ez No tiene que presentar el Anexo D (Formulario 1040) y recibió distribuciones de ganancias de capital. 10 40 ez (Vea Excepciones a la presentación del Formulario 8949 y el Anexo D (Formulario 1040) , anteriormente). 10 40 ez Las cantidades de las líneas 15 y 16 del Anexo D (Formulario 1040) son mayores de cero. 10 40 ez Impuesto mínimo alternativo. 10 40 ez   Estas tasas de ganancias de capital se utilizan también para calcular el impuesto mínimo alternativo. 10 40 ez Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications
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The 10 40 Ez

10 40 ez 4. 10 40 ez   How Income of Aliens Is Taxed Table of Contents Introduction Topics - This chapter discusses: Useful Items - You may want to see: Resident Aliens Nonresident AliensTrade or Business in the United States Effectively Connected Income The 30% Tax Income From Real Property Transportation Tax Interrupted Period of Residence Expatriation TaxExpatriation Before June 4, 2004 Expatriation After June 3, 2004, and Before June 17, 2008 Expatriation After June 16, 2008 Introduction Resident and nonresident aliens are taxed in different ways. 10 40 ez Resident aliens are generally taxed in the same way as U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizens. 10 40 ez Nonresident aliens are taxed based on the source of their income and whether or not their income is effectively connected with a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business. 10 40 ez The following discussions will help you determine if income you receive during the tax year is effectively connected with a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business and how it is taxed. 10 40 ez Topics - This chapter discusses: Income that is effectively connected with a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business. 10 40 ez Income that is not effectively connected with a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business. 10 40 ez Interrupted period of residence. 10 40 ez Expatriation tax. 10 40 ez Useful Items - You may want to see: Publication 544 Sales and Other Dispositions of Assets 1212 List of Original Issue Discount Instruments Form (and Instructions) 6251 Alternative Minimum Tax—Individuals Schedule D (Form 1040) Capital Gains and Losses See chapter 12 for information about getting these publications and forms. 10 40 ez Resident Aliens Resident aliens are generally taxed in the same way as U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizens. 10 40 ez This means that their worldwide income is subject to U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez tax and must be reported on their U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez tax return. 10 40 ez Income of resident aliens is subject to the graduated tax rates that apply to U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizens. 10 40 ez Resident aliens use the Tax Table or Tax Computation Worksheets located in the Form 1040 instructions, which apply to U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizens. 10 40 ez Nonresident Aliens A nonresident alien's income that is subject to U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez income tax must be divided into two categories: Income that is effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States, and Income that is not effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States (discussed under The 30% Tax, later). 10 40 ez The difference between these two categories is that effectively connected income, after allowable deductions, is taxed at graduated rates. 10 40 ez These are the same rates that apply to U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizens and residents. 10 40 ez Income that is not effectively connected is taxed at a flat 30% (or lower treaty) rate. 10 40 ez If you were formerly a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizen or resident alien, these rules may not apply. 10 40 ez See Expatriation Tax, later, in this chapter. 10 40 ez Trade or Business in the United States Generally, you must be engaged in a trade or business during the tax year to be able to treat income received in that year as effectively connected with that trade or business. 10 40 ez Whether you are engaged in a trade or business in the United States depends on the nature of your activities. 10 40 ez The discussions that follow will help you determine whether you are engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez Personal Services If you perform personal services in the United States at any time during the tax year, you usually are considered engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez Certain compensation paid to a nonresident alien by a foreign employer is not included in gross income. 10 40 ez For more information, see Services Performed for Foreign Employer in chapter 3. 10 40 ez Other Trade or Business Activities Other examples of being engaged in a trade or business in the United States follow. 10 40 ez Students and trainees. 10 40 ez   You are considered engaged in a trade or business in the United States if you are temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under an “F,” “J,” “M,” or “Q” visa. 10 40 ez A nonresident alien temporarily present in the United States under a “J” visa includes a nonresident alien individual admitted to the United States as an exchange visitor under the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961. 10 40 ez The taxable part of any scholarship or fellowship grant that is U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source income is treated as effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez Business operations. 10 40 ez   If you own and operate a business in the United States selling services, products, or merchandise, you are, with certain exceptions, engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez Partnerships. 10 40 ez   If you are a member of a partnership that at any time during the tax year is engaged in a trade or business in the United States, you are considered to be engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez Beneficiary of an estate or trust. 10 40 ez   If you are the beneficiary of an estate or trust that is engaged in a trade or business in the United States, you are treated as being engaged in the same trade or business. 10 40 ez Trading in stocks, securities, and commodities. 10 40 ez   If your only U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez business activity is trading in stocks, securities, or commodities (including hedging transactions) through a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez resident broker or other agent, you are not engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez   For transactions in stocks or securities, this applies to any nonresident alien, including a dealer or broker in stocks and securities. 10 40 ez   For transactions in commodities, this applies to commodities that are usually traded on an organized commodity exchange and to transactions that are usually carried out at such an exchange. 10 40 ez   This discussion does not apply if you have a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez office or other fixed place of business at any time during the tax year through which, or by the direction of which, you carry out your transactions in stocks, securities, or commodities. 10 40 ez Trading for a nonresident alien's own account. 10 40 ez   You are not engaged in a trade or business in the United States if trading for your own account in stocks, securities, or commodities is your only U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez business activity. 10 40 ez This applies even if the trading takes place while you are present in the United States or is done by your employee or your broker or other agent. 10 40 ez   This does not apply to trading for your own account if you are a dealer in stocks, securities, or commodities. 10 40 ez This does not necessarily mean, however, that as a dealer you are considered to be engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez Determine that based on the facts and circumstances in each case or under the rules given above in Trading in stocks, securities, and commodities . 10 40 ez Effectively Connected Income If you are engaged in a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business, all income, gain, or loss for the tax year that you get from sources within the United States (other than certain investment income) is treated as effectively connected income. 10 40 ez This applies whether or not there is any connection between the income and the trade or business being carried on in the United States during the tax year. 10 40 ez Two tests, described next under Investment Income, determine whether certain items of investment income (such as interest, dividends, and royalties) are treated as effectively connected with that business. 10 40 ez In limited circumstances, some kinds of foreign source income may be treated as effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez For a discussion of these rules, see Foreign Income , later. 10 40 ez Investment Income Investment income from U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez sources that may or may not be treated as effectively connected with a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business generally falls into the following three categories. 10 40 ez Fixed or determinable income (interest, dividends, rents, royalties, premiums, annuities, etc. 10 40 ez ). 10 40 ez Gains (some of which are considered capital gains) from the sale or exchange of the following types of property. 10 40 ez Timber, coal, or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 10 40 ez Patents, copyrights, and similar property on which you receive contingent payments after October 4, 1966. 10 40 ez Patents transferred before October 5, 1966. 10 40 ez Original issue discount obligations. 10 40 ez Capital gains (and losses). 10 40 ez Use the two tests, described next, to determine whether an item of U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source income falling in one of the three categories above and received during the tax year is effectively connected with your U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business. 10 40 ez If the tests indicate that the item of income is effectively connected, you must include it with your other effectively connected income. 10 40 ez If the item of income is not effectively connected, include it with all other income discussed under The 30% Tax later, in this chapter. 10 40 ez Asset-use test. 10 40 ez   This test usually applies to income that is not directly produced by trade or business activities. 10 40 ez Under this test, if an item of income is from assets (property) used in, or held for use in, the trade or business in the United States, it is considered effectively connected. 10 40 ez   An asset is used in, or held for use in, the trade or business in the United States if the asset is: Held for the principal purpose of promoting the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, Acquired and held in the ordinary course of the trade or business conducted in the United States (for example, an account receivable or note receivable arising from that trade or business), or Otherwise held to meet the present needs of the trade or business in the United States and not its anticipated future needs. 10 40 ez Generally, stock of a corporation is not treated as an asset used in, or held for use in, a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez Business-activities test. 10 40 ez   This test usually applies when income, gain, or loss comes directly from the active conduct of the trade or business. 10 40 ez The business-activities test is most important when: Dividends or interest are received by a dealer in stocks or securities, Royalties are received in the trade or business of licensing patents or similar property, or Service fees are earned by a servicing business. 10 40 ez Under this test, if the conduct of the U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business was a material factor in producing the income, the income is considered effectively connected. 10 40 ez Personal Service Income You usually are engaged in a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business when you perform personal services in the United States. 10 40 ez Personal service income you receive in a tax year in which you are engaged in a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business is effectively connected with a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business. 10 40 ez Income received in a year other than the year you performed the services is also effectively connected if it would have been effectively connected if received in the year you performed the services. 10 40 ez Personal service income includes wages, salaries, commissions, fees, per diem allowances, and employee allowances and bonuses. 10 40 ez The income may be paid to you in the form of cash, services, or property. 10 40 ez If you are engaged in a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business only because you perform personal services in the United States during the tax year, income and gains from assets, and gains and losses from the sale or exchange of capital assets are generally not effectively connected with your trade or business. 10 40 ez However, if there is a direct economic relationship between your holding of the asset and your trade or business of performing personal services, the income, gain, or loss is effectively connected. 10 40 ez Pensions. 10 40 ez   If you were a nonresident alien engaged in a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business after 1986 because you performed personal services in the United States, and you later receive a pension or retirement pay attributable to these services, such payments are effectively connected income in each year you receive them. 10 40 ez This is true whether or not you are engaged in a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business in the year you receive the retirement pay. 10 40 ez Transportation Income Transportation income (defined in chapter 2) is effectively connected if you meet both of the following conditions. 10 40 ez You had a fixed place of business in the United States involved in earning the income. 10 40 ez At least 90% of your U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source transportation income is attributable to regularly scheduled transportation. 10 40 ez “Fixed place of business” generally means a place, site, structure, or other similar facility through which you engage in a trade or business. 10 40 ez “Regularly scheduled transportation” means that a ship or aircraft follows a published schedule with repeated sailings or flights at regular intervals between the same points for voyages or flights that begin or end in the United States. 10 40 ez This definition applies to both scheduled and chartered air transportation. 10 40 ez If you do not meet the two conditions above, the income is not effectively connected and is taxed at a 4% rate. 10 40 ez See Transportation Tax, later, in this chapter. 10 40 ez Business Profits and Losses and Sales Transactions All profits or losses from U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez sources that are from the operation of a business in the United States are effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez For example, profit from the sale in the United States of inventory property purchased either in this country or in a foreign country is effectively connected trade or business income. 10 40 ez A share of U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source profits or losses of a partnership that is engaged in a trade or business in the United States is also effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez Real Property Gain or Loss Gains and losses from the sale or exchange of U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property interests (whether or not they are capital assets) are taxed as if you are engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez You must treat the gain or loss as effectively connected with that trade or business. 10 40 ez U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property interest. 10 40 ez   This is any interest in real property located in the United States or the U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez Virgin Islands or any interest (other than as a creditor) in a domestic corporation that is a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property holding corporation. 10 40 ez Real property includes the following. 10 40 ez Land and unsevered natural products of the land, such as growing crops and timber, and mines, wells, and other natural deposits. 10 40 ez Improvements on land, including buildings, other permanent structures, and their structural components. 10 40 ez Personal property associated with the use of real property, such as equipment used in farming, mining, forestry, or construction or property used in lodging facilities or rented office space, unless the personal property is: Disposed of more than one year before or after the disposition of the real property, or Separately sold to persons unrelated either to the seller or to the buyer of the real property. 10 40 ez U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property holding corporation. 10 40 ez   A corporation is a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property holding corporation if the fair market value of the corporation's U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property interests are at least 50% of the total fair market value of: The corporation's U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property interests, plus The corporation's interests in real property located outside the United States, plus The corporation's other assets that are used in, or held for use in, a trade or business. 10 40 ez   Gain or loss on the sale of the stock in any domestic corporation is taxed as if you are engaged in a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business unless you establish that the corporation is not a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property holding corporation. 10 40 ez   A U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property interest does not include a class of stock of a corporation that is regularly traded on an established securities market, unless you hold more than 5% of the fair market value of that class of stock. 10 40 ez An interest in a foreign corporation owning U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property generally is not a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property interest unless the corporation chooses to be treated as a domestic corporation. 10 40 ez Qualified investment entities. 10 40 ez   Special rules apply to qualified investment entities (QIEs). 10 40 ez A QIE is any real estate investment trust (REIT) or any regulated investment company (RIC) that is a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property holding corporation. 10 40 ez    Generally, any distribution from a QIE to a shareholder that is attributable to gain from the sale or exchange of a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property interest is treated as a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property gain by the shareholder receiving the distribution. 10 40 ez A distribution by a QIE on stock regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States is not treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property interest if you did not own more than 5% of that stock at any time during the 1-year period ending on the date of the distribution. 10 40 ez A distribution that you do not treat as gain from the sale or exchange of a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property interest is included in your gross income as a regular dividend. 10 40 ez Note. 10 40 ez Beginning January 1, 2014 (unless extended by legislation), a RIC that is a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property holding corporation will only be treated as a QIE for certain distributions from the RIC that are directly or indirectly attributable to distributions received by the RIC from a REIT. 10 40 ez Domestically controlled QIE. 10 40 ez   The sale of an interest in a domestically controlled QIE is not the sale of a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property interest. 10 40 ez The entity is domestically controlled if at all times during the testing period less than 50% in value of its stock was held, directly or indirectly, by foreign persons. 10 40 ez The testing period is the shorter of (a) the 5-year period ending on the date of disposition, or (b) the period during which the entity was in existence. 10 40 ez Wash sale. 10 40 ez    If you dispose of an interest in a domestically controlled QIE in an applicable wash sale transaction, special rules apply. 10 40 ez An applicable wash sale transaction is one in which you: Dispose of an interest in the domestically controlled QIE during the 30-day period before the ex-dividend date of a distribution that you would (but for the disposition) have treated as gain from the sale or exchange of a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property interest, and Acquire, or enter into a contract or option to acquire, a substantially identical interest in that entity during the 61-day period that began on the first day of the 30-day period. 10 40 ez If this occurs, you are treated as having gain from the sale or exchange of a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property interest in an amount equal to the distribution made after June 15, 2006, that would have been treated as such gain. 10 40 ez This also applies to any substitute dividend payment. 10 40 ez   A transaction is not treated as an applicable wash sale transaction if: You actually receive the distribution from the domestically controlled QIE related to the interest disposed of, or acquired, in the transaction, or You dispose of any class of stock in a QIE that is regularly traded on an established securities market in the United States but only if you did not own more than 5% of that class of stock at any time during the 1-year period ending on the date of the distribution. 10 40 ez Alternative minimum tax. 10 40 ez   There may be a minimum tax on your net gain from the disposition of U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property interests. 10 40 ez Figure the amount of this tax, if any, on Form 6251. 10 40 ez Withholding of tax. 10 40 ez   If you dispose of a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property interest, the buyer may have to withhold tax. 10 40 ez See the discussion of Tax Withheld on Real Property Sales in chapter 8. 10 40 ez Foreign Income You must treat three kinds of foreign source income as effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States if: You have an office or other fixed place of business in the United States to which the income can be attributed, That office or place of business is a material factor in producing the income, and The income is produced in the ordinary course of the trade or business carried on through that office or other fixed place of business. 10 40 ez An office or other fixed place of business is a material factor if it significantly contributes to, and is an essential economic element in, the earning of the income. 10 40 ez The three kinds of foreign source income are listed below. 10 40 ez Rents and royalties for the use of, or for the privilege of using, intangible personal property located outside the United States or from any interest in such property. 10 40 ez Included are rents or royalties for the use, or for the privilege of using, outside the United States, patents, copyrights, secret processes and formulas, goodwill, trademarks, trade brands, franchises, and similar properties if the rents or royalties are from the active conduct of a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez Dividends, interest, or amounts received for the provision of a guarantee of indebtedness issued after September 27, 2010, from the active conduct of a banking, financing, or similar business in the United States. 10 40 ez A substitute dividend or interest payment received under a securities lending transaction or a sale-repurchase transaction is treated the same as the amounts received on the transferred security. 10 40 ez Income, gain, or loss from the sale outside the United States, through the U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez office or other fixed place of business, of: Stock in trade, Property that would be included in inventory if on hand at the end of the tax year, or Property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of business. 10 40 ez Item (3) will not apply if you sold the property for use, consumption, or disposition outside the United States and an office or other fixed place of business in a foreign country was a material factor in the sale. 10 40 ez Any foreign source income that is equivalent to any item of income described above is treated as effectively connected with a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business. 10 40 ez For example, foreign source interest and dividend equivalents are treated as U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez effectively connected income if the income is derived by a foreign person in the active conduct of a banking, financing, or similar business within the United States. 10 40 ez Tax on Effectively Connected Income Income you receive during the tax year that is effectively connected with your trade or business in the United States is, after allowable deductions, taxed at the rates that apply to U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizens and residents. 10 40 ez Generally, you can receive effectively connected income only if you are a nonresident alien engaged in trade or business in the United States during the tax year. 10 40 ez However, income you receive from the sale or exchange of property, the performance of services, or any other transaction in another tax year is treated as effectively connected in that year if it would have been effectively connected in the year the transaction took place or you performed the services. 10 40 ez Example. 10 40 ez Ted Richards, a nonresident alien, entered the United States in August 2012, to perform personal services in the U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez office of his overseas employer. 10 40 ez He worked in the U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez office until December 25, 2012, but did not leave this country until January 11, 2013. 10 40 ez On January 8, 2013, he received his final paycheck for services performed in the United States during 2012. 10 40 ez All of Ted's income during his stay here is U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source income. 10 40 ez During 2012, Ted was engaged in the trade or business of performing personal services in the United States. 10 40 ez Therefore, all amounts paid to him in 2012 for services performed in the United States during 2012 are effectively connected with that trade or business during 2012. 10 40 ez The salary payment Ted received in January 2013 is U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source income to him in 2013. 10 40 ez It is effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States because he was engaged in a trade or business in the United States during 2012 when he performed the services that earned the income. 10 40 ez Real property income. 10 40 ez   You may be able to choose to treat all income from real property as effectively connected. 10 40 ez See Income From Real Property , later, in this chapter. 10 40 ez The 30% Tax Tax at a 30% (or lower treaty) rate applies to certain items of income or gains from U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez sources but only if the items are not effectively connected with your U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business. 10 40 ez Fixed or Determinable Income The 30% (or lower treaty) rate applies to the gross amount of U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source fixed or determinable annual or periodic gains, profits, or income. 10 40 ez Income is fixed when it is paid in amounts known ahead of time. 10 40 ez Income is determinable whenever there is a basis for figuring the amount to be paid. 10 40 ez Income can be periodic if it is paid from time to time. 10 40 ez It does not have to be paid annually or at regular intervals. 10 40 ez Income can be determinable or periodic even if the length of time during which the payments are made is increased or decreased. 10 40 ez Items specifically included as fixed or determinable income are interest (other than original issue discount), dividends, dividend equivalent payments (defined in chapter 2), rents, premiums, annuities, salaries, wages, and other compensation. 10 40 ez A substitute dividend or interest payment received under a securities lending transaction or a sale-repurchase transaction is treated the same as the amounts received on the transferred security. 10 40 ez Other items of income, such as royalties, also may be subject to the 30% tax. 10 40 ez Some fixed or determinable income may be exempt from U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez tax. 10 40 ez See chapter 3 if you are not sure whether the income is taxable. 10 40 ez Original issue discount (OID). 10 40 ez   If you sold, exchanged, or received a payment on a bond or other debt instrument that was issued at a discount after March 31, 1972, all or part of the original issue discount (OID) (other than portfolio interest) may be subject to the 30% tax. 10 40 ez The amount of OID is the difference between the stated redemption price at maturity and the issue price of the debt instrument. 10 40 ez The 30% tax applies in the following circumstances. 10 40 ez You received a payment on a debt instrument. 10 40 ez In this case, the amount of OID subject to tax is the OID that accrued while you held the debt instrument minus the OID previously taken into account. 10 40 ez But the tax on the OID cannot be more than the payment minus the tax on the interest payment on the debt instrument. 10 40 ez You sold or exchanged the debt instrument. 10 40 ez The amount of OID subject to tax is the OID that accrued while you held the debt instrument minus the amount already taxed in (1) above. 10 40 ez   Report on your return the amount of OID shown on Form 1042-S, Foreign Person's U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez Source Income Subject to Withholding, if you bought the debt instrument at original issue. 10 40 ez However, you must recompute your proper share of OID shown on Form 1042-S if any of the following apply. 10 40 ez You bought the debt instrument at a premium or paid an acquisition premium. 10 40 ez The debt instrument is a stripped bond or a stripped coupon (including zero coupon instruments backed by U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez Treasury securities). 10 40 ez The debt instrument is a contingent payment or inflation-indexed debt instrument. 10 40 ez For the definition of premium and acquisition premium and instructions on how to recompute OID, get Publication 1212. 10 40 ez   If you held a bond or other debt instrument that was issued at a discount before April 1, 1972, contact the IRS for further information. 10 40 ez See chapter 12. 10 40 ez Gambling Winnings In general, nonresident aliens are subject to the 30% tax on the gross proceeds from gambling won in the United States if that income is not effectively connected with a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business and is not exempted by treaty. 10 40 ez However, no tax is imposed on nonbusiness gambling income a nonresident alien wins playing blackjack, baccarat, craps, roulette, or big-6 wheel in the United States. 10 40 ez Nonresident aliens are taxed at graduated rates on net gambling income won in the United States that is effectively connected with a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business. 10 40 ez Social Security Benefits A nonresident alien must include 85% of any U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez social security benefit (and the social security equivalent part of a tier 1 railroad retirement benefit) in U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source fixed or determinable annual or periodic income. 10 40 ez Social security benefits include monthly retirement, survivor, and disability benefits. 10 40 ez This income is exempt under some tax treaties. 10 40 ez See Table 1 in Publication 901, U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez Tax Treaties, for a list of tax treaties that exempt U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez social security benefits from U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez tax. 10 40 ez Sales or Exchanges of Capital Assets These rules apply only to those capital gains and losses from sources in the United States that are not effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez They apply even if you are engaged in a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez These rules do not apply to the sale or exchange of a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez real property interest or to the sale of any property that is effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez See Real Property Gain or Loss , earlier, under Effectively Connected Income. 10 40 ez A capital asset is everything you own except: Inventory. 10 40 ez Business accounts or notes receivable. 10 40 ez Depreciable property used in a trade or business. 10 40 ez Real property used in a trade or business. 10 40 ez Supplies regularly used in a trade or business. 10 40 ez Certain copyrights, literary or musical or artistic compositions, letters or memoranda, or similar property. 10 40 ez Certain U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez government publications. 10 40 ez Certain commodities derivative financial instruments held by a commodities derivatives dealer. 10 40 ez Hedging transactions. 10 40 ez A capital gain is a gain on the sale or exchange of a capital asset. 10 40 ez A capital loss is a loss on the sale or exchange of a capital asset. 10 40 ez If the sale is in foreign currency, for the purpose of determining gain, the cost and selling price of the property should be expressed in U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez currency at the rate of exchange prevailing as of the date of the purchase and date of the sale, respectively. 10 40 ez You may want to read Publication 544. 10 40 ez However, use Publication 544 only to determine what is a sale or exchange of a capital asset, or what is treated as such. 10 40 ez Specific tax treatment that applies to U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizens or residents generally does not apply to you. 10 40 ez The following gains are subject to the 30% (or lower treaty) rate without regard to the 183-day rule, discussed later. 10 40 ez Gains on the disposal of timber, coal, or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 10 40 ez Gains on contingent payments received from the sale or exchange of patents, copyrights, and similar property after October 4, 1966. 10 40 ez Gains on certain transfers of all substantial rights to, or an undivided interest in, patents if the transfers were made before October 5, 1966. 10 40 ez Gains on the sale or exchange of original issue discount obligations. 10 40 ez Gains in (1) are not subject to the 30% (or lower treaty) rate if you choose to treat the gains as effectively connected with a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business. 10 40 ez See Income From Real Property , later. 10 40 ez 183-day rule. 10 40 ez   If you were in the United States for 183 days or more during the tax year, your net gain from sales or exchanges of capital assets is taxed at a 30% (or lower treaty) rate. 10 40 ez For purposes of the 30% (or lower treaty) rate, net gain is the excess of your capital gains from U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez sources over your capital losses from U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez sources. 10 40 ez This rule applies even if any of the transactions occurred while you were not in the United States. 10 40 ez   To determine your net gain, consider the amount of your gains and losses that would be recognized and taken into account only if, and to the extent that, they would be recognized and taken into account if you were in a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business during the year and the gains and losses were effectively connected with that trade or business during the tax year. 10 40 ez   In arriving at your net gain, do not take the following into consideration. 10 40 ez The four types of gains listed earlier. 10 40 ez The deduction for a capital loss carryover. 10 40 ez Capital losses in excess of capital gains. 10 40 ez Exclusion for gain from the sale or exchange of qualified small business stock (section 1202 exclusion). 10 40 ez Losses from the sale or exchange of property held for personal use. 10 40 ez However, losses resulting from casualties or thefts may be deductible on Schedule A (Form 1040NR). 10 40 ez See Itemized Deductions in chapter 5. 10 40 ez   If you are not engaged in a trade or business in the United States and have not established a tax year for a prior period, your tax year will be the calendar year for purposes of the 183-day rule. 10 40 ez Also, you must file your tax return on a calendar-year basis. 10 40 ez   If you were in the United States for less than 183 days during the tax year, capital gains (other than gains listed earlier) are tax exempt unless they are effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States during your tax year. 10 40 ez Reporting. 10 40 ez   Report your gains and losses from the sales or exchanges of capital assets that are not effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States on page 4 of Form 1040NR. 10 40 ez Report gains and losses from sales or exchanges of capital assets (including real property) that are effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States on a separate Schedule D (Form 1040), Form 4797, or both. 10 40 ez Attach them to Form 1040NR. 10 40 ez Income From Real Property If you have income from real property located in the United States that you own or have an interest in and hold for the production of income, you can choose to treat all income from that property as income effectively connected with a trade or business in the United States. 10 40 ez The choice applies to all income from real property located in the United States and held for the production of income and to all income from any interest in such property. 10 40 ez This includes income from rents, royalties from mines, oil or gas wells, or other natural resources. 10 40 ez It also includes gains from the sale or exchange of timber, coal, or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest. 10 40 ez You can make this choice only for real property income that is not otherwise effectively connected with your U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business. 10 40 ez If you make the choice, you can claim deductions attributable to the real property income and only your net income from real property is taxed. 10 40 ez This choice does not treat a nonresident alien, who is not otherwise engaged in a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business, as being engaged in a trade or business in the United States during the year. 10 40 ez Example. 10 40 ez You are a nonresident alien and are not engaged in a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business. 10 40 ez You own a single-family house in the United States that you rent out. 10 40 ez Your rental income for the year is $10,000. 10 40 ez This is your only U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source income. 10 40 ez As discussed earlier under The 30% Tax, the rental income is subject to a tax at a 30% (or lower treaty) rate. 10 40 ez You received a Form 1042-S showing that your tenants properly withheld this tax from the rental income. 10 40 ez You do not have to file a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez tax return (Form 1040NR) because your U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez tax liability is satisfied by the withholding of tax. 10 40 ez If you make the choice discussed earlier, you can offset the $10,000 income by certain rental expenses. 10 40 ez (See Publication 527, Residential Rental Property, for information on rental expenses. 10 40 ez ) Any resulting net income is taxed at graduated rates. 10 40 ez If you make this choice, report the rental income and expenses on Schedule E (Form 1040) and attach the schedule to Form 1040NR. 10 40 ez For the first year you make the choice, also attach the statement discussed next. 10 40 ez Making the choice. 10 40 ez   Make the initial choice by attaching a statement to your return, or amended return, for the year of the choice. 10 40 ez Include the following in your statement. 10 40 ez That you are making the choice. 10 40 ez Whether the choice is under Internal Revenue Code section 871(d) (explained earlier) or a tax treaty. 10 40 ez A complete list of all your real property, or any interest in real property, located in the United States. 10 40 ez Give the legal identification of U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez timber, coal, or iron ore in which you have an interest. 10 40 ez The extent of your ownership in the property. 10 40 ez The location of the property. 10 40 ez A description of any major improvements to the property. 10 40 ez The dates you owned the property. 10 40 ez Your income from the property. 10 40 ez Details of any previous choices and revocations of the real property income choice. 10 40 ez   This choice stays in effect for all later tax years unless you revoke it. 10 40 ez Revoking the choice. 10 40 ez   You can revoke the choice without IRS approval by filing Form 1040X, Amended U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez Individual Income Tax Return, for the year you made the choice and for later tax years. 10 40 ez You must file Form 1040X within 3 years from the date your return was filed or 2 years from the time the tax was paid, whichever is later. 10 40 ez If this time period has expired for the year of choice, you cannot revoke the choice for that year. 10 40 ez However, you may revoke the choice for later tax years only if you have IRS approval. 10 40 ez For information on how to get IRS approval, see Regulation section 1. 10 40 ez 871-10(d)(2). 10 40 ez Transportation Tax A 4% tax rate applies to transportation income that is not effectively connected because it does not meet the two conditions listed earlier under Transportation Income . 10 40 ez If you receive transportation income subject to the 4% tax, you should figure the tax and show it on line 57 of Form 1040NR. 10 40 ez Attach a statement to your return that includes the following information (if applicable). 10 40 ez Your name, taxpayer identification number, and tax year. 10 40 ez A description of the types of services performed (whether on or off board). 10 40 ez Names of vessels or registration numbers of aircraft on which you performed the services. 10 40 ez Amount of U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source transportation income derived from each type of service for each vessel or aircraft for the calendar year. 10 40 ez Total amount of U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source transportation income derived from all types of services for the calendar year. 10 40 ez This 4% tax applies to your U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source gross transportation income. 10 40 ez This only includes transportation income that is treated as derived from sources in the United States if the transportation begins or ends in the United States. 10 40 ez For transportation income from personal services, the transportation must be between the United States and a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez possession. 10 40 ez For personal services of a nonresident alien, this only applies to income derived from, or in connection with, an aircraft. 10 40 ez Interrupted Period of Residence You are subject to tax under a special rule if you interrupt your period of U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez residence with a period of nonresidence. 10 40 ez The special rule applies if you meet all of the following conditions. 10 40 ez You were a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez resident for a period that includes at least 3 consecutive calendar years. 10 40 ez You were a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez resident for at least 183 days in each of those years. 10 40 ez You ceased to be treated as a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez resident. 10 40 ez You then again became a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez resident before the end of the third calendar year after the end of the period described in (1) above. 10 40 ez Under this special rule, you are subject to tax on your U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source gross income and gains on a net basis at the graduated rates applicable to individuals (with allowable deductions) for the period you were a nonresident alien, unless you would be subject to a higher tax under the 30% tax (discussed earlier) on income not connected with a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business. 10 40 ez For information on how to figure the special tax, see How To Figure the Expatriation Tax (If You Expatriated Before June 17, 2008) under Expatriation Tax , below. 10 40 ez Example. 10 40 ez John Willow, a citizen of New Zealand, entered the United States on April 1, 2008, as a lawful permanent resident. 10 40 ez On August 1, 2010, John ceased to be a lawful permanent resident and returned to New Zealand. 10 40 ez During his period of residence, he was present in the United States for at least 183 days in each of three consecutive years (2008, 2009, and 2010). 10 40 ez He returned to the United States on October 5, 2013, as a lawful permanent resident. 10 40 ez He became a resident before the close of the third calendar year (2013) beginning after the end of his first period of residence (August 1, 2010). 10 40 ez Therefore, he is subject to tax under the special rule for the period of nonresidence (August 2, 2010, through October 4, 2013) if it is more than the tax that would normally apply to him as a nonresident alien. 10 40 ez Reporting requirements. 10 40 ez   If you are subject to this tax for any year in the period you were a nonresident alien, you must file Form 1040NR for that year. 10 40 ez The return is due by the due date (including extensions) for filing your U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez income tax return for the year that you again become a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez resident. 10 40 ez If you already filed returns for that period, you must file amended returns. 10 40 ez You must attach a statement to your return that identifies the source of all of your U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez and foreign gross income and the items of income subject to this special rule. 10 40 ez Expatriation Tax The expatriation tax provisions apply to U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizens who have renounced their citizenship and long-term residents who have ended their residency. 10 40 ez The rules that apply are based on the dates of expatriation, which are described in the following sections. 10 40 ez Expatriation Before June 4, 2004. 10 40 ez Expatriation After June 3, 2004, and Before June 17, 2008. 10 40 ez Expatriation After June 16, 2008. 10 40 ez Long-term resident defined. 10 40 ez   You are a long-term resident if you were a lawful permanent resident of the United States in at least 8 of the last 15 tax years ending with the year your residency ends. 10 40 ez In determining if you meet the 8-year requirement, do not count any year that you are treated as a resident of a foreign country under a tax treaty and do not waive treaty benefits. 10 40 ez Expatriation Before June 4, 2004 If you expatriated before June 4, 2004, the expatriation rules apply if one of the principal purposes of the action is the avoidance of U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez taxes. 10 40 ez Unless you received a ruling from the IRS that you did not expatriate to avoid U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez taxes, you are presumed to have tax avoidance as a principal purpose if: Your average annual net income tax for the last 5 tax years ending before the date of your action to relinquish your citizenship or terminate your residency was more than $100,000, or Your net worth on the date of your action was $500,000 or more. 10 40 ez The amounts above are adjusted for inflation if your expatriation action is after 1997 (see Table 4-1). 10 40 ez Table 4-1. 10 40 ez Inflation-Adjusted Amounts for Expatriation Actions Before June 4, 2004 IF you expatriated during . 10 40 ez . 10 40 ez . 10 40 ez   THEN the rules outlined on this page apply if . 10 40 ez . 10 40 ez . 10 40 ez     Your 5-year average annual net income tax was more than . 10 40 ez . 10 40 ez . 10 40 ez OR Your net worth equaled or exceeded . 10 40 ez . 10 40 ez . 10 40 ez 1999   110,000   552,000 2000   112,000   562,000 2001   116,000   580,000 2002   120,000   599,000 2003   122,000   608,000 2004 (before June 4)*   124,000   622,000 *If you expatriated after June 3, 2004, see Expatriation After June 3, 2004, and Before June 17, 2008 or Expatriation After June 16, 2008. 10 40 ez Reporting requirements. 10 40 ez   If you lost your U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizenship, you should have filed Form 8854 with a consular office or a federal court at the time of loss of citizenship. 10 40 ez If you ended your long-term residency, you should have filed Form 8854 with the Internal Revenue Service when you filed your dual-status tax return for the year your residency ended. 10 40 ez   Your U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez residency is considered to have ended when you ceased to be a lawful permanent resident or you began to be treated as a resident of another country under a tax treaty and do not waive treaty benefits. 10 40 ez Penalties. 10 40 ez   If you failed to file Form 8854, you may have to pay a penalty equal to the greater of 5% of the expatriation tax or $1,000. 10 40 ez The penalty will be assessed for each year of the 10-year period beginning on the date of expatriation during which your failure to file continues. 10 40 ez The penalty will not be imposed if you can show that the failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect. 10 40 ez Expatriation tax. 10 40 ez   The expatriation tax applies to the 10-year period following the date of expatriation or termination of residency. 10 40 ez It is figured in the same way as for those expatriating after June 3, 2004, and before June 17, 2008. 10 40 ez See How To Figure the Expatriation Tax (If You Expatriated Before June 17, 2008) in the next section. 10 40 ez Expatriation After June 3, 2004, and Before June 17, 2008 If you expatriated after June 3, 2004, and before June 17, 2008, the expatriation rules apply to you if any of the following statements apply. 10 40 ez Your average annual net income tax for the 5 tax years ending before the date of expatriation or termination of residency is more than: $124,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2004. 10 40 ez $127,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2005. 10 40 ez $131,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2006. 10 40 ez $136,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2007. 10 40 ez $139,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2008. 10 40 ez Your net worth is $2 million or more on the date of your expatriation or termination of residency. 10 40 ez You fail to certify on Form 8854 that you have complied with all U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez federal tax obligations for the 5 tax years preceding the date of your expatriation or termination of residency. 10 40 ez Exception for dual-citizens and certain minors. 10 40 ez   Certain dual-citizens and certain minors (defined next) are not subject to the expatriation tax even if they meet (1) or (2) earlier. 10 40 ez However, they still must provide the certification required in (3). 10 40 ez Certain dual-citizens. 10 40 ez   You may qualify for the exception described above if all of the following apply. 10 40 ez You became at birth a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizen and a citizen of another country and you continue to be a citizen of that other country. 10 40 ez You were never a resident alien of the United States (as defined in chapter 1). 10 40 ez You never held a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez passport. 10 40 ez You were present in the United States for no more than 30 days during any calendar year that is 1 of the 10 calendar years preceding your loss of U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizenship. 10 40 ez Certain minors. 10 40 ez   You may qualify for the exception described above if you meet all of the following requirements. 10 40 ez You became a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizen at birth. 10 40 ez Neither of your parents was a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizen at the time of your birth. 10 40 ez You expatriated before you were 18½. 10 40 ez You were present in the United States for not more than 30 days during any calendar year that is 1 of the 10 calendar years preceding your expatriation. 10 40 ez Tax consequences of presence in the United States. 10 40 ez   The following rules apply if you do not meet the exception above for dual-citizens and certain minors and the expatriation rules would otherwise apply to you. 10 40 ez   The expatriation tax does not apply to any tax year during the 10-year period if you are physically present in the United States for more than 30 days during the calendar year ending in that year. 10 40 ez Instead, you are treated as a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizen or resident and taxed on your worldwide income for that tax year. 10 40 ez You must file Form 1040, 1040A, or 1040EZ and figure your tax as prescribed in the instructions for those forms. 10 40 ez   When counting the number of days of presence during a calendar year, count any day you were physically present in the United States at any time during the day. 10 40 ez However, do not count any days (up to a limit of 30 days) on which you performed personal services in the United States for an employer who is not related to you if either of the following apply. 10 40 ez You have ties with other countries. 10 40 ez You have ties with other countries if: You became (within a reasonable period after your expatriation or termination of residency) a citizen or resident of the country in which you, your spouse, or either of your parents were born, and You became fully liable for income tax in that country. 10 40 ez You were physically present in the United States for 30 days or less during each year in the 10-year period ending on the date of expatriation or termination of residency. 10 40 ez Do not count any day you were an exempt individual or were unable to leave the United States because of a medical condition that arose while you were in the United States. 10 40 ez See Exempt individual and Medical condition in chapter 1 under Substantial Presence Test, but disregard the information about Form 8843. 10 40 ez Related employer. 10 40 ez   If your employer in the United States is any of the following, then your employer is related to you. 10 40 ez You must count any days you performed services in the United States for that employer as days of presence in the United States. 10 40 ez Members of your family. 10 40 ez This includes only your brothers and sisters, half-brothers and half-sisters, spouse, ancestors (parents, grandparents, etc. 10 40 ez ), and lineal descendants (children, grandchildren, etc. 10 40 ez ). 10 40 ez A partnership in which you directly or indirectly own more than 50% of the capital interest or the profits interest. 10 40 ez A corporation in which you directly or indirectly own more than 50% in value of the outstanding stock. 10 40 ez (See Publication 550, chapter 4, Constructive ownership of stock, for how to determine whether you directly or indirectly own outstanding stock. 10 40 ez ) A tax-exempt charitable or educational organization that is directly or indirectly controlled, in any manner or by any method, by you or by a member of your family, whether or not this control is legally enforceable. 10 40 ez Date of tax expatriation. 10 40 ez   For purposes of U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez tax rules, the date of your expatriation or termination of residency is the later of the dates on which you perform the following actions. 10 40 ez You notify either the Department of State or the Department of Homeland Security (whichever is appropriate) of your expatriating act or termination of residency. 10 40 ez You file Form 8854 in accordance with the form instructions. 10 40 ez Annual return. 10 40 ez   If the expatriation tax applies to you, you must file Form 8854 each year during the 10-year period following the date of expatriation. 10 40 ez You must file this form even if you owe no U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez tax. 10 40 ez Penalty. 10 40 ez   If you fail to file Form 8854 for any tax year, fail to include all information required to be shown on the form, or include incorrect information, you may have to pay a penalty of $10,000. 10 40 ez You will not have to pay a penalty if you show that the failure is due to reasonable cause and not to willful neglect. 10 40 ez How To Figure the Expatriation Tax (If You Expatriated Before June 17, 2008) If the expatriation tax applies to you, you are generally subject to tax on your U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source gross income and gains on a net basis at the graduated rates applicable to individuals (with allowable deductions) unless you would be subject to a higher tax under the 30% tax (discussed earlier) on income not connected with a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez trade or business. 10 40 ez For this purpose, U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source gross income (defined in chapter 2) includes gains from the sale or exchange of: Property (other than stock or debt obligations) located in the United States, Stock issued by a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez domestic corporation, and Debt obligations of U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez persons or of the United States, a state or political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia. 10 40 ez U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source income also includes any income or gain derived from stock in certain controlled foreign corporations if you owned, or were considered to own, at any time during the 2-year period ending on the date of expatriation, more than 50% of: The total combined voting power of all classes of that corporation's stock, or The total value of the stock. 10 40 ez The income or gain is considered U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source income only to the extent of your share of earnings and profits earned or accumulated before the date of expatriation and during the periods you met the ownership requirements discussed above. 10 40 ez Any exchange of property is treated as a sale of the property at its fair market value on the date of the exchange and any gain is treated as U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source gross income in the tax year of the exchange unless you enter into a gain recognition agreement under Notice 97-19. 10 40 ez Other information. 10 40 ez   For more information on the expatriation tax provisions, including exceptions to the tax and special U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez source rules, see section 877 of the Internal Revenue Code. 10 40 ez Expatriation Tax Return If you expatriated or terminated your U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez residency, or you are subject to the expatriation tax, you must file Form 8854, Initial and Annual Expatriation Statement. 10 40 ez Attach it to Form 1040NR if you are required to file that form. 10 40 ez If you are present in the United States following your expatriation and are subject to tax as a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizen or resident, file Form 8854 with Form 1040. 10 40 ez Expatriation After June 16, 2008 If you expatriated after June 16, 2008, the expatriation rules apply to you if you meet any of the following conditions. 10 40 ez Your average annual net income tax for the 5 years ending before the date of expatriation or termination of residency is more than: $139,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2008. 10 40 ez $145,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2009 or 2010. 10 40 ez $147,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2011. 10 40 ez $151,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2012. 10 40 ez $155,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2013. 10 40 ez Your net worth is $2 million or more on the date of your expatriation or termination of residency. 10 40 ez You fail to certify on Form 8854 that you have complied with all U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez federal tax obligations for the 5 years preceding the date of your expatriation or termination of residency. 10 40 ez Exception for dual-citizens and certain minors. 10 40 ez   Certain dual-citizens and certain minors (defined next) are not subject to the expatriation tax even if they meet (1) or (2) above. 10 40 ez However, they still must provide the certification required in (3) above. 10 40 ez Certain dual-citizens. 10 40 ez   You may qualify for the exception described above if both of the following apply. 10 40 ez You became at birth a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizen and a citizen of another country and you continue to be a citizen of, and are taxed as a resident of, that other country. 10 40 ez You have been a resident of the United States for not more than 10 years during the 15-year tax period ending with the tax year during which the expatriation occurs. 10 40 ez For the purpose of determining U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez residency, use the substantial presence test described in chapter 1. 10 40 ez Certain minors. 10 40 ez   You may qualify for the exception described earlier if you meet both of the following requirements. 10 40 ez You expatriated before you were 18½. 10 40 ez You have been a resident of the United States for not more than 10 tax years before the expatriation occurs. 10 40 ez For the purpose of determining U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez residency, use the substantial presence test described in chapter 1. 10 40 ez Expatriation date. 10 40 ez   Your expatriation date is the date you relinquish U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizenship (in the case of a former citizen) or terminate your long-term residency (in the case of a former U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez resident). 10 40 ez Former U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizen. 10 40 ez   You are considered to have relinquished your U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizenship on the earliest of the following dates. 10 40 ez The date you renounced U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez citizenship before a diplomatic or consular officer of the United States (provided that the voluntary renouncement was later confirmed by the issuance of a certificate of loss of nationality). 10 40 ez The date you furnished to the State Department a signed statement of voluntary relinquishment of U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez nationality confirming the performance of an expatriating act (provided that the voluntary relinquishment was later confirmed by the issuance of a certificate of loss of nationality). 10 40 ez The date the State Department issued a certificate of loss of nationality. 10 40 ez The date that a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez court canceled your certificate of naturalization. 10 40 ez Former long-term resident. 10 40 ez   You are considered to have terminated your long-term residency on the earliest of the following dates. 10 40 ez The date you voluntarily relinquished your lawful permanent resident status by filing Department of Homeland Security Form I-407 with a U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez consular or immigration officer, and the Department of Homeland Security determined that you have, in fact, abandoned your lawful permanent resident status. 10 40 ez The date you became subject to a final administrative order for your removal from the United States under the Immigration and Nationality Act and you actually left the United States as a result of that order. 10 40 ez If you were a dual resident of the United States and a country with which the United States has an income tax treaty, the date you began to be treated as a resident of that country and you determined that, for purposes of the treaty, you are a resident of the treaty country and notify the IRS of that treatment on Forms 8833 and 8854. 10 40 ez See Effect of Tax Treaties in chapter 1 for more information about dual residents. 10 40 ez How To Figure the Expatriation Tax (If You Expatriate After June 16, 2008) In the year you expatriate, you are subject to income tax on the net unrealized gain (or loss) in your property as if the property had been sold for its fair market value on the day before your expatriation date (“mark-to-market tax”). 10 40 ez This applies to most types of property interests you held on the date of relinquishment of citizenship or termination of residency. 10 40 ez But see Exceptions , later. 10 40 ez Gains arising from deemed sales must be taken into account for the tax year of the deemed sale without regard to other U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez internal revenue laws. 10 40 ez Losses from deemed sales must be taken into account to the extent otherwise provided under U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez internal revenue laws. 10 40 ez However, Internal Revenue Code section 1091 (relating to the disallowance of losses on wash sales of stock and securities) does not apply. 10 40 ez The net gain that you otherwise must include in your income is reduced (but not below zero) by: $600,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency before January 1, 2009. 10 40 ez $626,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2009. 10 40 ez $627,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2010. 10 40 ez $636,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2011. 10 40 ez $651,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2012. 10 40 ez $668,000 if you expatriated or terminated residency in 2013. 10 40 ez Exceptions. 10 40 ez   The mark-to-market tax does not apply to the following. 10 40 ez Eligible deferred compensation items. 10 40 ez Ineligible deferred compensation items. 10 40 ez Interests in nongrantor trusts. 10 40 ez Specified tax deferred accounts. 10 40 ez Instead, items (1) and (3) may be subject to withholding at source. 10 40 ez In the case of item (2), you are treated as receiving the present value of your accrued benefit as of the day before the expatriation date. 10 40 ez In the case of item (4), you are treated as receiving a distribution of your entire interest in the account on the day before your expatriation date. 10 40 ez See paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of section 877A for more information. 10 40 ez Expatriation Tax Return If you expatriated or terminated your U. 10 40 ez S. 10 40 ez residency, or you are subject to the expatriation rules (as discussed earlier in the first paragraph under Expatriation After June 16, 2008), you must file Form 8854. 10 40 ez Attach it to Form 1040 or Form 1040NR if you are required to file either of those forms. 10 40 ez Deferral of payment of mark-to-market tax. 10 40 ez   You can make an irrevocable election to defer payment of the mark-to-market tax imposed on the deemed sale of property. 10 40 ez If you make this election, the following rules apply. 10 40 ez You can make the election on a property-by-property basis. 10 40 ez The deferred tax attributable to a particular property is due on the return for the tax year in which you dispose of the property. 10 40 ez Interest is charged for the period the tax is deferred. 10 40 ez The due date for the payment of the deferred tax cannot be extended beyond the earlier of the following dates. 10 40 ez The due date of the return required for the year of death. 10 40 ez The time that the security provided for the property fails to be adequate. 10 40 ez See item (6) below. 10 40 ez You make the election on Form 8854. 10 40 ez You must provide adequate security (such as a bond). 10 40 ez You must make an irrevocable waiver of any right under any treaty of the United States which would preclude assessment or collection of the mark-to-market tax. 10 40 ez   For more information about the deferral of payment, see the Instructions for Form 8854. 10 40 ez Prev  Up  Next   Home   More Online Publications